The Anglo-Saxon Period 449-1066 Objectives The student will: recognize literary forms and major literary techniques recognize the characteristics of the Anglo-Saxon period and the literary movements associated with this era Read pages 2-14 and take notes using Cornell Notes format Prior Knowledge What have you learned about the climate and physical environment of Britain in social studies classes? How have these factors influenced the nation’s development? What types of people are likely to deal well with conditions common to the British Isles? Today’s Assignment Read pages 2-14 in your literature book. Complete Cornell Notes worksheet. Please work quietly and independently. This should take you approximately 45 minutes. Stopwatch Warriors from Denmark and Germany, the Angles and the Saxons, attacked Britain during the 5th century signaled the beginning of the English language became known as “Angles’ land” their Germanic languages developed into a new language called “Angle-ish” this language shaped the literature of Britain Britain Before the Anglo-Saxons Britons (Brythons) Gaels settled on the largest island, Britain settled on the second largest island, Ireland were farmers and hunters tightly knit clans Druids- priests settled disputes Presided over religious rituals Memorized and recited long, heroic poems The Roman Conquest First invaded by Roman general Julius Caesar and later by Roman emperor Claudius Roman legions spread across the island, establishing camps, which grew into towns. constructed a system of well-paved roads and highways brought their skills in the art of warfare The Anglo-Saxon Conquest Tribal life: Each tribe was ruled by a king, who was chosen by a witan, council of elders Earls Freeman Churls Thralls The Anglo-Saxon Conquest Fate Worshipped ancient Germanic gods Tiu: god of war and the sky Woden: chief of the gods Fria: Woden’s wife and goddess of the home Coming of Christianity 4th century In 563 a group of Irish monks established a Christian monastery on the island of Iona Columba and his monks moved across northern Britain spreading their faith Coming of Christianity 597- arrival of Saint Augustine Effects of Christianity Softened the ferocity of the warrior people Improved the conduct of the faithful 2 Major Contributions education written literature Christianity and Literature established schools at Canterbury and York In the monasteries, monks worked as scribes, recording and duplicating manuscripts, books written by hand Latin was the language of church scholarship Venerable Bede- “father of English history” A History of the English Church and People The First Danish Invasion The Vikings left Scandinavia and set their sights on the British Isles Alfred the Great King of Wessex Preserved the remnants of pre-Danish invasion Encouraged a rebirth of learning and education Translated Bede’s History Anglo-Saxon Literature Scholars believe the literature of the British Isles began with Celtic Druids Anglo-Saxon Poetry scops: professional minstrels Responsible for history, culture, values, entertainment gleeman: their assistants poems followed a set formula of composition caesura: mid-line pause alliteration: repetition of initial consonant sounds The most important poem is Beowulf Epic: long heroic poem Anglo-Saxon Poetry Two great Christian poets: Caedmon & Cynewulf Early Christian poetry is often referred to as Caedmonian verse Before the reign of Alfred the Great, all important prose was composed in Latin Monks regarded the vernacular, the language of the common people, as a vulgar tongue After the Normans occupied England, they transformed Old English into Middle English. Closing Activity On an index card, list 3 important facts you learned about the early cultures and their influence on the literature and culture of Britain?