```Network Analysis
Applications for Qualitative
Content Analysis Data
What is Network Analysis?
A
way of thinking sociologically
A
body of sociological theory
A
body of research findings
A
form of quantitative-qualitative analysis
A
set of analytical tools for analysis
A Different Way of Thinking
 Approach
 Focus
is on relations between units
 Organize
is holistic—whole networks
data differently
different questions

about the overall state of the network

about the nature of particular relations
 Use
different quantitative measures
Two Types of Network Analysis
 One


uses network data to test hypotheses
also uses simulated data to test hypotheses
 The


other kind is exploratory
uses real data to figure out what is going on
often uses visual network diagrams
 Exploratory
approach flexible, accessible
Two Kinds of Data Arrays
Bob
Carol
Ted
Alice
Age
25
21
30
24
Question: pattern
of relations within
the network
Gender Etc.
M
F
M
F
Bob
Question: pattern
of characteristics
in the sample
Carol Ted
Alice
Bob --Carol 1
1
--
1
0
0
1
Ted
Alice
1
0
-0
1
--
0
1
Some Possible Patterns
Network Language
 NODES---the




people
groups
nations
companies
 TIES—the



individual units
relations between the units
Can be present/absent (Are X and Y linked?)
Can be directional (Does X like Y?)
Nature of Network Data
 Populations,


not samples preferred
Do not use probabilistic statistics
Use matrix algebra as mathematical base
 Ego-centric
Networks—all ties from one
node


Only direct ties to ego
Trace ties of those linked to ego
 Full


networks—all ties between all nodes
can limit network to make this feasible
can some times use snowball to trace network
Network Diagrams
Some Network Measures
 Density
 Connectivity
 Reachability
 Distance
 Reciprocity
 Clustering
 Hierarchy
 Cliques
Using with Content Analysis
 Your



website links or reports in the data
ties between people, groups, or other units
“grammatical” relations
 You


may be able to create relational data
construct it from your Access database
add external data or more codes
 You
might just want to diagram relations
Form of Network Data

Enter directly in the network programs, UCINET,
PAJEK, or NETDRAW (included in UCINET)
 Import from an Excel spreadsheet (flat file matrix)



Enter usual data array with other variables



Then import into UCINET
UCINET can turn it into a matrix for you
You then can add the relations to the matrix
Output a text file and format it for UCINET
 UCINET can export into PAJEK format or Netdraw
Network Resources
 UCINET
software: (free trial, \$25 for
students) <http://www.analytictech.com>

Hanneman, Robert A. and Mark
Riddle. 2005. Introduction to social network
methods. Riverside, CA: University of California,
Riverside ( Free tutorial, published in digital form at
http://faculty.ucr.edu/~hanneman/ )
 Pajek: network analysis and visualization:
```