• The Britons were Celts. The Celts arrived in
Briton around 517 BC. Celtic kings (Britons)
ruled Briton before the Roman invasion
around 100 BC and after the Roman rule in
Briton until the arrival of the Anglo Saxons
around 449.
• The history of Britain began with Roman rule.
In 55–54 BC, Roman general Gaius Julius
Caesar organised two expeditions to Britain.
language
• The Britons were speakers of the
Brythonic (or Brittonic) languages.
Brythonic languages are believed to have
been spoken on the entire island of Britain
• After the Roman conquest of Britain, the
British language adopted some words
from Latin; hence it is sometimes termed
Romano-British in this period.
•
•
•
•
Gaelic
Anglo Saxon
Anglo Norman
1356 English
• The Romans had recently conquered Gaul,
and the commander believed the Britons had
been supporting the Gauls.
• Caesar did not conquer any territory, but
instead brought Britain under the political
influence of Rome.
• Trade relations soon developed, and taxes on
trade brought more money to Rome than any
conquest.
• By AD 300, almost everyone in Britannia
was 'Roman', legally and culturally, even
though of indigenous descent and still
mostly speaking 'Celtic' dialects.
• The very first religion in the island was
Pagan.
• language
• Germanic peoples from Europe—the
Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes—
arrived in Britain in massive numbers
between the 5th and 7th centuries AD
• These groups invaded and overwhelmed
Roman Britain, choosing to settle on the
plains of England because of the mild
climate and good soils.
• These people tended to be tall, blond, and
blue-eyed.
• Their language became the foundation of
the basic, short, everyday words in
modern English.
• Native Britons fought the great flood of
Germanic peoples, and many Britons who
survived fled west to the hill country.
• These refugees and native Britons were
Celts who had absorbed the earliest peoples
on the island, the prehistoric people known
as Iberians.
• Celts tended to be shorter than AngloSaxons and have rounder heads.
• Most had darker hair, but a strikingly high
percentage of Celts had red hair.
• After the Anglo-Saxon conquest, the Celts
remained in Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and the
West Country (the southwestern peninsula of
Britain)
• The new Anglo Saxon invaders were not
organised centrally, as the Romans had
been, or as the Normans would be.
• They slowly colonised northwards and
westwards, pushing the native Celts to the
fringes of Britain.
• Roman Britain was replaced by Anglo
Saxon Britain, with the Celtic peoples
remaining in Cornwall, Wales and
Scotland.
• The Anglo Saxon areas eventually
combined into kingdoms, and by 850 AD
the country had three competing kingdoms
• The three kingdoms were Mercia,
Northumbria and Wessex
• They were not only were competing
between themselves, but they were also
under sustained attack from Viking raids.
• by 875 the kingdoms of Mercia and
Northumbria had succumbed. Only
Wessex remained as Anglo Saxon.
• VIKINGS
• The Vikings attack Wessex in 878, and the
Saxon king, Alfred had to flee.
• However he was able to regroup and counter
attack.
• His efforts and those later of his son and
grandsons, gradually pushed the Vikings
northwards and eventually into the sea.
• On Ethelred's death in 1016, the Viking
leader Cnut was effectively ruling England.
• But on Cnut's death, the country
collapsed into a number of competing
Earldoms under a weak king, Edward the
Confessor.
• when Edward the Confessor died in 1066,
Harold claimed the throne.
• So the Vikings saw a chance to regain a
foothold in Britain, 1066.
• The army of King Harold of England fought
against the invaders at the Battle of Stamford
Bridge. The Vikings were defeated, but the
battle left the Anglo-Saxons in a weakened
state.
• While celebrating his victory,Herold learnt that
William of Normandy had landed in southern
England.
• Within 13 days Harold had marched his army
some 240 miles from Yorkshire to Sussex,
where the Normans were camped near
Hastings.
• The ensuing Battle of Hastings was won by
the Normans who were fresh, and had better
archers and cavalry.
• Harold died with an arrow through his eye.
William was crowned William I in London on
Christmas Day 1066
• In 1066 the Normans, French-speaking
invaders of Norse origin, conquered England
• William the Conqueror
• Normandy
• The Norman Conquest is of paramount
importance in the history of Britain,
• connecting Britain more closely with the
continent by decreasing Scandinavian
influence and introducing a Norman French
aristocracy.
• Britain became a powerful monarchy with an
elaborate system of government, and the
English language grew exponentially after the
French language was adopted.
