Human Rights-Based
Approach to Programming
- UNFPA SESSION 3:
Applying a HRBA to Monitoring and
Evaluation
Session Overview
• Discussion of process and outputs (results)
• Addressing participation, non-discrimination and
accountability
• Discussion of how to measure a HRBA
• Working with mini-indicators
Monitoring and Evaluation
• A comprehensive M&E plan sensitive to human rights
concerns addresses:
– process
– outputs (results)
• Why?
– monitoring process helps ensure the most marginalized groups
get involved and contribute to programme
– final outcomes and impacts of programme as it relates to
realization of human rights may only be visible in the long term,
therefore ‘checking’ short-term effectiveness of the programme
depends on evaluating process and ensuring that it is human
rights-friendly
Some Fundamental
Questions…
• What to measure?
• Who to involve?
• How to measure?
AND
• How is M&E process ensuring attention to
participation, non-discrimination and
accountability? (See checklist of questions)
What to Measure?
•
Ideally:
– Programme process
– Outputs
– Outcomes and impacts (where
feasible/possible, although these are
harder to measure)
Who to Involve?
• Another way of thinking about how to apply
principles of ‘participation and inclusion’ to M&E
process
• A HRBA calls for ensuring that both rightsholders and duty-bearers are involved in M&E,
as well as individuals or groups, such as NGOs,
who are external to the project and can give an
objective perspective
Example of Participation
• Gender case study: ‘Jalampore Gender
Programme’
• To incorporate the principle of participation into
its M&E activities
– diverse group of stakeholders met every six months
to review M&E findings
– group included relevant ministers, the UN gender
thematic group, members of parliament, local
government officials, representatives of local
women’s NGOs, gender experts, etc.
How to Measure?
• Use human rights principles and standards to
guide the selection of indicators (this means
ensure participation, non-discrimination and
accountability)
• Indicators should be chosen that:
– capture the extent to which human rights principles
have been incorporated into all stages of the
programme
– demonstrate how incorporating rights has
contributed to overall programme effectiveness
• Also, make sure your process is nondiscriminatory, participatory and accountable
Example of Non-discrimination
• SRH programme in Country X agreed that one way to
ensure non-discriminatory programming process would
be to keep track of all rights-holders and duty-bearers
who attended programme meetings.
• M&E revealed that one group of rights-holders
(adolescents living in poverty) stopped attending
programme meetings early on.
• Further qualitative surveys of this group were carried out,
and it was discovered that programme meetings were
ending late in the evening, and the adolescents had to
travel too far to get back to their villages at night.
Example of Accountability
• SRH programme in Country Y wishes to ensure
that M&E activities are carried out in a manner
that fulfils the principle of accountability.
• As a result, all decisions made around M&E
process, including decisions regarding which
indicators to use, are carefully documented and
then shared with all stakeholders, as well as with
the local community.
Indicators (1)
• Use indicators that will provide:
– evidence of involving marginalized groups at all
stages of your programme
– evidence of fair and equal representation of rightsholders and duty-bearers
– evidence that technical support has been provided to
excluded or margianlized groups in building their
capacity to participate in decision-making
– percentage of resources spent on making information
accessible to excluded groups, e.g. money spent on
translation
Indicators (2)
• In order to demonstrate how incorporating
rights has contributed to overall
programme effectiveness, use indicators
that will capture:
– evidence of strengthened capacities of rightsholders to claim their rights, and evidence of
them actually claiming their rights
– evidence of strengthened capacities of dutybearers to fulfil their duties, as well as
evidence of them actually fulfilling their duties
Example (1)
• UNFPA is supporting a programme in
Country A that aims to combat violence
against women
• One indicator used for M&E purposes is
the number of gender-sensitive training
programmes that have been carried out for
police officers
Example (2)
• One way to capture more human rights elements
is to ‘disaggregate’ the indicator and include
information, such as:
– percentage of gender-sensitive training programmes
that were carried out in poor, rural police stations
– percentage that were carried out in minority
languages
– qualitative feedback from police officers as to the
quality of these training programmes
Example (3)
• Instead of counting how many police units
introduced new ‘gender-sensitive protocols’ to
respond to violence against women, gather
evidence that shows duty-bearers can continue
to provide gender-responsive services to
women.
– How many police units implemented action plan to
continuously train new recruits in gender-sensitive
protocols?
– What action plan does government have to prove it
will continue making resources available to police
units for purpose of promoting gender sensitivity?
Example (4)
• Indicator: Total change in the number of survivors
of violence receiving gender-sensitive support
services
– Disaggregate data!
– Examine proportion of women who access the police
and receive gender-sensitive services and are:
 living in poverty?
 migrants?
 minorities?
– What is the quality of the gender-sensitive support
being provided? Is it acceptable to women?
Mini-Indicators Exercise
• Consider the following indicators for a UNFPA
maternal mortality intervention:
– contraceptive prevalence rate
– proportion of all births attended by skilled birth
attendants
– met need for emergency obstetric care
• Which human rights principles and standards
are reflected in these indicators (if any)?
• Which human rights principles and standards
should be reflected in these indicators, but are
not?
Mini-Indicators Exercise
• M&E results reveal that in Country X:
– contraceptive prevalence rate has increased
– proportion of all births attended by skilled birth
attendants has increased
– met need for emergency obstetric care has increased
• What additional indicators, focusing on process,
might be relevant to understanding these
outcomes?
• What human rights principles are relevant and
should be reflected in these process indicators?
Conclusion
• Use human rights principles and standards to
guide the selection of indicators (this means
ensure participation, non-discrimination and
accountability)
• Indicators should be chosen that:
– capture the extent to which human rights principles
have been incorporated into all stages of the
programme
– demonstrate how incorporating rights has contributed
to overall programme effectiveness
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Health and human rights: Bridging theory and practice