The 2010 Gross National
Happiness Index : Part I
The Centre for Bhutan Studies
2011
.
Part I:
1. GNH concept
2. GNH domains
3. GNH survey
4. 33 indicators
5. Weighting
6. GNH thresholds-sufficiency &
happiness
7. GNH Index methodology
.
Background:
Legal code of 1629 “if the government
cannot create happiness for its people,
then there is no purpose for government to
exist.”
.
4th King of Bhutan, 1972
“Gross National Happiness is more
important than Gross National Product.”
.
Constitution of Bhutan 2008 Article 9:
“The State shall strive to promote those
conditions that will enable the pursuit of
Gross National Happiness.”
.
HM Jigme Khesar Namgyel
Wangchuck, the 5th King of
Bhutan, is committed to GNH.
Gross National
Happiness (GNH)
measures the quality of
a country in more
holistic way and
believes that the
beneficial development
of human society takes
place when material
and spiritual
development occurs
side by side to
complement and
reinforce each other.
.
GNH in Bhutan:
profound & rooted
“We have now clearly
distinguished the
‘happiness’ … in GNH
from the fleeting, pleasurable ‘feel good’ moods so often
associated with that term. We know that true abiding
happiness cannot exist while others suffer, and comes
only from serving others, living in harmony with nature,
and realizing our innate wisdom and the true and
brilliant nature of our own minds.”
Prime Minister of Bhutan, 2009
.
Part I:
1. GNH concept
2. GNH domains
3. GNH survey
4. 33 indicators
5. Weighting
6. GNH thresholds-sufficiency &
happiness
7. GNH Index methodology
.
GNH has
Nine
Domains:
These
appear in
the 10th
plan
and are
Measured
in the
GNH
Index.
.
Nine Domains of GNH
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Living Standard
Health
Education
Time Use
Good Governance
Ecological Diversity &
Resilience
7. Psychological Well-being
8. Community Vitality
9. Culture Diversity & Resilience
.
Domains of GNH
Standard Domains
• Living Standard
• Health
• Education
• Time Use
• Good Governance
• Ecological Diversity &
Resilience
• Psychological Well-being
• Community Vitality
• Culture Diversity & Resilience
.
Domains of GNH
• Living Standard
• Health
• Education
Newer Domains
• Time Use
• Good Governance
• Ecological Diversity &
Resilience
• Psychological Well-being
• Community Vitality
• Culture Diversity & Resilience
.
Domains of GNH
•
•
•
•
•
•
Living Standard
Health
Education
Time Use
Good Governance
Ecological Diversity & Resilience
Innovative Domains
• Psychological Well-being
• Community Vitality
• Culture Diversity &
Resilience
.
Part I:
1. GNH concept
2. GNH domains
3. GNH survey
4. 33 indicators
5. GNH thresholds-sufficiency &
happiness
6. Weighting
7. GNH Index methodology
.
GNH Index Survey, 2010
CBS
Completed Interviews = 7142
Retained Sample size = 6476
Sample representative of 20 districts,
and by rural and urban areas
758 variables, covering all 9 domains of GNH
Unusual depth and quality of data
Draws on 2006 Pre-Pilot
and the 2008 Pilot GNH Survey
.
Part I:
1. GNH concept
2. GNH domains
3. GNH survey
4. 33 indicators
5. Weighting
6. GNH thresholds-sufficiency &
happiness
7. GNH Index methodology
.
33 GNH Indicators were
selected for the GNH Index
according to:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Normative values, official documents
Statistical properties
Accuracy across time
Policy relevance
Clarity of interpretation
The 33 indicators draw on over 120
questions from the survey.
.
Domain
1
Psychological wellbeing
2
3
4
Health
Time use
Education
Cultural diversity and
resilience
Good Governance
Community vitality
Ecological diversity and
resilience
Living standards
Total
5
6
7
8
9
Indicators
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
3
33
.
Life satisfaction
•
•
•
•
•
Health
Living standard
Occupation
Relationships
Work-life balance
Positive
emotions
Spirituality
• Spirituality
level
• Prayer
recitation
• Meditation
• Considerati
on of Karma
Psychological
Wellbeing
• Calmness
• Empathy/
compassion
• Forgiveness
• Contentment
• Generosity
Negative emotions
• Anger
• Fear
• Worry
• Selfishness
• Jealousy
.