• William built many castels across the whole
country.
• The uniqueness of the Norman conquest in
British history is that not only did the ruler
change, but also the whole of the ruling class
changes,
• and there was even a new language. (Anglo
Norman)
• The English nobility lost their lands
• and the new landowners built castles like
Warwick and Windsor that survive to this
day.
• By the time William died in 1087 around
100 major castles had been built.
• The other major legacy of William's reign
is the Domesday Book.
• William wished to know the existing and
potential value of his new kingdom.
• Surveyors were sent out across the whole
country and their report was the massive
Domesday Book which noted land down to
individual landholdings
• Feodal State System starts
• Life of Lords and Barons
• Life of serfs
• Cleaning habits: They met the soap during
the crusades.
• Eating Habits: Using knife when eating was
considered chivalry.
• Toilet habits: up to 1800’s English like
French used feather. Or used a pot. And
emptied the pots through windows. It was
the reason why parfume industry has
developed
class distinction
•
•
•
•
•
•
KING
ARCBISHOP
KNIGHTS
BARONS
CLERGYMAN
PEOPLE
KNIGHTS
Becoming a knight
• There were only a few ways in which a person
could become a knight. The first way was the
normal course of action for the son of a noble:
• When a boy was eight years old, he was sent to
the neighboring castle where he was trained as
a page.
• The boy was usually the son of a knight or of a
member of the aristocracy.
• He spent most of his time strengthening
his body, wrestling and riding horses.
• He also learned how to fight with a spear
and a sword.
• He practiced against a wooden dummie
called a quintain.
• It was essentially a heavy sack or dummie in the
form of a human.
• It was hung on a wooden pole along with a
shield.
• The young page had to hit the shield in its
center. When hit, the whole structure would spin
around and around.
• The page had to maneuver away quickly without
getting hit. The young man was also taught more
civilized topics.
• He would be taught to read and write by a
schoolmaster. He could also be taught some
Latin and French.
• The lady of the castle taught the page to sing
and dance and how to behave in the king’s
court.
• At the age of fifteen or sixteen, a boy became
a squire in service to a knight.
• His duties included dressing the knight in the
morning, serving all of the knight’s meals,
caring for the knight’s horse, and cleaning the
knight’s armor and weapons.
• He followed the knight to tournaments and
assisted his lord on the battlefield.
• A squire also prepared himself by learning
how to handle a sword and lance while
wearing forty pounds of armor and riding a
horse.
• When he was about twenty, a squire could
become a knight after proving himself worthy.
• A lord would agree to knight him in a dubbing
ceremony.
• The night before the ceremony, the squire
would dress in a white tunic and red robes.
• He would then fast and pray all night for the
purification of his soul.
• The chaplain would bless the future
knight's sword and then lay it on the
chapel or church's altar.
• Before dawn, he took a bath to show that
he was pure, and he dressed in his best
clothes.
• When dawn came, the priest would hear
the young man's confession, a Catholic
contrition rite.
• The squire would then eat breakfast.
• Soon the dubbing ceremony began.
• The outdoor ceremony took place in front of
family, friends, and nobility.
• The squire knelt in front of the lord, who
tapped the squire lightly on each shoulder
with his sword and proclaimed him a knight.
• This was symbolic of what occurred in earlier
times.
• In the earlier middle ages, the person doing
the dubbing would actually hit the squire
forcefully, knocking him over.
• After the dubbing, a great feast followed with
music and dancing.
Armor
• A knight was armed and armored to the teeth.
• He had so much armor and weapons that he
depended on his squire to keep his armor and
weapons clean and in good working condition.
• At first the armor was made of small metal rings
called chain mail.
• A knight wore a linen shirt and a pair of pants as
well as heavy woolen pads underneath the
metal-ringed tunic.
• A suit of chain mail could have more than
200,000 rings.
• However, chain mail was heavy,
uncomfortable, and difficult to move in.
• As time passed, knights covered their bodies
with plates of metal.
• Plates covered their chests, back, arms, and
legs.
• A bucket like helmet protected the knight’s
head and had a hinged metal visor to cover
his face.
• Suits of armor were hot, uncomfortable, and
heavy to wear.
• A suit of armor weighed between forty and
sixty pounds.
• Some knights even protected their horses in
armor.
Weapons
• A knight needed a shield to hold in front of
himself during battle.
• Shields were made of either wood or
metal.
• Knights decorated their shields with their
family emblem or crest and the family
motto.
