A corpus-based study of loan words in original and translated texts Ana Frankenberg-Garcia ISLA - Lisbon [email protected] Loan words in monolingual settings 1. When people fail to retrieve equivalent words in the language they are speaking language loss 2. To evoke meanings that go beyond the propositional meaning of the words used language enrichment Loan words in translation 1. Culturally-bound concepts difficult to translate last resort for want of a better solution 2. Conveying source-text culture intentional translation strategy Loan words in translation • Vinay & Darbelnet (1958): emprunts To fill in semantic gaps or add local colour Easy way out • Newmark (1988): transference To use with moderation Translator’s job is to translate, to explain • Venuti (1995) Option to domesticate or foreignize Translators should keep foreign texts foreign • Toury (1995) Relative status of source-text language and culture Affects the extent to which it interferes in the translation Motivation • The use of loans is not a prerogative of translations • When looking at loan words in translation, it makes sense to look at how loans are used in texts that are not translations Loan words in original and translated texts • Are there more loans in translations than in source texts? • Is the superimpostion of languages in source texts effaced by translation? • Does the relative status of the ST language and culture affect the use of loans in translation? Questions such as these are much easier to tackle with the help of corpora Method COMPARA 6.0 www.linguateca.pt/COMPARA [Dec 2004 – Mar 2005] Bidirectional parallel corpus of English and Portuguese (published fiction) Original Portuguese Translated English Original English Translated Portuguese Focus on frequency and language distribution of loans Method sub-corpus COMPARA contains over 2 million words, with texts published between 1837 and 2000 Sub-corpus of texts published in the last 30 years: • 15 original Portuguese fiction extracts (277,243 words) • 13 original English fiction extracts (191,913 words) • 15 extracts of Portuguese fiction in English translation (312,322 words) • 15 extracts of English fiction in Portuguese translation (415,690 words) 1,197,168 words Method sub-corpus: note 1 • Not all stories set exclusively in English or Portuguese speaking worlds • Not all stories take place in the last thirty years May affect how loans are used, but typical of fiction! • What matters is: – Stories written by modern English and Portuguese-speaking writers – Stories read by English and Portuguese-speaking readers of today Method English (28 texts) sub-corpus: note 2 5 authors David Lodge, Joanna Trollope, Julian Barnes, Nadine Gordimer, Richard Zimler 10 translators Alan Clarke, Cliff Landers, David Brookshaw, Ellen Watson, Giovanni Pontiero, Gregory Rabassa, John Byrne, John Parker, Mary Fitton, Richard Zenith Portuguese (30 texts) 12 authors Autran Dourado, Cardoso Pires, Chico Buarque, Jorge de Sena, José E. Agualusa, José Saramago, Marcos Rey, Mário de Carvalho, Mia Couto, Patrícia Melo, Paulo Coelho, Rubem Fonseca 10 translators Ana M. Amador, Carlos G. Babo, Geraldo G. Ferraz, Helena Cardoso, J. Teixeira Aguilar, José Lima, Lídia C-Luther, M. Carlota Pracana, M. Carmo Figueira, Paula Reis more individual author differences in Portuguese Method sub-corpus: note 3 English Different varieties of English and Portuguese not taken into account Portuguese Method What was considered a loan How loans were counted How loans were sorted by language Defining loans Disagreement among individuals and within language communities Loans: words in a language other than the main language of the text that authors and translators (or publishers) chose to set off by highlighting - criterion used in COMPARA to mark foreign words - can be retrieved automatically Note 1 readers (and corpus makers & users) may have different perceptions Note 2 same word can be a loan in some texts but not in others Defining loans same word classified differently in different languages EBDL5 (262):`What d'you take me for, a robot?´ EBDL5 (262): -- O que é que você pensa que eu sou? Algum robot? Defining loans same word classified differently in same language PBRF1 (318): Usava jeans apertados, suas pernas eram grossas e os braços finos. PBPC2 (934): A única coisa que mantinha o sentido de realidade eram nossos trajes, jeans e camisetas com vieiras costuradas. EBDL3T1(1279): Boon tinha realmente chegado, provocantemente vestido com camiseta e jeans e acompanhado duma bela e altiva Pantera Negra, que ia entrar no programa dessa noite. EBJT1 (1962): Era um rapaz, um rapaz magro de jeans e com um blusão de cabedal. Instead of external parameters, definition reflects opinions of authors and translators (and editorial policies) Defining loans titles and named entities marked foreign not included EBJB1(64): Besides, I remember the end of L'Education Sentimentale. PBRF1(560): Até que o Fleming escolheu um bom título, Diamonds are Forever, pensei, mas o filme de Guy Hamilton era medíocre. PBAA2(603): It looks like a ship is arriving, and it's the Cruzeiro.´ EBDL3T2 (1153): Teve uma lua-de-mel de curta duração com a Radio One, que se transformou numa espécie de casamento sadomasoquista. Counting loans single words and multi-word expressions counted as one loan EBJB2 (500): …he was going to get the best quid pro quo out of God in the forthcoming negotiations. = 1 loan EBJT2 (241): `I shall bring tapas also,´ José said, moving towards the door. = 1 loan Counting loans quotations counted as one loan EURZ1 (1275): …a weedy boy with pale-green eyes yells at her in a prideful voice, « Vai-te foder, vaca! , fuck off, cow!» = 1 loan EBJB1(188): …he found himself constantly irritated by a parrot which screamed, `Astu déjeuné, Jako? ´ and `Cocu, mon petit coco.