They believed in one God who set down moral laws for His
people. They recorded their history in the Hebrew Bible.
 Monotheism
 Spoke Hebrew
 Judaism – Jews
 Influenced Christianity and Islam
 Helped shape beliefs and practices of societies in Europe and
America
 Hebrew language
 Wrote down their history and religious beliefs in the Hebrew
Bible known as the Old Testament
 Herders and traders
 Came from Mesopotamia to Canaan (present day Lebanon,
Israel, and Jordan)
 Descendents of Abraham
 God (Yahweh) told him to leave Mesopotamia and go
to Canaan.
 God’s promise (covenant)
 Lived in Canaan for 100 years then a drought occurred
and some went to Egypt
Find map
that shows
Dead Sea
and Rivers
 Abraham’s grandson
 Also called Israel – means “one who struggles with
God”
 Later given to his descendants
 12 sons divided into
tribes (12 tribes of Israel)
 Israelites were enslaved to build pyramids for the
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Pharaoh.
Baby boys –Nile River
Moses – tended sheep
Burning bush
10 plagues
 An illustrated story of
Moses
Turn Water to blood
2. Frogs
3. Lice
4. Flies
5. Disease on livestock
6. Boils
7. Hail
8. Locusts
9. Darkness
10. Death of 1st born of all Egyptian humans and animals
Exodus 7:19 -11:5
1.
 Known as the Exodus
 Passover, Jewish holiday celebrates this event
 Sinai Desert
 Mount Sinai – where Moses received laws from God or
the Torah
 Later became the 1st part of the Hebrew Bible
 Torah described a covenant (agreement) with God in
which God promised to return the Israelites to Canaan
if they followed His laws.
 Explained what God considered to be right and wrong
 Ten Commandments
 Shaped basic moral laws of many nations
 Helped develop a belief in the “rule of law”– idea that
laws should apply to everyone equally
 Exodus 20:1-17
 How many of the
commandments tell
people how to interact
with other people?
 6 (commandments 5-
10)
 How many tell them
how to worship and
show respect for God?
 4 (commandments 1-
4)
 A gold-plated wooden box (acacia wood)
 45” long and 27” wide and 27” deep
 4 gold rings on corners with 2 gold rings on side where
poles of acacia wood overlaid in gold were used to
carry it
 Contents: stone tablets on which the Ten
Commandments were carved, a golden pot of manna
from the wilderness journey, and Aaron’s rod
 Most sacred artifact of the Israelites
 40 years
 Moses never lived to see it.
 Joshua – new leader
 Had to fight to regain it
 Jericho
 marched around walls for 6 days while 7 priests blew
their trumpets
 on 7th day – trumpets blew one last time and Israelites
raise a great shout
 3 more wars
 Land divided by 12 tribes
 Leadership
 Usually a military leader
 Commanded 1 or 2 tribes (seldom all 12)
 Barak, Gideon, Samuel, Eli, Samson, and others
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including Deborah
Deborah told Barak to attack the army of the
Canaanite king Jabin and went along to battlefield as
an adviser.
King Jabin was destroyed around 1125 B.C.
Walled towns for protection
Created an alphabet
 Phoenicians were skilled sailors and traders (with
Greece, Spain, and western Africa).
 Spread ideas and goods like an alphabet
 Alphabet made writing simpler and easier to keep
records.
 Brought the idea to Greeks who passed it on to the
Romans which is the basis for most Western alphabets
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Why was the religion of Israel unique in the ancient
world?
What is the Torah, and how did the Israelites obtain
it?
What was the importance of the Phoenician
alphabet?
What problems did the Israelites face when they
returned to Canaan?
Which one of the Ten Commandments do you think
is most important today?
Belief that God
gave Canaan to
the Jews
Belief in
one god
Jewish
Ideas
Ten
Commandments
Hebrew
Bible
Creation of the kingdom of Israel; its great kings (Saul,
David, and Solomon); and the challenges Israel faced
 Similar to Philistines,
strongest people living in
Canaan who had strong
cities and knew how to
make iron tools and
weapons
 B/c they copied the
Philistines, they felt they
needed a king as well.
(believed it would unite
them against their
enemies)
 1020 B.C. – Samuel asked to choose a king.
 What is a prophet?
 Samuel’s warning
 Samuel anointed their choice, Saul (warrior-farmer) as
king. What does this mean?
 Saul – tall, handsome, and had won many battles
 Saul disobeyed some of God’s commands.
 Samuel was instructed by God to anoint a new king
(David) in secret.
 Known for his bravery and leadership
 David and Goliath
 Put in charge of army by Saul
 “Saul has slain his thousands, and David his ten
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thousands.”
Took throne in 1000 B.C.