• A knight'’s weapon was his sword, which was
about thirty-two pounds.
• It was worn on his left side in a case fastened
around his waist.
• A knife was worn on the knight’s right side.
• Knights used other weapons in combat as
well.
• A lance was a long spear used in jousts.
• Metal axes, battle hammers, and maces
were also used to defeat the enemy.
•Pads worn under the armor to help ease the weight. They were called gambesons
A rather plain medieval sword.
An example of a dagger that could have been used.
A mace used during the middle ages.
WHAT DOES A KNIGHT DO?
•
•
•
•
He travels
He is attached to a king, lord.
He is dedicated to the king forever
He serves the king or lord with all his
power
• He always goes to a quest
• The most fomous and the most important
quest for a knight is to find the Arthur’s lost
gobbet. The name of this gobbet is “the
holly grail”
CHARACTERISTICS OF A
KNIGHT
•
•
•
•
He is religious
He is virtious
He is well-educated
He is able to play various musical
instruments
• He is able to write poems or sing
• He is a complete man
COURTLY LOVE TRADITION
• King does not know
• Knights never talk about it
• Lady can fall in love with the knight or
knows about the knights’ feelings but
never give response
• Or she never know about it
• Divine love is the love of knight
THE CRUSADES
• The first crusade was launched in 1096 by
Pope Urban II with the dual goals of
conquering the sacred city of Jarusalem
and the Holy Land and freeing the eastern
christians from islamic rule.
inquisition
•
•
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•
•
knuckle-crackers
Strech Machine
Upside down into well and rats
Pendulum
Iron Maiden
PENDULUM
Iron Maiden
Iron Maiden
•
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Henry II – Thomas a Beckett
Richard I – The lion hearted
John I – Magna Carta – Robin Hood
100 years war – Joan of Arc
Tudors - Henry 8
PIRATES
• Sir Walter Religh
• Black Beard
• Captain King
• Red Beard
• Slave Trade
• Bank Business
• Royal Exchange
Jolly Roger
• Elizabeth – Spanish Armada
• Ignatious Loyola - Jesuits
• James I - Daemonologie – Scotland Yard
• Witchcraft
• Witch
• Warlock
• Black Magic
– Blood
– Midnight
– Pentegram
White Magic
Protective
horns of Devil
• Knights and Knighthood
• The Knight Templar ( Roots of Masons)
• purpose to ensure the safety of the many
Christians who made the pilgrimage to
Jerusalem after its conquest.
• Officially endorsed by the Roman Catholic
Church
• when the Holy Land was lost, support for
the Order faded.
• Rumors about the Templars' secret
initiation ceremony created mistrust
• King Philip IV of France began pressuring
Pope Clement V to take action against
them.
• In 1307, many of the Order's members in
France were arrested, tortured into giving
false confessions, and then burned at the
stake
IRELAND
ULSTER
• The name is often used as a synonym for
Northern Ireland
• Ulster is traditionally composed of nine
counties:
– three of which are part of the Republic of
Ireland with the remaining six constituting
Northern Ireland.
– Belfast – The Capital
EIRE
• Éire is the nominative form in modern Irish
of the name for the goddess called Ériu in
Old Irish, a mythical figure who helped the
Gaels conquer Ireland
• Established after Easter Uprising
• Dublin- the capital
IRA
• Irish Republican Army
• established 25 November 1913
• Sinn Féin founder Arthur Griffith
• Éamon de Valera - President of Sinn Féin
• PROVO IRA : Provisional IRA- Bombing
• OIRA
: Official IRA
• IRNA: Irish National Army – Catholics
AGAINST
•
•
•
•
UDA: Ulster Defence Association
UFF: Ulster Freedom Fighters
UVF : Ulster Volunteer Force
RUC: Royal Ulster Constablary (Northern
Ireland Police Dept.)
SCOTLAND
•
•
•
•
Alba is the Scottish Gaelic name
High Lander
Edinburgh – the capital
On 22 July 1706 the Treaty of Union was
agreed between representatives of the
Scots Parliament and the Parliament of
England
• the following year twin Acts of Union were
passed by both parliaments to create the
united Kingdom of Great Britain with effect
from 1 May 1707.