´ = 2 loans Counting loans lists and repetitions counted as separate loans PBPM1 (99): Urutus, jararacas, cascavéis, jararacuçus, surucutingas, cotiaras -- I saw these and many other serpents in the slides that Melissa projected during her talk. = 6 loans EBJT2 (368):`The little eggs of the codoniz , what is the codoniz ?´ = 2 loans Sorting loans co-text used to resolve ambiguity EBDL5(1802): `Can I take this thing off?´ he said, plucking at his lei . lei = Hawaiian, not Italian EBJT2(95): `You must look after yourself, querida .´ querida = Spanish, not Portuguese Sorting loans loans classified according to their origins EBDL5(262): -- O que é que você pensa que eu sou? Algum robot ? robot = Czech EBDL1T2(889): a plastic container of frozen moussaka could be concealed without much difficulty. moussaka = Greek Results distribution of loans Original Portuguese Original English 9 (out of 15) texts had no loans at all Just 1 (out of 13) texts did not have any loans 1.5 loans/ 10 K words 16.9 loans/ 10 K words Original English fiction more permeable to loans than original Portuguese fiction Results distribution of loans Translated Portuguese Translated English All texts contained loans One third of the texts contained no loans at all 24.3 loans/ 10 K words 4.1 loans/ 10 K words When reading translated fiction, Portuguese readers more exposed to loans than English readers Results distribution of loans Original Portuguese Translated Portuguese More than half the texts contained no loans at all All texts contained loans 1.5 loans/ 10 K words 24.3 loans/ 10 K words Portuguese readers must notice a big difference…. Results distribution of loans Original English Translated English All but one text contained loans One third of the texts contained no loans at all 16.9 loans/ 10 K words 4.1 loans/ 10 K words The number of loans in present in text shouldn’t add a particularly foreign ring to English translations…. Results (so far) • Loan words seem to enter the Portuguese language more through fiction translated from English than through original fiction • The opposite seems to occur in English Do Portuguese translators tend to foreignize texts? Do English translators tend to domesticate texts? What happens to loans in the process of translation Results net difference in overall number of loans ST (English) ST (Portuguese) 3X TT (Portuguese) TT (English) Both Portuguese and English translations tripled the total number of loans present in source texts English translators not really sheltering readers from loans Few loans in Portuguese source texts makes loans in translated English seem scant by comparison Results Loans in common, loans added and loans removed ST (English) ST (Portuguese) TT (Portuguese) TT (English) Both PT and EN translators tend to: Preserve loans originally present in source texts Add more loans of their own Remove very few loans (except…) Results language distribution of loans Original Portuguese Translated Portuguese Loans from just 4 languages: Loans from 14 identified languages English English prevails (22 loans in 2 texts) (475 loans in 13 texts) Latin (15 loans in 2 texts) French noticeable French (238 loans in 13 texts) (4 loans in 4 texts) German (1 loan in 1 text) None prevails Results language distribution of loans Original English Translated English Loans from 12 identified languages Loans from just 8 identified languages French prevails French prevails (117 loans in 10 texts) (43 loans in 6 texts) Portuguese is rare Portuguese is noticeable (14 loans but all in 1 text) (35 loans in 7 texts) Results language distribution of loans ST (English) TT (Portuguese) More loan languages: + 2 Lots of loans from source text language: + 475 More French: 117 → 238 (+121) More Latin: 21 → 34 (+15) More Italian: 11 → 20 (+9) Less Spanish: 25 → 22 (-3) Portuguese effaced: -14 (no compensation) Results language distribution of loans ST TT (Portuguese) (English) More loan languages: + 4 Few loans from source text language: + 35 More French: 4 → 43 (+39) More Latin: 15 → 19 (+4) Spanish introduced: 0 → 4 (+4) Italian introduced: 0 → 7 (+7) English effaced: -22 (2 loans compensated by French) Overall Results Original PT Translated EN PT Original EN Translated PT EN Both PTST and EN translation tripled the number loans Toury (1995) Loans from abound in translated butofused Difference between number of loans inPortuguese, English originals andvery Increased the number of loan Tolerance ofnot interference is likely tolanguages beoriginals greater when translation is Huge difference between Portuguese and translations sparingly in translated English translations as conspicuous, but… Didcarried not remove superimpostion of languages ST (except More loans and more loan languages in originalinEnglish fiction out from ‘major’ to ‘minor’ language/culture when loans were from translation language) Conclusion • Commentaries on use of loans often controversial and based on anectodal evidence • This study examined some hard data on use of loans in original and translated texts • Only possible thanks to a corpus and corpus techniques • Future: more research using more texts, different genres & other language pairs Obrigada!