Number of
Healthy days
Disability
• Longterm
disability
that
restricts
activities
Mental health:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Health
•
•
•
•
•
Able to concentrate
Lost sleep over worry
Playing useful part
Capable of making
decisions
Constantly under
strain
Difficult to cope with
difficulties
Able to enjoy
Able to face problems
Feeling unhappy and
depressed
Losing confidence
Thinking of self as a
worthless person
Self reported health
status – 10% weight
.
WORK
Time Use
SLEEP
.
Schooling
Knowledge
of:
Value : Little
justification for
•
•
•
•
Killing
Stealing
Lying
Creating
disharmony among
people
• Sexual misconduct
Education
• Local legends
and folk stories
• Local tshechus
and festivals
• Constitution
• How HIV/AIDS
is transmitted
Literacy
.
Artistic
skills
• Weaving,
Embroidery,
Painting,
Carpentry,
Carving,
Sculpture,
Casting,
Blacksmithing,
Bamboo works,
Gold/silversmith
, Masonry,
Leather works,
Paper making
Speak native
language
Cultural
participation:
Cultural
Diversity
and
Resilience
• Number of
days spent in
socio-cultural
events in a
year
Driglam
Namzha (code of
etiquette and
conduct)
• Importance
• Changes in practice
.
Political
participation
* Voting
* Attending Zomdue at:
• Chiwog level
• Gewog level
• Thromdue level
Services
• Walking time to
nearest health
care centre
• Waste disposal
• Source of water
• Quality of
drinking water
• Access to
electricity
Good
Governance
Fundamental rights
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Freedom of speech & opinion
To vote
To join political party
To form/join tshogpa
To join public service
Equal value of work
Freedom from discrimination
Government
performance
• Creating jobs
• Reducing gap
between rich
and poor
• Providing
education
• Improving
health services
• Fighting
corruption
• Protecting
environment
• Preserving
cultural and
traditions
.
Donations (time & money)
• Proportion of household income
donated
• Days of volunteering
Family
Safety
• Having been a
recent victim
of crime
Community
Vitality
Community
relationship
• Family care
• Wish you were
not part of your
family
• Argue too much
• Feel like a
stranger in family
• Family are
understanding
• Family are a real
source of comfort
• Sense of belonging
• Trust neighbours
.
Responsibility
towards
Environment
Urbanization
issues
• Traffic congestion
• Absence/inadequa
te green spaces
• Lack of pedestrian
friendly streets
• Urban sprawl
Ecological
Diversity and
Resilience
Ecological
Issues
• Pollution of
rivers and
steams
• Air pollution
• Absence of waste
disposal sites
• Landslides
• Soil erosion
• Floods
• Littering
• Noise pollution
Wildlife Damage (Rural)
• Wild animals are a constraint to crops.
• Crops have been damaged by wild
animals
.
Household income
per capita
Living
Standard
Housing
•
•
•
•
Toilet
Electricity
Quality of roof
Persons per room
Assets
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Mobile phone
Fixed phone
Personal computer
Refrigerator
Washing machine
Television
Livestock
Land size (5 acres
threshold)
.
Psychological
Wellbeing
Living Standards
• Assets
• Housing
• Household per capita
income
• Life satisfaction
• Positive emotions
• Negative emotions
• Spirituality
Health
• Mental health
• Self reported health
status
• Healthy days
• Disability
Ecological
Diversity and
Resilience
• Ecological Issues
• Responsibility
towards environment
• Wildlife damage
(Rural)
• Urbanization issues
GNH
Community
Vitality
Time Use
•
•
Work
Sleep
Education
• Donations (time &
money)
• Community
relationship
• Family
• Safety
• Literacy
• Schooling
• Knowledge
• Value
Good Governance
• Gov’t performance
• Fundamental rights
• Services
• Political Participation
Cultural
Diversity and
Resilience
• Speak native
Language
• Cultural Participation
• Artistic Skills
• Driglam Namzha
.
Part I:
1. GNH concept
2. GNH domains
3. GNH survey
4. 33 indicators
5. Weighting
6. GNH thresholds-sufficiency &
happiness
7. GNH Index methodology
.