• Tartan
• Flower of Scotland is popularly held to be
the National Anthem of Scotland
• The national flag of Scotland, known as
the Saltire or St. Andrew's Cross
• from the 9th century, and is thus the oldest
national flag still in use
• Pipe
PARLIMENTS
•
•
•
•
UK : West Minister
Scotland: Edinburgh
North Ireland: Stormont
Republic of Ireland: Dail Eireann
ORIGINS OF THE MONTHS
JANUARY
• in Roman mythology, JANUS, the god of
doors and gateways and beginnings
(which the Romans believed brought good
endings).
• It is believed that this god has two faces.
One to back and one to front.
ORIGINS OF THE MONTHS
FEBRUARY
• From FEBRUA,
• the Feast of Purification, celebrated in
ancient Rome.
• It was not originally included in the Roman
calendar which began with March.
ORIGINS OF THE MONTHS
MARCH
• From MARS
• In Roman mythology, the god of war, one
of the most important gods.
• Mars was regarded as the father of the
Roman people.
ORIGINS OF THE MONTHS
APRIL
• perhaps from the Greek Aphrodite or a
pagan underworld goddess.
• Called Aprilis, from aperire, "to open".
Possible because it is the month in which
the buds begin to open.
ORIGINS OF THE MONTHS
MAY
• The third month of the Roman calendar
• Named after Maia, the Roman goddess of
the spring.
ORIGINS OF THE MONTHS
JUNE
• In Roman mythology, Juno, queen of the
gods and wife and sister of the god
Jupiter. (ZEUS)
• She was the protector of women and was
worshipped under several names.
• One of them was Hera.
ORIGINS OF THE MONTHS
JULY
• From JULIUS CAESAR, born in Rome on July 12 or
13 in 100 BC.
• He was the Roman general and statesman who laid
the foundations of the Roman imperial system.
• In 44 BC he changed the name of the month Quintillis
to Julius, after himself.
• The following year he decided (based on the advice of
an astronomer) to use a purely solar calendar with 365
days.
• This calendar is known as the Julian calendar in his
name.
ORIGINS OF THE MONTHS
AUGUST
• From AUGUSTUS CAESAR,
• born in 63 BC and died in 14 AD.
• He was the emperor of Rome from 27 BC
until his death.
• He restored unity and orderly government to
the empire after nearly a 100 years of civil
wars.
• The month Sextillis was renamed Augustus
after him in 45 BC.
ORIGINS OF THE MONTHS
SEPTEMBER
• From the Latin word SEPTEM meaning 7.
ORIGINS OF THE MONTHS
OCTOBER
• From the Latin word OCTO meaning 8.
ORIGINS OF THE MONTHS
NOVEMBER
• From the Latin word NOVEM meaning 9.
ORIGINS OF THE MONTHS
DECEMBER
• From the the Latin word DECEM meaning
10.
Public Houses (Pubs)
• The word pub is short for public house.
• There are over 60,000 pubs in the UK
(53,000 in England and Wales, 5,200 in
Scotland and 1,600 in Northern Ireland).
• One of the oldest pubs, Fighting Cocks in
St. Albans, Herts, is located in a building
that dates back to the eleventh century
Pubs are popular social meeting
places
• Pubs are an important part of British life.
People talk, eat, drink, meet their friends
and relax there.
• Pubs often have two bars, one usually
quieter than the other, many have a
garden where people can sit in the
summer. Children can go in pub gardens
with their parents.
• Groups of friends normally buy 'rounds' of
drinks, where the person whose turn it is
will buy drinks for all the members of the
group.
• It is sometimes difficult to get served when
pubs are busy: people do not queue, but
the bar staff will usually try and serve
those who have been waiting the longest
at the bar first.
• If you spill a stranger's drink by accident, it
is good manners (and prudent) to offer to
buy another drink.
British Beer
• Most pubs belong to a brewery (a
company which makes beer) but sell many
different kinds of beer, some on tap (from
a big container under the bar) and some in
bottles.
• The most popular kind of British beer is
bitter, which is dark and served at room
temperature (not hot, not cold).
• British beer is brewed from malt and hops.
• More popular today though is lager, which
is lighter in colour and served cold.
Guinness, a very dark, creamy kind of
beer called a stout, is made in Ireland and
is popular all over Britain.
• In the West of England, cider made from
apples, is very popular. Like wine, it is
described as sweet or dry, but is drunk in
beer glasses and can be stronger than
beer.
• Beers are served in "pints" for a large
glass and "halves" for a smaller one.
• Pubs sell soft drinks as well as alcohol
• Although most people think pubs are
places where people drink alcohol, pubs in
fact sell soft drinks (non alcoholic) drinks
too.