Drove Philistines from the area
Created an empire
Tribute
Heavy taxes to expand Israel’s capital, Jerusalem.
temple
 David’s son
 Built splendid stone temple in Jerusalem
 In Hebrew Bible, he is known for his proverbs.
 Wise sayings
 Happy the man who finds wisdom, the man who gains
understanding!
-- Proverbs 3:13
 If you are wise, it is to your own advantage; and if you
are arrogant, you alone shall bear it.
-- Proverbs 9:12
 Hatred stirs up disputes, but love covers all offenses.
-- Proverbs 10:12
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Between the devil and the deep sea
To choose between two equally bad alternatives in a serious dilemma.
Where there's a will there's a way
When a person really wants to do something, he will find a way of
doing it.
A burnt child dreads fire
A bad experience or a horrifying incident may scar one's attitude or
thinking for a lifetime.
First come, first served
The first in line will be attended to first.
A friend in need is a friend indeed
A friend who helps when one is in trouble is a real friend.
"Better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to speak out
and remove all doubt.” -- Abraham Lincoln
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
"Well done is better than well said"
"A lie stands on one leg, the truth on two"
"God helps those who help themselves"
"A penny saved is a penny earned"
"Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy,
and wise"
"There is no little enemy"
"It is hard for an empty sack to stand upright"
"When the well is dry, they know the worth of water"
"Drive the business, let not drive thee"
"Kill no more pigeons than you can eat"
"The sleeping fox catches no poultry"
"Think of the things, whence you came, where are you
going, and to whom you must account"
"Energy and persistence conquer all things"
 Many Israelites hated his rule.
 Taxed people to pay for his great buildings
 List positive and negative aspects of paying taxes.
 Made young men work in mines of neighboring
countries to make more money
 Death – 10 of 12 tribes set up
their own nation in the
north
 10 tribes created a new
kingdom in N called Israel -- capital was Samaria
 2 tribes founded a smaller
kingdom called Judah --capital was Jerusalem --people were Jews
 Which kingdom lost access
to the Mediterranean?
 Which shares a border
with Phoenicia?
Kingdoms felt threatened by their powerful neighbors.
Prophets brought hope – emphasizing that people should
please God by leading a moral life and helping others.
 Assyrians and
Chaldeans were
building empires in
SE Asia
 Israel
 722 B.C. – were
conquered by the
Assyrians scattering
the 10 tribes across
their empire.
 New culture
developed called
Samaritans.
 “lost tribes of Israel”
 Israel was
conquered by
Assyrians in
722 BC and the
scattered
people were
known as the
‘Lost Tribes of
Israel’
 Judah
 Judaism developed from the religious practices of the
tribes of Judah.
 620 B.C. – conquered by Egyptians keeping their king
but paying tribute to Egypt
 Chaldeans conquered Egypt.
 Chaldean king
 597 B.C. – captured Jerusalem punishing the Jews
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severely
Made 10,000 Jews leave Jerusalem and move to
Babylon, Chaldean capital.
Appointed a new Jewish king
Prophet Jeremiah warned the new Jewish king that
planning a revolt would be dangerous.
586 B.C. – destroyed temple; Babylonian captivity
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Why did the Assyrians and the Chaldeans want to
control the land belonging to the Israelites?
Why was David anointed king while Saul was still in
charge of the Israelites?
Who were the prophets, and why were they
important to the Israelites?
What happened to the Israelites after the death of
Solomon?
Who were the Samaritans?
Why do you think the Assyrians, and later the
Chaldeans, moved Jews away from Israel and Judah
after those areas were conquered?
King David
King Solomon
King David
King Solomon
Drove the Philistines from Israel and
created an empire
Built a temple in Jerusalem
Built Jerusalem
Known for his proverbs
Wrote many psalms
Jews continued their religion during their exile in Babylon.
 Babylonian exile
 Their religion became known as Judaism.
 Sabbath
 Synagogues
Ruins of the Ancient Synagogue at Bar'am
The Torah Ark of the Ari Ashkenazi
Synagogue
The Karaite
Synagogue in
the Old City
(Jerusalem)
Belz Great Synagogue in Jerusalem (largest)
 500s B.C. – Persians defeated Chaldeans and Babylon
 538 B.C. – Persian king Cyrus permitted Jews to return
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to Judah.
Rebuilt Jerusalem and the temple
Religious leaders
Scribes
Torah
Hebrew Bible
 Series of 34 books collected
 The Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings –added
later
 Books of poetry, literature, and proverbs
 Genesis
 1st book of Torah
 Noah, ark, Flood
 Rainbow
 Babel
 God’s plan for a peaceful future
 Book of Daniel
 Jews believed that evil and suffering would eventually
be replaced by goodness. Christians and Muslims
share this idea of good triumphing over evil.