Weighting:
 9 domains are equally weighted
 33 indicators, 2-4 per domain
 Relatively equal weights among 33
 Most reliable have larger weights
.
Weights on the 33 Indicators
Weight
Indicators
Domain
33%
Psychological wellbeing Life satisfaction
17%
Positive emotions
17%
Negative emotions
33%
Spirituality
10%
Self reported health status
Health
30%
Healthy days
30%
Disability
30%
Mental health
50%
Work
Time use
50%
Sleep
30%
Literacy
Education
30%
Schooling
20%
Knowledge
20%
Value
30%
Zorig chusum skills (Artisan)
Cultural diversity
Cultural participation 30%
& resilience
Speak native language 20%
20%
Driglam Namzha (Etiquette
Weight
Indicators
40%
Political participation
40%
Services
Governance performance 10%
10%
Fundamental rights
Community vitality Donation (time & money) 30%
30%
Safety
20%
Community relationship
20%
Family
40%
Ecological diversity Wildlife damage
40%
Urban issues
& resilience
10%
Responsibility towards environment
10%
Ecological issues
33%
Per capita income
Living Standard
33%
Assets
33%
Housing
Domain
Good Governance
.
Equal Weights within the indicators
in 3 domains
Domain
Indicators
Weight
Psychological wellbeing Life satisfaction
33%
Positive emotions
17%
Negative emotions
17%
Spirituality
33%
Health
Self reported health status
10%
Healthy days
30%
Disability
30%
Mental health
30%
Time use
Work
50%
Sleep
50%
Education
Literacy
30%
Schooling
30%
Knowledge
20%
Value
20%
Cultural diversity
Zorig chusum skills (Artisan)
30%
& resilience
Cultural participation 30%
Speak native language 20%
Driglam Namzha (Etiquette
20%
Domain
Good Governance
Indicators
Weight
Political participation
40%
Services
40%
Governance performance 10%
Fundamental rights
10%
Community vitality Donation (time & money) 30%
Safety
30%
Community relationship
20%
Family
20%
Ecological diversity Wildlife damage
40%
& resilience
Urban issues
40%
Responsibility towards environment
10%
Ecological issues
10%
Living Standard
Per capita income
33%
Assets
33%
Housing
33%
.
5 subjective indicators receive10%
weights only (dark blue); others equal.
Domain
Indicators
Weight
Psychological wellbeing Life satisfaction
33%
Positive emotions
17%
Negative emotions
17%
Spirituality
33%
Health
Self reported health status
10%
Healthy days
30%
Disability
30%
Mental health
30%
Time use
Work
50%
Sleep
50%
Education
Literacy
30%
Schooling
30%
Knowledge
20%
Value
20%
Cultural diversity
Zorig chusum skills (Artisan)
30%
& resilience
Cultural participation 30%
Speak native language 20%
Driglam Namzha (Etiquette
20%
Domain
Good Governance
Indicators
Weight
Political participation
40%
Services
40%
Governance performance 10%
Fundamental rights
10%
Community vitality Donation (time & money) 30%
Safety
30%
Community relationship
20%
Family
20%
Ecological diversity Wildlife damage
40%
& resilience
Urban issues
40%
Responsibility towards environment
10%
Ecological issues
10%
Living Standard
Per capita income
33%
Assets
33%
Housing
33%
.
In 3 domains, subjective indicators are
weighted 20%; objective at 30%.
Domain
Indicators
Weight
Psychological wellbeing Life satisfaction
33%
Positive emotions
17%
Negative emotions
17%
Spirituality
33%
Health
Self reported health status
10%
Healthy days
30%
Disability
30%
Mental health
30%
Time use
Work
50%
Sleep
50%
Education
Literacy
30%
Schooling
30%
Knowledge
20%
Value
20%
Cultural diversity
Zorig chusum skills (Artisan)
30%
& resilience
Cultural participation 30%
Speak native language 20%
Driglam Namzha (Etiquette
20%
Domain
Good Governance
Indicators
Weight
Political participation
40%
Services
40%
Governance performance 10%
Fundamental rights
10%
Community vitality Donation (time & money) 30%
Safety
30%
Community relationship
20%
Family
20%
Ecological diversity Wildlife damage
40%
& resilience
Urban issues
40%
Responsibility towards environmen
10%
Ecological issues
10%
Living Standard
Per capita income
33%
Assets
33%
Housing
33%
.