Opening Hours
• British pubs are required to have a licence,
which is difficult to obtain, and allows the
pub to operate for up to 24 hours. Most
pubs are open from 11 to 11.
Pub Names
• Pubs have traditional names which date back
over 600 years.
• Some typical names are The Chequers, The
White Swan, The Crown, The King's Arms, The
Red Lion and The White Horse.
• People often refer to the pub by its name when
giving directions:Turn left at the Rose and
Crown. There is usually a sign outside the pub
showing the pub's name with a picture.
Games
• Various games,
• especially darts, are common features of
pubs
• Pool
• Fruit machines
Customs
• Customs in British pubs differ from those
in American bars.
• In Britain, you must go to the bar to order
drinks and food and pay for your purchase
immediately, there is no table service.
• Bartenders are called "landlords" and
"barmaids" and they do not expect
frequent tipping.
• To tip a landlord or barmaid, it is
customary to tell him to "would you like a
drink yourself?"
Social Class System in Britain
• The British society is often considered to
be divided into three main groups of
classes:
• the Upper Class,
• the Middle Class, and the
• Lower or Working Classs
• The Upper Classes tends to consist of
people with inherited wealth, and includes
some of the oldest families, with many of
them being titled aristocrats.
• The upper classes are not only defined by
their title, but also by their education, and
their pastimes which includes the
traditional sporting life involving hunting,
shooting and fishing, as well as a great
deal of horse riding for both leisure and as
a competitive pursuit.
• The Middle Classes are the majority of
the population of Britain today.
• They include industrialists, professionals,
businesspeople and shop owners.
• Working class people are mostly
agricultural, mine and factory workers.
Status
• You can tell which class people belong to
by the way they speak (accent), their
clothes, their interests, the way that they
educate their children, or even the type of
food they eat
Houses of Parliament
HOUSE OF LORDS
• The house of Lords is made up of people
who have inherited family titles and those
who have been given titles because of
their outstanding work in one field or
another.
• There are 675 members of the Lords
• The main job of the Lords is to double
check new laws to make sure they are fair
and will work.
HOUSE OF LORDS
HOUSE OF LORDS
House of Commons
• The House of Commons has 659 members who
have been elected by local residents to
represent an area of the country in Parliment.
• The members are called MPs (Member of
Parliment)
• Each MP represents one of 659 areas in the UK
• Is a member of political party such as New
Labour and Conservative Party
House of Commons
Intresting Fact
• No King or Queen has entered the House
of Commons since 1642, when Charles I
stormed in with his soldiers and tried to
arrest five members of parliament who
were there.
THE QUEEN
• The Queen is the official Head of State
• Britain has a constitutional monarchy
where the Queen only rules symbolicaly.
• In reality power belons to Parliament.
• Although the Queen opens the Parliament
and each year and laws are passed in her
name, the Queen herself plays no part in
determining decisions made in Parliament.
SPECIAL DAYS
Shrove Tuesday
• In the UK, Shrove Tuesday is also known
as Pancake day because it is the one day
of the year when almost everyone eats a
pancake.
• Shrove Tuesday always falls 47 days
before Easter Sunday
• The name Shrove comes from the old
word “shrive” which means to confess.
• On Shrove Tuesday, in the middle ages,
people used to confess their sins so that
they were forgiven before the season of
Lent began.
LENT
• The fourty days (not counting sundays)
before Easter is known as Lent.
• This is the time of year in England when
the days begin to lenghten with coming of
spring.
• Lent was a time for spring-cleaning lives
as well as homes.
LENT
• Lent begins on Ash Wednesday, the day
after Pancake day, six and half weeks
before Easter Day.
• The last week of lent begins with Palm
Sunday, which celebrates the day Jesus
entered Jarusalem and the people lay
down plams at his feet.
LENT
• Lent lasts 40 days and end the day before
Easter Sunday.
• The 40 days mark the 40 years of the
Israelites going through the desert and the
traditional 40 days of Jesus fasting in the
desert.
LENT
• During Lent Christians used to fast
• Now some people try to give up their
favorite food such as chocolate.
• The Orthodox Church keeps Lent more
strickly and they do not eat.
ASH WEDNESDAY
• Lent begins with ash Wednesday
• Ash Wednesday is a day of penitence to
clean the soul before the Lent fast.
• Christians use ash as a symbol of being
sorry for things they have done wrong and
want to get rid of forever.
