Educational Technology
Integrating Educational Technology
into Teaching
Chapter Objectives
Definitions of educational technology
 Identifying the component parts of a
computer system
 Functions of a given systems device
 Classifying computer software
 Describing the contributions of
educational technologists
 Classifying educational technology
products

Technology in Education:
Concepts and Definitions
Educational Technology has no
agreed upon definition.
“Technology is commonly
thought of in terms of gadgets,
instrument, machines, and
devices….most (educators) will
defer to technology as
computers”
-- Muffoletto(1994)-p.5 Integrating Education
Technology into Teaching (IETIT)
“Only
about a decade ago, a
history of technology in
education since 1920 placed the
emphasis on radio and
television, with computers as
an afterthought .”
--Cuban, 1986 (IETIT) p.5
However, Saettler (1990) urges
“The historical function of
educational technology is a
process rather than a product.”
Any useful definition of
educational technology, therefore,
must focus on the process of
applying tools for educational
purposes, and the materials used.
In education, the combination of
process and product merges
instructional procedures with
instructional tools.
Technology in Education as
Media and Audiovisual
Communications
Audiovisual movement: ways of
delivering information that could be
used as alternatives to lectures and
books.
 Audiovisual communications: the
“branch of educational theory and
practice concerned primarily with the
design and use of messages which
control the learning process.”
(Saettler, IETIE,p6)
 AECT- Association for Ed. Commo.
and Technology.

Technology in Education as
Instructional Systems
1960s and 1970s
 Human and non-human resources
( teachers and media).
 Systematic approach to designing,
developing, and delivering
instruction matched to carefully
identified needs.
 International Society for Performance
Improvement.
 Validating and creating instruction.

Technology in Education as
Vocational Training Tools

Technology in Education:
1. School learning prepares students
for the world of work.
2. Vocational training can be a
practical means of teaching.

ITEA (International Technology
Education Association).
Technology in Education as
Computers and Computer-based
Systems
Instructional and supportive
applications of computers.
 Computers began to be used in
classrooms in 1960s until 1990
and was known as educational
computing.
 By the mid-1990s, educational
computing became known as
educational technology.
 ISTE (International Society for
Technology in Education) holds the
following views:

Approaches to Technology in
Education
An emphasis on Computer
Systems
Computers as media are becoming
more complex and more capable.
 Computer systems are subsuming
other forms of media.
 The perceived complexity of
computer-based systems has made it
more difficult for educators to
effectively integrate software and
computer media into classrooms.

Background on
Computer-based
Educational Technology
What’s a Computer??
 Hardware
Providing the Electronic Capability
 Software
Communicating with the Hardware
 Any electromechanical device that
accepts input, processes input and
produces output.
Software in a Computer System
 Systems
Software ( Types of
Operating Systems)
 Applications Software (used for
Education, Entertainment, or
Edutainment)
Systems Software (Types of
Operating Systems)
Unix
 Ms-DOS
 Apple Dos, ProDOS
 Macintosh DOS, System 7
 Windows 95

Applications Software for
Education
 Tool
Software:
1. Word Processing
2. Spreadsheets
3. Database Management
4. Integrated Packages
5. Graphics Software
6. Communications Software
7. Other Tools
Applications Software for
Education( cont.)
 Programming
Software:
1. BASIC
2. Logo
3. FORTRAN
4. COBOL, SNOBOL
5. C
6. Pascal
7. PL/1
Applications Software for
Education( cont.)
 Courseware:
1. Tutorial
2. Drill & Practice
3. Simulation
4. Instructional Games
5. Problem Solving
Hardware: Providing the
Electronic Capability
1. Input functions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Keyboard
Mouse
Joystick and game paddle
Bar-code reader
Scanner
Touch screen and light pen
Hardware: Providing the
Electronic Capability (cont.)
2. Output Functions
• Printers
• Monitors
3. Input and Output Functions
• Disk drives
The CPU’s Steps
Step 1.
The controller gets an instruction
from the system’s internal memory
and puts it in a register.
Step 2.
The controller directs the ALU to do
necessary computations.
Step 3.
The controller gets the result from the
register and stores it once again in
internal memory.
CPU Central Processing Unit
ALU : stands for Arithmetic/Logic
Unit
 Control Unit: directs the activities of
the whole system.

The Internal and External
Memory and Communication
Functions
The internal memory functions:
A limited amount of space is
arranged inside the computer for
storage of instructions. For example:
RAM and ROM.
 The external memory functions:
External storage devices can store
larger quantities of information. For
Example: Hard Disks and CD-ROM.

The Internal and External
Memory and Communications
Functions

The communications function is
optional, but it is vital for
communicating with other systems.
For example: Modem and Fax.
Software: Communicating with the
Hardware
Programming Languages:
Low-Level languages (Machine and
Assembly).
 High-Level languages (Java, Cobol,
VC++ and Fortran ).

Types of Software
 Systems
Software
Acts as a visible interface between
the machine and the user.
 Applications
Software
Programs written to do tasks, such
as word processing or drawing
pictures.
Software Design
Step 1. Analyzing the problem
Step 2. Developing the algorithm
Step 3. Coding
Step 4. Testing
Step 5. Revising and Debugging
Types of Computer Systems
 Personal
Computers
 Mini and Mainframe Computers
 Supercomputers
– Cost , the number of users that can be
supported, size, speed, and storage
capacity distinguish between these.
The Developments During the
Period before Microcomputer
IBM 1500 system in universities and
 Stanford University and the CCC
 Control Data Corporation (CDC) and
the PLATO System
 Brigham Young University and the
TICCIT System
 Computerized instructional
management systems

The “Microcomputer
Revolution” in Education

The Minnesota Educational
Computing Consortium (MECC) and
the software publishing movement.

MicroSIFT, EPIE, and other
courseware evaluation efforts.

Courseware authoring activities.
The “Microcomputer
Revolution” in Education (cont.)
The Computer Literacy Movement
 Logo and Problem-Solving
 The emergence of integrated learning
systems.

What Have We learned from the
Past ?
 Direct
technology resources to
specific problems and needs
 Anticipate and plan for change
 Separate fad from fact
Current Types of Educational
Technology Systems
Standalone Personal Computers
 Portable
units (PDAs)
 Workstations
 Labs
Networked Stations: From LANs
to MANs
“Networks are for sharing”(Kee
1994), and this sharing was designed
to make computing activities more
efficient and cost-effective.
 A network centralizes resources and
cuts down on handling of individual
disks.

Types of LANs
 Physical
design
Types of LANs (Cont.)
 Physical
design
Types of LANs (Cont.)
 Physical
design
Types of LANs (Cont.)
 Function (transmission method or
protocol)
* Token ring method
* Ethernet method
Three kinds of cable for
connecting LANs
 Coaxial
cable: Designed to transfer
signals with minimal interference.
 Twisted
pair cable: An inexpensive
way of handling ARCnet, Ethernet,
and token ring connections.
 Fiber
optic cable:Allow networks
to send large amounts of information
at high speeds.
Current Applications of
Educational Technology Systems
Instructional Technology Applications:
--Instructional software
--Interactive video-based materials
--Courses through distance learning
– Productivity Tools:
--Prepare print instructional materials
--Keep records and analyze data
--Prepare and make instructional and
informative presentations
--Organize time and materials
– Tools for Students:
-- Writing assignments
-- Helping with research
-- Assisting with learning tasks in
various content areas
-- Developing products and
presentations.
-- The End --
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Educational Technology - University of North Texas