Part I:
1. GNH concept
2. GNH domains
3. GNH survey
4. 33 indicators
5. Weighting
6. GNH thresholds-sufficiency &
happiness
7. GNH Index methodology
.
How much is enough?
The GNH Index uses two kinds of thresholds:
1.
Sufficiency thresholds
2. Happiness threshold
Sufficiency thresholds:
Shows how much a person needs in order
to enjoy ‘sufficiency’ – how much is enough,
normally, to create a happiness condition.
Each of the 33 GNH indicators has a
sufficiency threshold.
.
Sufficiency thresholds were set by:
 International standards: Eg. MDGs, ILO, Habitat
 National standards: Eg.1.5 x income poverty line
 Normative judgments: Eg. Positive emotions
 Participatory meetings: Local advisors gave input e.g. the threshold for
land depends upon
its quality. Here in
Wangdiphodrang
5 acres is enough.
.
Indicator
Life
satisfaction
Psychological wellbeing
Sub-indicator
Question
Health
How satisfied are you with your health?
Standard of living …with your standard of living?
Occupation
…with your major occupation?
Family relationship …with your family relationship?
Work life balance …with your work life balance?
Spirituality
Spirituality
How spiritual do you consider yourself?
Karma
Do you consider Karma in the course of
your daily life?
Prayer recitation
Meditation
Positive Calmness
emotions Compassion
Forgiveness
Contentment
Generosity
Negative Selfishness
emotions Jealousy
Fear
Worry
Anger
How often do you recite prayers?
Response range
5 (Low-worst)
To
25 (High
satisfaction)
1 (Not at all)- 4
(Very spiritual)
1 (Not at all)-4
(Always)
1 (Not at all)- 4
(Regularly)
1 (Not at all)- 4
(Regularly)
Sufficiency
20-25
4 (Very
spiritual)
4 (Always)
4 (Regularly)
3 (Occasionally)
or 4 (Regularly)
How often do you meditate?
5 (Low )-20
During the past few
weeks, how often do you (High positive
experience __(Emotion)_? emotion score)
15-20
(Positive
emotion
score)
5 (Low)-20
During the past few
weeks, how often do you (High negative
experience __(Emotion)_? emotion score)
15-20
(Negative
emotion
score)
.
Health
Response range
Indicator
Sub-indicator
Question
(worst-best)
Self
Self reported health In general, would
1 (Very poor)reported status
you say your health 5 (Excellent)
health
is…
status
Healthy Healthy days
Number of healthy 0 (Worst)-30(Best)
days
days in the past 30
days
Disability Long term disability Do you have any
1 (Yes)-2 (No)
long term disabilities,
health/mental
problems?
Activity limitations Does the long-term 1 (All the time)disability restrict
5 (Never)
your activities?
Mental
12 item General
12 item General
0-15 (Severe
health
health questionnaire health questionnaire distress)-21-36
(Normal mental
wellbeing)
Sufficiency
threshold
4 (Good) or 5
(Excellent)
Above 26
days
2 (No)
3 (Rarely) or
4 (Never)
21-36
(Normal
mental
wellbeing)
.
Education
Indicator
Sub-indicator
Literacy Literacy level
Schooling Schooling
Knowledge
Local legend and
folk stories
Local tshechus
Traditional songs
The Constitution
HIV/AIDS
transmission
Killing
Stealing
Lying
Disharmony
Value
Sexual misconduct
Question
Response range Sufficiency
Can you read and write in any of the
1 (No)-2 (Yes)
2 (Yes)
languages?
What is your highest level of education? 1 (No formal
2 (Class VI)
education)-8
(Postgraduate/PHD)
How would you rate your knowledge
5 (Low knowledge
19-25
and understanding on local legend and
score)-25 (High
(Knowledge
folk stories?
knowledge score)
score)
How would you rate your knowledge
and understanding on local tshechus?
How would you rate your knowledge
and understanding on traditional
songs?
How would you rate your knowledge
and understanding on constitution?
How would you rate your knowledge
on how HIV/AIDS is transmitted?
Is killing justifiable?
Is stealing justifiable?
Is lying justifiable?
5 (Low value score)- 14-15 (Value
15 (High value
score)
score)
Is creating harmony in human relations
justifiable?
