Geography 202 section 502
• Course material is available on the web:
• If you have problems with that go to, to directory, to faculty, to Peter
J. Hugill, and to Geography 202
• For all course policies, dates etc. see course outline
(on the web)
• My office hours are TR 4-5 pm, Eller O&M 803C,
or by appt.
• Please e-mail me only if its urgent. If its not from a
Neo account I usually won’t read it!
1. Diversity amid Globalization
World Regions; Demographics;
Cultures; Geopolitics; Economies
Five Hegemonies in 500 years
(1) Portugal-mid 1500s
(2) Holland-mid1600s
(3) Britain I-mid 1700s (ended 1776)
(4) Britain II-mid 1800s (1815-83)
(5) USA-mid 1900s (1945-73)
(6) USA II???
Two Types of Diversity
• Diversity over Space--what geographers call “areal
differentiation” or, why different world regions
differ (culture & history).
• Diversity over Time--or, the past is not a perfect
guide to the future (although we should not ignore
it!) Much of the success of leaders such as FDR &
Churchill came from knowing history--failure of
Hitler and Lenin for thinking they could reinvent it.
The Twelve World Regions
World Regions
• What defines a region?
• Part physical, part human geography
• Physical regions at this scale largely defined by
plate tectonics
• Some physical regions climatic, others based on
vegetation--at sub-tectonic level
• Part economic, part cultural geography
• Part legal, part illegal trade
• Part political (internal), part geopolitical (external)
World Trade Organization (1:10)
World Trade Organization
• WTO Single most powerful NGO
• Nation-States increasingly have ceded power to
supra-national political organizations (EU, NATO)
& NGOs
• NGOs date to “new nationalism” of late 1800s,
needed to manage resources across state boundaries
(time zones came first!)
• World increasingly a mosaic of NGOs
• Reflects legal component of world-economy
The Global Drug Trade (1:6)
Global Illicit Trade/Terrorism
• Reflects that component of world-economy operated
by non-state actors
• Slavery, prostitution, drugs, pornography were legal
in past. Middle class nation-states made them
increasingly illegal
• Terrorism is a response to the emergence of the
• Slavery, prostitution, drugs, pornography, &
terrorism are downsides of globalization (but getting
rid of globalization won’t make them go away since
there is demand/support for them!)
Defining the Region: the Metageography of World Regions
Physical Characteristics
Areally Compact
Common Geological History
Common Climate
Common Vegetation
Human Characteristics
Common History
Common Economic Activity
Common Language
Common Religion
Common Political System
Common Geopolitics
World Population (1:22)
World Population
• Two regions dominate world population
map: China & India
• Global population currently 6 billion and
rising fast
• Almost all rise is in less-developed world
• Traditional model of control through
economic development
Demographic Indicators (Table 1:1, 3rd edn.)
Demographic Indicators (Table 1:1, 4th edn.)
Demographic Indicators
• Main problem TFR (number of children per female)
• TFR controlled by # of fertile females & cultural
habits of reproduction--these last vary VERY widely
• West’s habits are delayed marriage, strong female
control over decision to reproduce
• TFR of 2 would maintain population as is in very
long term
Population Pyramids (1:25)
Population Pyramids
• Classic “pyramid” that of Nigeria. High
dependency ratio in 0-14 age categories, with high
infant mortality
• Slow or no growth “pyramids” have different
dependency ratio, 65 and up
• BUT, elderly provide indirect economic benefits
(caring for grandchildren, as volunteers etc.)
• In developed countries people 65 and up still
consume heavily, which drives economy, especially
medical services.
Demographic Transition (1:26)
Demographic Transition
• Main flaws are is that is modeled on western experience, assumes economic
• Overall, death rates fall first as various conditions improve. Birth rates fall later.
Population moves from one phase of stability to another, but numbers increase
greatly. Health care unimportant until Stage 4
• Stage 2 crudely depicted--really a two (or more) stage process
• 2 (A) reduction in deaths from better food supply, sometimes because of more
productive agriculture, but ALWAYS because of better transportation--most famines
highly localized crop failures
• 2 (B) reduction in deaths from better public health, in particular separating water
supplies from human waste, thus preventing such killers as cholera
• Stage 3 birth rate reduces mostly because of education of women
• Stage 4 main increase in life expectancy from improvements in health care. Birth
rate variations from war and social forces.