• Christiand rubbes ashes on their
foreheads
ASH WEDNESDAY
• Using ashes to mark the cross on the
believer’s forehead symbolises that
through Christ’s death and resurrection, all
Christians can be free from sin.
• Palm crosses are burned for ashes. (palm
Sunday)
EASTER
• Easter is the most important and the
oldest Christian festival, the celebration of
death and coming to life again of Jesus.
• Easter is the story of Jesus’ last days in
Jerusalem before his death.
EASTER
• Easter story includes Maundy Thursday
(the last supper leading to the Eucharist)
• includes Good Friday (the day on which
Jesus was crucified)
• And includes Easter Day (the day on
which Jesus came back to life)
• Falls between March 22 and April 25
EASTER
• Pagan traditions give us the English word
“Easter”
• Comes from the word “Eostre”
• The Anglo-Saxon word for April was
“Eostre Monath” (the month of openings)
EASTER
• It should be remembered that Christians
celebrated the resurrection of Christ long
before the word “Easter” was used.
• The word they used was “Pascha”
• Pascha was derived from and linked to
Jewish Festival of Passover
EASTER
• Bede notes that the month April was
named after the Anglo - Saxon goddess
Eostre
• Rituals related to goddess Eostre focus on
new beginnings, symbolized by the Easter
egg and fertility which is symbolized by the
hare (easter bunny)
EASTER EGG AND HARE
• An Anglo-Saxon legend tells how the
Saxon goddess Eostre found a wounded
bird and transformed it into a hare, so that
it could survive the Winter.
• The hare found it could lay eggs, so it
decorated each Spring and left them as
offereing to the goddess.
• Easter egg symbolises new life
GOOD FRIDAY
•
•
•
•
•
It is the Friday before Easter Sunday
On this day Jesus was crucified
Public holdiday in UK
Some people fast
It is traditional to eat warm “hot cross
buns” (spicy, sweet, fruity)
PALM SUNDAY
• The day Jesus arrived in Jerusalem
• Palm Sunday is a time of celebration as
well as sadness because Jesus died on a
cross less than a week after he had
entered Jerusalem.
• The Sunday before Easter
PALM SUNDAY
• Great crowds of people lined the streets
waving palm branches to welcome him.
• It was a passover fest day
• They shouted “hosanna” (save us now)
• We wave flags at paredes, they waved
palm branches
TWELFTH NIGHT
• It is the night that all Christmas
decorations should be removed so as not
to bring bad luck upon the home.
• If the decorations are not removed by
then, they should stay up all year.
TWELFTH NIGHT
• Long ago it was thought that leaving the
decorations up would couse a disaster.
• People believed that tree-sprits lived in
greenery they decorated their houses with.
• The greenery was brought into the house
to provide a safe haven for the tree sprits
during the harsh midwinter days.
TWELFTH NIGHT
• Once this period was over it was
necessary to return the greenery back
outside to release the tree-spirits into the
country side once again.
• Failure to do this would mean that
vegetation would not be able to start
growing again (spring would not return)
leading to an agricultural disaster.
TWELFTH NIGHT
• It was also thought that, if you left the
greenery in the house, the tree-spirits
would cause mischief in the house until
they were released.
Public Holidays /Bank Holidays
• Generally, public holidays include bank
holidays, holidays by Royal Proclamation
and 'common law holidays'.
• Banks are not allowed to operate on bank
holidays.
• When public holidays in the Christmas and
New Year period fall on Saturdays and
Sundays, alternative week days are
declared public holidays.
• British bank holidays are Public Holidays
and have been recognized since 1871.
The name Bank Holiday comes from the
time when banks were shut and so no
trading could take place.
British National Anthem
• The National Anthem is God Save the
Queen.
• The British National Anthem originated in
a patriotic song first performed in 1745.
• It became known as the National Anthem
from the beginning of the nineteenth
century.
British National Anthem
• On official occasions, only the first verse is
usually sung, as follows:
• God save our gracious Queen!
Long live our noble Queen!
God save the Queen!
Send her victorious,
Happy and glorious,
Long to reign over us,
God save the Queen.
Buckingham Palace
• Buckingham Palace is where the Queen
lives.
• Buckingham Palace is the Queen's official
and main royal London home.
• It has been the official London residence
of Britain's monarchy since 1837.
• Queen Victoria was the first monarch to
live there.
BREAKFAST
• Most people around the world seem to
think a typical English breakfast consists
of eggs, bacon, sausages, fried bread,
mushrooms and baked beans all washed
down with a cup of coffee.