Is sexual misconduct justifiable?
.
Cultural diversity and resilience
Indicator Sub-indicator
Language
Ability to
speak mother
tongue
Cultural
Number of
participation days
participated in
socio-cultural
activities
Artisan skills Artisan skills
Driglam
Attitude
Namzha
(code of
etiquette and
Change over
conduct)
time
Question
Response range
How well can you speak 1 (Not at all)-4 (Very
your mother tongue
well)
now?
Sufficiency
4 (Quite well) or
5 (Very well)
How many days do you
spend in a year
attending social and
cultural acitivities
(community festivals or
choku of neighbours)?
Do you have any of the
zorig chusum skills?
1 (None)-5 (More than 20 3 (6-12 days) or
days)
4 (13-20 days) or
5 (More than 20
days)
0 skill (Worst)-13 skills
(Best)
One skill or
more
Is Driglam Namzha
important?
1 (Not Important)-3(Very
Important)
3 (Very
Important-2
(Important)
How do you percieve
1 (Getting weaker)-3
the change in practice
(Getting stronger)
and observance of
Driglam Namzha during
the last few years?
3 (Getting
stronger)
.
Good Governance
Indicator
Sub-indicator
Question
Range
Sufficiency
7 (Low
institutional
performance
score)
35 (High
institutional
performance )
-
28-25 (Institutional
performance score
Do you feel that you have right to the freedom of
speech and opinion?
1 (No)-2 (Yes)
2 (Yes)
Vote
Join political party
Form tshogpa
Equal access to join public
service
To equal pay for equal
work
Free from discrimination
have right to vote?
have right to join political party of your choice?
have right to form tshogpa?
have right to equal access and opportunity to join
public service?
have right to equal pay for work of equal value?
1 (No)-2 (Yes)
1 (No)-2 (Yes)
1 (No)-2 (Yes)
1 (No)-2 (Yes)
2 (Yes)
2 (Yes)
2 (Yes)
2 (Yes)
1 (No)-2 (Yes)
2 (Yes)
have right to the freedom from discrimination?
1 (No)-2 (Yes)
Access to health care
How long does it usually take you to walk to
the nearest health care centre?
1 (No)-2 (Yes)
Do you have electricity?
How do you dispose your household waste? 1 (Dump on
2 (Yes)
<60 minutes
Government Creating jobs
performance
Rate the performance of government in
creating jobs?
Reducing gap between rich in reducing gap between rich and poor?
and poor
Fighting corruption
Preserving culture and
traditions
Protecting environment
Providing educational
needs
Improving health services
Fundamental Freedom of speech
Rights
Services
Electricity
Waste disposal
Access to water
in fighting corruption?
in preserving culture and traditions?
in protecting environment?
in providing educational needs?
n improving health services?
What is the main source of water for your
household?
2 (Yes)
5 (Municipal garbage
open land)- 7 pick up) or 6 (Burning) or
(Compost)
7 (Compositing)
5 (Protected well) or 6
1 (River, pond
etc.)-8 (Piped in (Public outdoor tap) or 7
dwelling) (Piped water outside house)
.
or 8 (Piped in dwelling)
Good Governance (cont’d)
Indicator
Services
Sub-indicator
Question
Range
Access to health care How long does it usually take you to walk to
<60 minutes
the nearest health care centre?
Electricity
Waste disposal
Access to water
Quality of water
Political Election
participaZomdue
tion
participation
Do you have electricity?
Sufficiency
1 (No)-2 (Yes)
2 (Yes)
How do you dispose your household waste? 1 (Dump on
5 (Municipal
open land)- garbage pick up) or
7 (Compost) 6 (Burning) or 7
(Compositing)
What is the main source of water for your
1 (River,
5 (Protected well)
household?
pond etc.)-8 or 6 (Public outdoor
(Piped in
tap) or 7 (Piped
dwelling)
water outside
house) or 8 (Piped
in dwelling)
How would you rate the quality of your
1 (Very
5 (Very Good) or 4
drinking water
Poor)-5
(Good)
(Very
Good)
Will you vote in the next elections?
1 (No)-2
1 (No)
(Yes)
The frequency of zomdue attendance in the past 12
At least once
months
.