Growth of World Cities (1:29)
World Cities
• More than 50% world population now urban
• Historically cities only grew from rural-urban
migration (cities had high death rates)
• Largest cities growing fastest, most from continued
massive rural-urban migration, part from
• World’s fastest growing cities all in LDC’s
• Megalopolis (developed world) versus megacity
The Main Measures of Culture
• Huntington (The Clash of Civilizations)
suggests there are two main measures of culture
• Language
• Religion
• We can, of course, define others
World Languages
• Most major world regions unlike our own. North
America has only three “official” languages (one
very minor), US only one
• Most major world regions polyglot. Have multiple
“official” languages, spoken & written
• China relatively unusual in that, although polyglot,
has single “official” written language
World Religions (1:38)
World Religions
• World much more religiously homogenous than
• Four major religions dominate planet: Buddhism,
Christianity, Hinduism, Islam
• Of those only Christianity and Islam proselytize
heavily, have been see-sawing for world dominance
for past 600 years
• Currently Christianity ahead, growing most by
conversion, Islam by reproduction.
Nations without a State (1:42)
Rise of the Nation-State
• Main organizing principle of world politics is
territorially bounded nation-state (NS) (true NS
should be ethnically homogenous--almost never is)
• NS very recent idea: idea of “natural boundaries”
first propounded in French Revolution
• NS became powerful in late 1800s as old agrarian
societies collapsed. NS was buffer against
possessive individualism of laissez-faire capitalism
• Spread widely in “New Nationalism” of late 1800s
Nations without States
• Ideal of NS became globally dominant only after WWII, fall
of most of old global empires, and creation of UN
• Full dominance of NS came w/fall of last empire, the USSR
• World is mosaic of nations, few of which politically control
states (i.e. a coherent territory). Many are “non-state actors”
embedded (relatively) peacefully within nation-states. N.
American examples are PQ, Indian groups with tribal
territories, Mormons, Hispanics in US SW, Nation of Islam
• Some non-state actors turn to violence to achieve political
control of territory & establish a state (e.g. IRA, Chechens,
Kurds etc. etc.)
Reasons for War (casus belli)
Europe most war prone region of planet for last 2,000 years
Chinese “warring states” period ended 221 BC
Three reasons for war in Europe:
(1) To force one’s ideology on another (traditionally in Europe wars
of dynastic succession or religion)--Hundred Years War (1337-1453),
Eighty Years War (1568-1648), Thirty Years War (1618-1648).
(2) Possession of WMD (in current terms!)--Grotius’s doctrine of preemptive strike based on Drake’s Corunna Raid of 1587
(3) Violation of territorial integrity of nation-state--only casus belli
since 1648 because of immense destruction of civilian populations in
Thirty Years War--at least 30% of population of Germany killed.
From 1648 to c. 1916 western war was between professional armies
after c. 1916 war again on civilians in west (U-boats, air raids)
The Colonial World 1914 (1:44)
Colonial World
• Between 1800 & 1914 Europe, Russia, & US expanded
from controlling 35% of earth’s surface to 84%
• Less than 100 years ago, just before WWI, most of world
was a mosaic of nations embedded in 14 Empires, incl. that
of US. Almost no modern style nation-states existed
• “New Nationalism” of late 1800s had huge impact
• World of 1914 overthrown by two world wars and series of
revolutionary shifts (to communism in USSR, national
socialism in Germany & Japan, democracy in US, social
democracy in what has become EU)
Table 1.2: Development Indicators of
the Largest 10 Countries, 3rd edn.
Table 1.2: Development Indicators of
the Largest 10 Countries, 4th edn.
World GNI per capita (1:47)
GNI/PPP per capita
• Table 1:2 shows Gross National Income per capita
as well as Purchasing Power Parity (GNI adjusted
for what things cost in real terms)
• Omits EU, but EU only major world region close to
US (Eurostat does not aggregate across EU 25, but
EU overall has slightly larger share of world GNI
than US)
• Note that China is highly unlikely to pose serious
economic challenge to US for foreseeable future (30
years or so)
Social Indicators (Table 1:3--folded
into Table 1:2 in 4th edn.)
Social indicators
• Main shift in West in last 50 years has been marked
reduction in discrimination against females
• Female labor force participation should be high 40%
• Life expectancy for females should now exceed that
for men by several years--if not is strong evidence of
• Illiteracy rates should be roughly similar for males
and females

1. Diversity amid Globalization