• Now-a-days, however, a typical English
breakfast is more likely to be a bowl of
cereals, a slice of toast, orange juice
and a cup of coffee.
• The traditional English breakfast
consists of eggs, bacon, sausages, fried
bread, baked beans and mushrooms.
Even though not many people will eat this
for breakfast today, it is always served in
hotels and guest houses around Britain.
LUNCH
• Many children at school and adults at work
will have a 'packed lunch'.
• This typically consists of a sandwich, a
packet of crisps, a piece of fruit and a
drink.
• The 'packed lunch' is kept in a plastic
container.
LUNCH
• favourite sandwich is prawn and
mayonaise.
• tuna and mayonaise and ham and pickle
sandwiches.
DINNER
• The evening meal is usually called 'tea', 'dinner'
or 'supper'
• A typical British meal for dinner is meat and "two
veg".
• They put hot brown gravy, traditionally made
from the juices of the roast meat (but more often
today from a packet!) on the meat and usally the
vegetables.
• One of the vegetables is almost always
potatoes.
Fish and Chips
• Fish and chips is the classic English takeaway food and is the traditional national
food of England.
• It became popular in the 1860's when
railways began to bring fresh fish straight
from the east coast to the our cities over
night.
• The fish is deep fried in flour batter and is
eaten with chips.
• Traditionally, the fish and chips are
covered with salt and malt vinegar and,
using your fingers, eaten straight out of the
newspaper which they were wrapped in.
• Now-a-days small wooden forks are
provided and the fish and chips are
wrapped in more hygienic paper.
BRITISH FOOD
British food has traditionally been based on
beef, lamb, pork, chicken and fish and
generally served with potatoes and one
other vegetable.
• The most common and typical foods eaten
in Britain include the sandwich, fish and
chips, pies like the cornish pasty, trifle and
roasts dinners.
• Some of their main dishes have strange
names like Bubble & Squeak and Toad-inthe-Hole(sausages covered in batter and
roasted.)
Toad-in-the-Hole
Steak and Kidney Pie with chips
and salad
Cornish Pastie with chips, baked
beans and salad
Chicken Salad
Traditional Drinks in England
• Tea
• Britain is a tea-drinking nation. Every day
we drink 165 million cups of the stuff and
each year around 144 thousand tons of
tea are imported.
• Tea in Britain is traditionally brewed in a
warmed china teapot, adding one spoonful
of tea per person and one for the pot. Most
Britons like their tea strong and dark, but
with a lot of milk.
Interesting Fact
• Years ago, the milk was poured into the
cup first, so as not to crack the porcelain.
The traditional way of making tea
• Boil some fresh cold water. (We use an electric
kettle to boil water)
• Put some hot water into the teapot to make it
warm.
• Pour the water away
• Put one teaspoon of tea-leaves per person, and
one extra tea-spoon, into the pot.
• Pour boiling water onto the tea.
• Leave for a few minutes.
• Serve
• If someone asks you if you 'would like a
cuppa', they are asking if you would like a
cup of tea.
• If someone says 'let me be mother' or
'shall I be mother', they are offering to
pour out the tea from the teapot.
AFTERNOON TEA
• The traditional 4 o'clock tea
• Afternoon tea became popular about one
hundred and fifty years ago, when rich
ladies invited their friends to their houses
for an afternoon cup of tea.
• They started offering their visitors
sandwiches and cakes too.
• Soon everyone was enjoying Afternoon
tea.
HIGH TEA
• The traditional 6 o'clock tea
• The British working population did not
have Afternoon Tea.
• They had a meal about midday, and a
meal after work, between five and seven
o'clock.
• This meal was called 'high tea' or just 'tea'.
• Coffee
• Coffee is now as popular in Britain as tea
is. People either drink it with milk or have it
black and either have freshly- made
coffee or instant coffee.
• Bitter
• Britain is also well known for its ale which
tends to be dark in appearance and
heavier than lager. It is known as "bitter"
• Wine
• Britain's wine industry is growing from
strength to strength and we now have over
300 wine producers.
• A growing number of British vineyards are
now producing sparkling white wine as
well as full bodied red wine.
• There are over 100 vineyard in Kent.
Cockney Rhyming Slang
• Cockney Rhyming slang is a coded
language invented in the nineteenth
century by Cockneys so they could speak
in front of the police without being
understood.
What or who is a Cockney?