Community vitality
Indicator
Donation
(time &
money)
Sub-indicator
Sufficiency threshold
In the past 12 months, did you donate Amount of
More than 10% of
money?
donation made in a annual household
year
income
Days volunteer
During the past 12 months, how many Number of days
days did you volunteer?
volunteered
How would you describe your sense of 1 (Weak)-3 (Very
belonging to your local community?
strong)
Trust in neighbours
Safety
Response range
Donations
Community Sense of belonging
relationship
Family
Question
National averageMore than 17 days
3 (Very strong)
How much do you trust your
neighbours?
1 (Trust none of
4 (Trust most of
them)-4 (Trust
them)
most of them)
Family members care Do the members of your family care
18 (High family
about each other
about each other?
index score)-6(Low
Wish you were not
Do you wish you were not part of your family Index Score)
part of your family
family?
Feel like a stranger in Do you feel like a stranger in your
your family
family?
Enough time to spend Do you get enough time to spend with
with your family
your family?
Lot of understanding Is there a lot of understanding in your
in your family
family?
Family is a real
Do you think family is a real source of
15-18 (Family
source of comfort to comfort to you?
index score)
you
Victim of crime
Have you been a victim of crime in the 1 (Yes)-2 (No)
2 (No)
last 12 months?
.
Ecological diversity and resilience
Indicator
Sub-indicator
Ecological
issues
Question
Response range (worst-best)
Is ___ISSUE________ 1 (Major concern)-4
Pollution of rivers and
an environmental issue (Not a concern)
streams
of concern in your
Air pollution
community?
Noise pollution
Absence of waste disposal
sites
Littering
Landslides
Soil erosion
Floods
Do you feel responsible 1 (Not at all
Responsibility
for conserving the natural responsible)-4 (Highly
towards
Feelings of responsibility
environment?
responsible)
environment towards environment
Was wildlife a constraint 1 (Major constraint)-4
Wildlife
to your crops during the (Not a constraint)
damage (Rural)
Wildlife problems
last year?
In the past one year, has 1 (A lot)-4 (Not at all)
your crops been damaged
Crop loss
by wild animals?
Is ___ISSUE________ an 1 (Major concern)-4
Urbanization
environmental issue of
(Not a concern)
issues
Traffic congestion
concern in your
Absence/inadequate
community?
green spaces
Lack of pedestrian
friendly streets
Urban sprawl
Sufficiency threshold
4 (Not a concern)
or 3 (Minor
concern) or 2
(Some concern)
in at least 6
ecological issues
4 (Highly
responsible)
1 (Major constraint)
& 1 (A lot) or 2
(Some)
4 (Not a concern) or
3 (Minor concern)
or 2 (Some concern)
in at least 3
urbanization issues
.
Living standards
Indicator
Assets
Housing
Sub-indicator
Response range (worst-best)
1 (No)-2 (Yes)
Mobile telephone Do you own a
_______Equipment____
Fixed line
telephone
Personal computer
Refrigerator
Colour Television
Washing machine
How many acres of
Number of acres
Land
land does your
household own?
How many livestock
Livestock
does your household
own?
Type of toilet used What kind of toilet
facility does your
household use?
What type of roof
Roof material
material is mainly used
for your dwelling?
Sufficiency threshold
3 electrical
equipment
or
5 livestock
or
5 acres of land
Number of livestock
1 (No toilet facility,
5 (Flush toilets) or 4
open spaces)-5 (Flush (Pit latrine with septic
toilet)
tank)
1 (Slate/Bamboo/
2
Straw/Wood/Mud)- 2 (Concrete/Brick/Ston
(Concrete/Brick/Stone
e or CGI/ Metal)
/CGI/Metal)
Number of persons per 2 persons per room or
room
less
How many rooms are
there in the dwelling
(exclude bath/toilet)?
Household income What was the total cash Household income in
income for your
Ngultrums
household during the
past 12 months?
Room ratio
Household per
capita income
Question
1.5* poverty line
.
Time Use
Question
Response range
(worst-best)
Sufficiency
threshold
Indicator
Sub-indicator
Work
Hours of work
480 mins
Sleep
Hours of sleep
480 mins
.
