Geography 202 section 502
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1. Diversity amid Globalization
World Regions; Demographics;
Cultures; Geopolitics; Economies
Five Hegemonies in 500 years
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(1) Portugal-mid 1500s
(2) Holland-mid1600s
(3) Britain I-mid 1700s (ended 1776)
(4) Britain II-mid 1800s (1815-83)
(5) USA-mid 1900s (1945-73)
(6) USA II???
Two Types of Diversity
• Diversity over Space--what geographers call “areal
differentiation” or, why different world regions
differ (culture & history).
• Diversity over Time--or, the past is not a perfect
guide to the future (although we should not ignore
it!) Much of the success of leaders such as FDR &
Churchill came from knowing history--failure of
Hitler and Lenin for thinking they could reinvent it.
The Twelve World Regions
(1:15)
World Regions
• What defines a region?
• Part physical, part human geography
• Physical regions at this scale largely defined by
plate tectonics
• Some physical regions climatic, others based on
vegetation--at sub-tectonic level
• Part economic, part cultural geography
• Part legal, part illegal trade
• Part political (internal), part geopolitical (external)
World Trade Organization (1:10)
World Trade Organization
• WTO Single most powerful NGO
• Nation-States increasingly have ceded power to
supra-national political organizations (EU, NATO)
& NGOs
• NGOs date to “new nationalism” of late 1800s,
needed to manage resources across state boundaries
(time zones came first!)
• World increasingly a mosaic of NGOs
• Reflects legal component of world-economy
The Global Drug Trade (1:6)
Global Illicit Trade/Terrorism
• Reflects that component of world-economy operated
by non-state actors
• Slavery, prostitution, drugs, pornography were legal
in past. Middle class nation-states made them
increasingly illegal
• Terrorism is a response to the emergence of the
nation-state
• Slavery, prostitution, drugs, pornography, &
terrorism are downsides of globalization (but getting
rid of globalization won’t make them go away since
there is demand/support for them!)
Defining the Region: the Metageography of World Regions
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Physical Characteristics
Areally Compact
Common Geological History
Common Climate
Common Vegetation
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Human Characteristics
Common History
Common Economic Activity
Common Language
Common Religion
Common Political System
Common Geopolitics
World Population (1:22)
World Population
• Two regions dominate world population
map: China & India
• Global population currently 6 billion and
rising fast
• Almost all rise is in less-developed world
• Traditional model of control through
economic development
Demographic Indicators (Table 1:1, 3rd edn.)
Demographic Indicators (Table 1:1, 4th edn.)
Demographic Indicators
• Main problem TFR (number of children per female)
• TFR controlled by # of fertile females & cultural
habits of reproduction--these last vary VERY widely
• West’s habits are delayed marriage, strong female
control over decision to reproduce
• TFR of 2 would maintain population as is in very
long term
Population Pyramids (1:25)
Population Pyramids
• Classic “pyramid” that of Nigeria. High
dependency ratio in 0-14 age categories, with high
infant mortality
• Slow or no growth “pyramids” have different
dependency ratio, 65 and up
• BUT, elderly provide indirect economic benefits
(caring for grandchildren, as volunteers etc.)
• In developed countries people 65 and up still
consume heavily, which drives economy, especially
medical services.
Demographic Transition (1:26)
Demographic Transition
• Main flaws are is that is modeled on western experience, assumes economic
development
• Overall, death rates fall first as various conditions improve. Birth rates fall later.
Population moves from one phase of stability to another, but numbers increase
greatly. Health care unimportant until Stage 4
• Stage 2 crudely depicted--really a two (or more) stage process
• 2 (A) reduction in deaths from better food supply, sometimes because of more
productive agriculture, but ALWAYS because of better transportation--most famines
highly localized crop failures
• 2 (B) reduction in deaths from better public health, in particular separating water
supplies from human waste, thus preventing such killers as cholera
• Stage 3 birth rate reduces mostly because of education of women
• Stage 4 main increase in life expectancy from improvements in health care. Birth
rate variations from war and social forces.