• A cockney traditionally is a person born
within hearing distance of the sound of
Bow bells, meaning within the sound of the
bells of the Church of St Mary Le Bow in
Cheapside, London, EC2 and refers to an
East London accent, however to most
people living outside London the term
Cockney means a Londoner.
Examples of Cockney Rhyming
Slang
• Cockney : Adam and Eve
• Meaning: Believe
• Example: I don't Adam and Eve it!
• Apples and Pears
• Stairs
• Get your Bacons up the Apples and Pears
• Barnet Fair
• Hair
• I have just got my Barnet chopped.
• Danny Marr
• Car
• I'll give you a lift in the Danny.
Slang Words
• Bloke - man.
'John is a nice bloke to know.'
• Botched - poor quality repairs.
'He made a botched job of fixing the
television.'
• Bottle - courage.
'He doesn't have the bottle to ask her.'
• Cheesed Off - fed up
• Daft - Crazy / stupid
• Dosh - Money / cash 'I haven't got much
dosh to give you.'
• Gobsmacked - Incredibly amazed.
'I was gobsmacked when I saw my
birthday presents.'
• Jammy - Used in place of lucky when
describing someone else.
'He was very jammy winning the lottery'.
• Scrummy - Delicious. Shortened from
scrumptious.
'The food was very scrummy'
• Skint - Broke. No money.
'I'm skint, I wont be able to buy the DVD
today.'
• to Snog - to long kiss
• Telly - Television
'I watched the news on the telly last night.'
Royal Coat of Arms
• On the left, the shield is supported by the
English Lion
• On the right it is supported by the Unicorn
of Scotland.
(The unicorn is chained because in
mediaeval times a free unicorn was
considered a very dangerous beast (only a
virgin could tame a unicorn)
Mottos
• Dieu et mon droit
(God and my right)
• Honi soit qui mal y pense
('Evil to him who evil thinks')
EMBLEMS OF BRITAIN
• England - St. George and the Rose
• The national flower of England is the rose.
The flower has been adopted as England’s
emblem since the time of the Wars of the
Roses - civil wars (1455-1485) between
the royal house of Lancaster (whose
emblem was a red rose) and the royal
house of York (whose emblem was a
white rose
• Scotland - St. Andrew - the Thistle and
Scottish Bluebell
• The national flower of Scotland is the
thistle, a prickly-leaved purple flower which
was first used in the 15th century as a
symbol of defence. The Scottish Bluebell
is also seen as the flower of Scotland.
• Northern Ireland - St. Patrick and the
Shamrock
• The national flower of Northern Ireland is
the shamrock, a three-leaved plant similar
to clover.
• An Irish tale tells of how Patrick used the
three-leafed shamrock to explain the
Trinity.
• He used it in his sermons to represent how
the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit
could all exist as separate elements of the
same entity.
• His followers adopted the custom of
wearing a shamrock on his feast day.
VIKINGS
• The Viking people came from three
countries of Scandinavia: Denmark,
Norway and Sweden.
• They were also known as the Norse
people.
• They were mostly farmers, but some
worked as craftsmen or traders.
• Lindisfarne, north-east England, was the
place where they settled.
• Many Vikings were great travellers and
sailed all over Europe and the north Atlantic
Ocean in their longships. DRAKKAR
• Some went as fierce pirate raiders: they
stole treasure and attacked local people.
• But most Vikings who sailed overseas were
simply searching for better land for their
farms.
• In 865 a 'Great Army' of Danish Vikings
invaded England.
• There were fierce battles for several years.
In the end the Vikings conquered all of
northern, central and eastern England,
and seized much of the land for their own
farms.
• This area was called 'The Danelaw'.
ORIGIN OF THE NAMES
OF THE DAYS
• Sunday : The name comes from the Latin
dies solis, meaning "sun's day“, the name
of a pagan Roman holiday
• Monday: The name comes from the
Anglo-Saxon monandaeg, "the moon's
day". This second day was sacred to the
goddess of the moon.
• Tuesday: This day was named after the
Norse god Tyr.
• Wednesday :The day named to honor Wodan
(Odin).
• Thursday: The day named after the Norse god
Thor. In the Norse languages this day is called
Torsdag.
• Friday: The day in honor of the Norse goddess
Frigg.
• Saturday: This day was called dies Saturni,
"Saturn's Day", by the ancient Romans in honor of
Saturn. In Anglo-Saxon: sater daeg. _______
•
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