40%
20%
0%
Value
Safety
Speak native language
Family
Disability
Mental health
Urbanization issues
Responsibility towards…
Life satisfaction
Government performance
Healthy days
Assets
Self reported health status
Ecological issues
Sleep
Negative emotions
Community relationship
Fundamental rights
Artisan skills
Driglam Namzha
Positive emotions
Wildlife damage (Rural)
Political participation
Household per capita income
Spirituality
Literacy
Percentage of people enjoying sufficiency
120%
100%
80%
60%
Most Bhutanese enjoy
sufficiency in value, safety,
native language, family,
mental health, urbanization
issues, responsibility
towards environment,
satisfaction in life,
government performance,
healthy days and assets
.
20%
0%
50-60% of Bhutanese enjoy
sufficiency in ecological
issues, negative emotions,
community relationship,
Artisan skills, Driglam
Namzha etc.
Value
Safety
Speak native language
Family
Disability
Mental health
Urbanization issues
Responsibility towards…
Life satisfaction
Government performance
Healthy days
Assets
Self reported health status
Ecological issues
Sleep
Negative emotions
Community relationship
Fundamental rights
Artisan skills
Driglam Namzha
Positive emotions
Wildlife damage (Rural)
Political participation
Household per capita income
Spirituality
Literacy
Percentage of people enjoying sufficiency
120%
100%
80%
60%
40%
.
Knowledge
Cultural participation
Schooling
Services
Work
Donations (time & money)
Housing
Literacy
Spirituality
Household per capita income
Percentage of people enjoying sufficiency
Political participation
Wildlife damage (Rural)
Positive emotions
Driglam Namzha
Artisan skills
Fundamental rights
Community relationship
Negative emotions
Sleep
Ecological issues
Self reported health status
Assets
Healthy days
Government performance
Life satisfaction
Responsibility towards…
Urbanization issues
Mental health
Less than 50% of Bhutanese enjoy sufficiency in
literacy, housing, donations, work, services,
schooling, cultural participation and knowledge
.
Who is considered Happy?
The GNH Index uses two kinds of thresholds:
1. Sufficiency thresholds
2.
Happiness threshold
Happiness Threshold= 66% of domains
A person who enjoys sufficiency in more
than six or more of the 9 domains is
considered happy.
.
Happiness threshold of 6 or more (66%) of
the 9 domains were set based on:
 Diversity: Some indicators do not have universal
application. Eg. Political participation under Good
Governance is not relevant to monks and nuns.
 Measurement error: some responses might not be fully
accurate, whether it be about household income or about
their values
 Freedom of choice: Many people seem fully happy
without sufficiency in all indicators. They might not value
other indicators. Their happiness might not be increased
by requiring sufficiency in all. They have enough.
.
45%
40%
0%
Value
Safety
Family
Disability
Mental health
Life satisfaction
Speak native language
Responsibility towards…
Healthy days
Urbanization issues
Self reported health status
Assets
Government performance
Negative emotions
Wildlife damage (Rural)
Sleep
Household per capita…
Positive emotions
Ecological issues
Artisan skills
Literacy
Fundamental rights
Community relationship
Spirituality
Housing
Work
Applying Both Thresholds
39% of Bhutanese are happy in this indicator means 39% fulfi
the conditions of both thresholds ; 1) sufficiency threshold of
value indicator and 2) the overall happiness threshold of 6 of
the 9 domains
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
.
A person is ‘happy’ if he/she achieves
sufficiency in 6 or more of the 9 domains
Dorji
Sufficiency in 7 domains,
so he is considered happy
Tashi
Sufficiency in 4 domains so
she is considered unhappy
.
A person is ‘happy’ if he/she achieves
sufficiency in 6 or more of the 9 domains
How many hit the target?
.
How can another know?
Happiness is deeply personal.
Any measure is imperfect.
It can only suggest.
Yet…
.
40.8% of Bhutanese
enjoy sufficiency in
six or more domains
at the same time.
According to the GNH Index,
they are ‘happy’.
.
Part I:
1. GNH concept
2. GNH domains
3. GNH survey
4. 33 indicators
5. GNH thresholds-sufficiency &
happiness
6. Weighting
7. GNH Index methodology
.
GNH Index Methodology
The GNH Index is related to:
1. Headcount ratio:
Percent of people who are happy
2. Breadth:
The percentage of domains in which
people who are not-yet-happy enjoy
sufficiency
.