Growth of World Cities (1:29)
World Cities
• More than 50% world population now urban
• Historically cities only grew from rural-urban
migration (cities had high death rates)
• Largest cities growing fastest, most from continued
massive rural-urban migration, part from
reproduction
• World’s fastest growing cities all in LDC’s
• Megalopolis (developed world) versus megacity
(LDCs)
The Main Measures of Culture
• Huntington (The Clash of Civilizations)
suggests there are two main measures of culture
• Language
• Religion
• We can, of course, define others
World Languages
• Most major world regions unlike our own. North
America has only three “official” languages (one
very minor), US only one
• Most major world regions polyglot. Have multiple
“official” languages, spoken & written
• China relatively unusual in that, although polyglot,
has single “official” written language
World Religions (1:38)
World Religions
• World much more religiously homogenous than
linguistically
• Four major religions dominate planet: Buddhism,
Christianity, Hinduism, Islam
• Of those only Christianity and Islam proselytize
heavily, have been see-sawing for world dominance
for past 600 years
• Currently Christianity ahead, growing most by
conversion, Islam by reproduction.
Nations without a State (1:42)
Rise of the Nation-State
• Main organizing principle of world politics is
territorially bounded nation-state (NS) (true NS
should be ethnically homogenous--almost never is)
• NS very recent idea: idea of “natural boundaries”
first propounded in French Revolution
• NS became powerful in late 1800s as old agrarian
societies collapsed. NS was buffer against
possessive individualism of laissez-faire capitalism
• Spread widely in “New Nationalism” of late 1800s
Nations without States
• Ideal of NS became globally dominant only after WWII, fall
of most of old global empires, and creation of UN
• Full dominance of NS came w/fall of last empire, the USSR
• World is mosaic of nations, few of which politically control
states (i.e. a coherent territory). Many are “non-state actors”
embedded (relatively) peacefully within nation-states. N.
American examples are PQ, Indian groups with tribal
territories, Mormons, Hispanics in US SW, Nation of Islam
etc.
• Some non-state actors turn to violence to achieve political
control of territory & establish a state (e.g. IRA, Chechens,
Kurds etc. etc.)
Reasons for War (casus belli)
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Europe most war prone region of planet for last 2,000 years
Chinese “warring states” period ended 221 BC
Three reasons for war in Europe:
(1) To force one’s ideology on another (traditionally in Europe wars
of dynastic succession or religion)--Hundred Years War (1337-1453),
Eighty Years War (1568-1648), Thirty Years War (1618-1648).
(2) Possession of WMD (in current terms!)--Grotius’s doctrine of preemptive strike based on Drake’s Corunna Raid of 1587
(3) Violation of territorial integrity of nation-state--only casus belli
since 1648 because of immense destruction of civilian populations in
Thirty Years War--at least 30% of population of Germany killed.
From 1648 to c. 1916 western war was between professional armies
after c. 1916 war again on civilians in west (U-boats, air raids)
The Colonial World 1914 (1:44)
Colonial World
• Between 1800 & 1914 Europe, Russia, & US expanded
from controlling 35% of earth’s surface to 84%
• Less than 100 years ago, just before WWI, most of world
was a mosaic of nations embedded in 14 Empires, incl. that
of US. Almost no modern style nation-states existed
• “New Nationalism” of late 1800s had huge impact
• World of 1914 overthrown by two world wars and series of
revolutionary shifts (to communism in USSR, national
socialism in Germany & Japan, democracy in US, social
democracy in what has become EU)
Table 1.2: Development Indicators of
the Largest 10 Countries, 3rd edn.
Table 1.2: Development Indicators of
the Largest 10 Countries, 4th edn.
World GNI per capita (1:47)
GNI/PPP per capita
• Table 1:2 shows Gross National Income per capita
as well as Purchasing Power Parity (GNI adjusted
for what things cost in real terms)
• Omits EU, but EU only major world region close to
US (Eurostat does not aggregate across EU 25, but
EU overall has slightly larger share of world GNI
than US)
• Note that China is highly unlikely to pose serious
economic challenge to US for foreseeable future (30
years or so)
Social Indicators (Table 1:3--folded
into Table 1:2 in 4th edn.)
Social indicators
• Main shift in West in last 50 years has been marked
reduction in discrimination against females
• Female labor force participation should be high 40%
• Life expectancy for females should now exceed that
for men by several years--if not is strong evidence of
discrimination
• Illiteracy rates should be roughly similar for males
and females
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1. Diversity amid Globalization