 334 B.C. – Alexander the Great
 331 B.C. – he defeated the Persians and
introduced the Greek language and
ways to Judah.
 Jews – Babylon, Egypt,
lands bordering
Mediterranean Sea
 This is known as Diaspora
--- scattering of Jews
outside of Israel and Judah
 Greek word that means
“scattered.”
 Jews learned Greek
language and ways but
remained loyal to Judaism.
 168 B.C. – Greek ruler Antiochus controlled Judah.
 Jews made to worship Greek gods and goddess.
 Judas Maccabeus, a priest, along with followers
rebelled.
 The Maccabees
 Hanukkah
Shaped by religion
Laws affected daily life
 Great importance
 Sons – valued especially
 carried on family name
 Became head of household upon father’s death
 Education
 1st teachers were their mothers
 Elders took over religious education of boys (Torah)
 Mothers educated daughters at home
 Their relationship shows importance of family love
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and devotion.
Book of Ruth in Hebrew Bible
Naomi wants to return home after death of husband
and sons.
Ruth to Naomi – “Wherever you go, I will go; wherever
you lodge; I will lodge; your people shall be my people,
and your God my God.”
Boaz marries Ruth and they have Obed.
Obed is the grandfather of David.
 Under Jewish law, Jews could only eat certain animals.
 Beef and lamb, not pork
 scaly fish like salmon not shellfish or smooth skin fish
like eel
 Laws – kashrut – “that which is proper”
 Kosher
 Ancient times – meals were made up of fish, fruit,
veggies, and barley bread. Beverages were mainly
milk, water, wine, and beer.
 No mixing of fabrics
 Flax or wool but not combined
 Men
 tunics made of linen next to their skin (some layered)
 Cold weather – wool or sheepskin cloaks
 Heads – caps or turbans
 sandals
 Women
 Draped in long, simple dresses
 Covered heads with shawls
 Wealthy wore leather shoes, makeup, and jewelry
Under Roman rule, the Jews were divided and rebellious. In
response, the Romans destroyed the temple and exiled the
Jews.
 Most famous king
 Known for additions made to Jewish temple in
Jerusalem
 Division after the Herod’s death
 Taught the Torah and
 Accepted the Torah
how to apply its laws to
daily life
 Taught in synagogues
and were supported by
the common people
 Support of the oral
traditions
 More concerned about
 Believed these were very
important in helping
people obey the
commandments
how it applied to priests
in Temples
 Disagreed with Pharisees
teachings
 Emphasized written law
and commmandments
 A 3rd group
 Priests who broke away from the Temple in Jerusalem
 Desert
 Praying and waiting for God to deliver the Jews from
the Romans
 Strictly followed written law
 Ancient scrolls
 found in A.D. 1947 in caves near the Dead Sea
 Helped historians know more about Judaism during
Roman times
 Waiting for a messiah
 Zealots
 A.D. 66 –Zealot revolt Jews
 A.D. 70 – Romans retook Jerusalem killing thousands
of Jews.
 Revolted again in A.D. 132
 Ended in 3yrs – Romans forbade Jews to live in or visit
Jerusalem
 Palestine
 Rabbis – teachers of the Torah
 Yohanan ben Zaccai – famous rabbi
 Founded a school in northern Palestine – center of
Torah studies
 Commentaries (Talmud – Hebrew word for “learning
or study”)
 A.D. 1947 – Palestine divided
 Israel – A.D. 1948
So that
lives could
be saved
and
certain
important
business
carried
out on the
Sabbath,
etc.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
How did Alexander the Great affect the
Israelites?
What was Diaspora?
What was education like within a Jewish family?
Who was Yohannan ben Zaccai, and why was he
important?
Do you think that Jewish beliefs and values
would have spread so widely if the lands of Israel
and Judah had not been conquered by other
peoples? Explain.
1. God exists.
2. God is one and unique.
3. God is eternal.
4. Prayer is to be directed to God alone.
5. The words of the prophets are true.
6. Moses was the greatest prophet, and his prophecies are true.
7. The Torah was given to Moses.
8. There will be no other Torah.
9. God knows the thoughts and deeds of men.
10. God will reward the good and punish the wicked.
11. The Messiah will come.
12. The dead will be resurrected.
 Covenant = formal agreement
between Hebrews and God (Yahweh);
Hebrews worshipped God and only
God, and in return, they would be
God’s Chosen People and given
Canaan as the Promised Land
 Spiritual ideas profoundly
influenced Western culture, morality,
ethics and conduct
 Three of the world’s most dominant
religions: Judaism, Christianity and
Islam all derive their roots from the
spiritual beliefs of the Ancient
Israelites
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