The 2010 GNH Index, like the 2008 Index, is
based on the Alkire & Foster (2007, 2011)
methodology. In this methodology we:
1. Choose indicators
2. Apply sufficiency thresholds (who has enough)?
3. Apply weights for each indicator
4. Apply the happiness threshold
5. Identify two groups:
1. Happy people
2. Not-yet happy people (policy priority)
.
• The first thing we do is apply sufficiency thresholds to each
of the 33 indicators.
• For simplicity, here we present as if we had nine indicators,
one per domain, equally weighted.
• We start with each person, one by one, and create their
GNH profile.
• The tall coloured bar indicates that a person has achieved
sufficiency in that domain
• The flat dark bar means that they lack sufficiency.
.
• The first thing we do is apply sufficiency thresholds to each
of the 33 indicators.
• For simplicity, here we present as if we had nine indicators,
one per domain, equally weighted.
• We start with each person, one by one, and create their
GNH profile.
• The tall coloured bar indicates that a person has achieved
sufficiency in that domain
• The flat dark bar means that they lack sufficiency.
.
• The first thing we do is apply sufficiency thresholds to each
of the 33 indicators.
• For simplicity, here we present as if we had nine indicators,
one per domain, equally weighted.
• We start with each person, one by one, and create their
GNH profile.
• The tall coloured bar indicates that a person has achieved
sufficiency in that domain
• The flat dark bar means that they lack sufficiency.
.
Sample GNH profiles
.
Sample GNH profiles
.
Next: Count domains (%)
Jampel has
sufficiency in 3 of 9
domains (orange).
That is, 33%.
.
Next: who is happy?
A person
who has 6 or
more
domains is
happy
.
What % of people are happy
And what % are not-yet-happy?
Here 5 out
of 7 people
are not yet
happy –
5/7 = 71%.
Happy people
2 out of 7
people are
happy –
2/7 = 29%
.
GNH Index Methodology
Almost there.
Now, to compute the GNH Index, we only need
to know one more thing:
6. Among the Not-yet-Happy people, what
percentage of domains do they lack sufficiency?
.
Last step: among
the not yet
happy…
In what percent
of dimensions do
they lack
sufficiency?
.
Last step: among
the not yet
happy…
In what percent
of dimensions do
they lack
sufficiency?
Have sufficiency in 46%
Lack sufficiency in 54%
.
The percentage of Happy people we call Hh
This is 29% in the example
The percentage of not-yet-happy people Hn
This is 71% in the example
The percentage of domains in which not-yethappy people lack sufficiency we call An
This is 54% in the example
.
Why does the GNH Index use
shortfalls?
So the GNH Index changes when the
percent of happy people increases
or when not-yet-happy people have
sufficiency in more domains.
(This makes it useful for policy)
.
GNH Index: Formulae
The GNH Index Formulae is:
 =  −  × 
Where
 = percent of not-yet-happypeople
= 1- or (100% - % happy people)
 = percentage of domains in which
not-yet-happy people lack sufficiency
.
Now that we’ve computed it, the GNH can be unpacked in
different ways, to tell different stories.
The GNH Index can be decomposed by subgroups like
Dzonkhags, age groups, gender, or some occupations.
It can also be analysed by each dimension & indicator.
.
GNH Index: Formulae
The GNH Index Formulae is:
 =  −  × 
So in Bhutan 2010, the
Real GNH Index is
GNH = 1-(.591 x .434)
= 0.743
.
Hence, GNH Index is used:
To Understand Happiness:
How many people are happy?
How are they happy?
To Increase Happiness
Who is not yet happy?
What do they lack?
.
How do we increase GNH?
1) Increase the % of happy people
(Reduce the % of unhappy)
OR
2) Increase the % of domains in
which not-yet-happy people enjoy
sufficiency. (Reduce the
insufficiencies of the unhappy).
.
GNH Index: Incentives
The 2010 GNH Index, like the 2008 Index, is
based on the Alkire & Foster methodology.
It provides an incentive
~to sustain GNH among the happy and
~to care for those who are not-yet-happy
… so they enjoy sufficiency in more
domains
… and so they become happy.
.
The 2010 Gross National
Happiness Index : Part I
The Centre for Bhutan Studies
2011
.
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