The Ancient Israelites Section 3 The Growth of Judaism Did You Know? The Jewish Sabbath, or Shabbat, begins on Friday evening at sundown and ends at sunset Saturday evening. Jew commemorate the separation of Shabbat from the rest of the week with special ceremonies. Exile and Return Exile= when people are forced to live in a foreign land. During the Israelites’ exile in Babylon, their religion became Judaism. Sabbath= Jews met each week on this day for worship and rest, in a synagogue (house of worship). At the meetings, the Jews prayed and discussed their religion. After the Persians defeated the Chaldeans and took control of Babylon, the Persian king, Cyrus, allowed the Jews to return to Judah. Persian official still controlled the Jews in Judah, so Jews looked to their religion for leadership. Jewish leaders became priests and scribes. Exile and Return Continued The Hebrew Bible consists of 5 books of the Torah and 34 other books. These books describe Jewish history. Book of Genesis: tells how God punished people for their bad behavior. Story of Noah is in this book. Genesis also explains why the world has different languages. Book of Daniel: reminds Jews that God will rescue them. Jews, Christians, and Muslims share the idea that good will triumph over evil. Discussion Question How does the book of Genesis explain different languages of the world? Genesis tells that the people Babel tried to build a tower to heaven. God disapproved of the tower and made all the people speak different languages and scattered them across the earth. The Jews and the Greeks Judah came under the control of Alexander the Great in 331 B.C. He introduced the Greek language and ways to the Jews who stayed in Judah. Diaspora= scattered; refers to Jews who lived outside of Judah. The Greek ruler Antiochus wanted the Jews to worship Greek gods and goddesses. Judas Maccabeus and his followers formed an army known as the Maccabees to fight the Greeks. The Maccabees drove the Greeks out of Judah. They removed evidence of the gods and goddesses from their temple. Each year Jews recall the cleansing of the temple when they celebrate Hanukkah. Discussion Question How did Jewish ideas spread at the time of Alexander the Great? Some Jews who learned the Greek language but were loyal to Judaism copied the Hebrew Bible in the Greek language. In this way, people who were not Jews could read about and understand Judaism. The Jewish Way of Life Jewish laws influenced Jews’ daily life. Laws applied to clothing: Men wore tunics, caps or turbans, and sandals. Women wore dresses and covered their heads with shawls. Wealthy women wore shoes, makeup, and jewelry. Sons were valuable in Jewish society. They carried on the family name and became the head of the family after the death of their fathers. They learned how to earn a living and how to worship God from their fathers. They learned how to read the Torah from religious leaders. Girls learned how to be good wives, mothers, and housekeepers. They also learned about Jewish laws and strong women of ancient Israel. Jewish laws stated that Jews could eat only certain animals, such as beef, lamb, and certain scaly fish. Today, food that is prepared according to Jewish law is called kosher. Discussion Question How is kosher meat prepared? To be kosher, the animal is killed in a certain way. Then the meat is inspected, salted, and soaked. Jewish laws instruct Jews not to cook or eat milk products with the meat. Jews and the Romans In 63 B.C., the Romans conquered Judah and renamed it Judea. King Herod, the most famous ruler of Judea, was known for his cruelty. After Herod’s death, the Romans replaced Jewish kings with Roman officials. The Jews had splintered into different groups: Pharisees: who were supported by the common people Sadducees: who did not agree with many of the Pharisees’ teachings. Essenes The Dead Sea Scrolls: probably written by Essenes and were found near the Dead Sea in A.D. 1947. Because the Jews had split into these groups, they were not as powerful after the death of Herod. The Jews and the Romans continued Jews hated Roman rule. Many Jews were waiting for a messiah, or deliverer sent by God. Some Jews, known as Zealots, wanted to fight the Romans. They revolted in A.D. 66 and drove the Romans out of Jerusalem. The Jews revolted again, but the Romans stopped the revolt. This time, they forbade Jews to visit Jerusalem and gave Judah the name of Palestine, referring to the Philistines. The Jews and the Romans continued Rabbis: teachers of the Torah, became important leaders. They wanted to pass on teachings of the Torah. They combined the teachings in a book called the Talmund. Johanan ben Zakkai: a famous rabbi, helped Judaism survive the destruction and loss of the temple. For 2,000 years most Jews lived outside Palestine and faced persecution. 1948 A.D., Palestine was divided, and a new Jewish nation called Israel was created. Discussion Question What was the difference between the Pharisees and the Sadducees? The Pharisees were concerned with applying the Torah to daily life and the Jewish home and family. The Sadducees were concerned with how the Torah applied to priests in the Temple.