Translation Principles
Teaching Plan
Teaching Contents:
► 1. The definition to the principle/criteria of translation
► 2. Some influential principles:
► Yan Fu’s Three-character Principle
► Fu Lei’s “Similarity in Spirit” (1957)
► Qian Zhongshu’s “Sublimation” (1963)
► Tytler’s Principles of Translation (18th century)
► Nida’s “Equivalent Effect” (Dynamic Equivalence) (1964)
► 3. Different views of translation
► 4. What are unqualified or unsatisfactory translation?
Teaching Plan
Teaching Aims:
► To make students aware of what translation principles are
and its developing history.
Teaching Focus:
► The content of different translation principles and what are
the principles we should follow in practicing
Teaching Methods:
► teacher-oriented lecturing
► Discussion (group work, then class work)
► Multi-media aided.
Teaching Procedures:
►
Teaching Plan
►
Teaching Contents:
► Principles
of translation
► Factors of translation
► Process of translation
Teaching Aims:
To teach students the theory of translation.
► Teaching Focus:
The principles of the translation
► Teaching Methods:
Discussion (group work, then class work).
► Teaching Approaches: Multi-media aided.
► Teaching Procedures:
►
Definition of Principle
► Principles
/ criteria refers to established
standards or principles on which an action
or judgment is based.
► the principle of translation:the one as a
goal set for translators to strive after the
criterion of translation:the one as a
standard / yardstick for measuring the
professional level of translation
I. Some influential principles
►
►
1. Yan Fu’s Three-character Principle (Requirement
/ Criteria) (1898):
The so-call principles and criteria of translation are
actually the two sides of the same thing. The former lays
emphasis on the translator, who should follow them while
translating; while the latter on the reader or critic, who
may use the criteria to evaluate translation works.
Whenever principles or criteria of translation are under
discussion in China, Yan Fu’s “three-character guide”, which
was first proposed in 1898, would evoke controversy,
namely the principle of “faithfulness, expressiveness and
elegance”.
I. Some influential principles
► 2.
Fu Lei’s “Similarity in Spirit” (1957)
& Qian Zhongshu’s “Sublimation”
(1963)
► As far as the effect is concerned, translation
should be like coping a painting. What is
desired is not being alike in appearance but
being alike in spirit. The transmigration of
souls, “Although the body changes, the soul
of gesture remains its old self.”
I. Some influential principles
► 3.
Tytler’s Principles of Translation (18th
century)
(1) A translation should give a complete transcript
of the ideas of the original work. (译文应完整地再
现原文地思想内容)
(2) The style and manner of writing should be of
the same character as that of theoriginal. (译文的
风格、笔调应与原文的性质相同)
(3) A translation should have all the ease of the
original composition. (译文应像原文一样流畅自然)
I. Some influential principles
► 4.
Nida’s “Equivalent Effect” (Dynamic
Equivalence) (1964)
► The relationship between receptor and
message should be substantially the same
as that which existed between the original
receptors and the message.
► The
teacher’s opinion:
► In my opinion, two criteria are very important: the
criterion of faithfulness/accuracy (忠实/准确) and
that of smoothness (流畅). By
faithfulness/accuracy, we mean to be faithful not
only to the original contents, to the original
meaning and views, but also to the original form
and style. By smoothness, we mean not only easy
and readable rendering, but also idiomatic
expression in the target language, free from stiff
formula and mechanical copying from dictionaries.
中国学者及翻译家的学说
严复的“信、达、雅”三字标准
► 鲁迅先生的“兼顾两面”论
► 钱钟书先生的“化境”说
► 矛盾先生的“忠实”、“通顺”准则
► 林语堂的“忠实标准、通顺标准、美好标
准”
► 刘重德先生的“信、达、切”三字标准
►
History of Argument
“案本---求真---神似---化境”
► 严复“信、达、雅”
► 林语堂“忠、顺、美”
► 梁实秋、赵景琛“宁错务顺”
► 鲁迅“宁信不顺”
► 瞿秋白“信顺统一”
► 傅雷“形似神似”
► 钱钟书“入化境界”
余光中“变通的艺术”
► “翻译如婚姻,是一种两相妥协的艺术。譬如
英文译成中文,既不能西风压倒东风,变成
洋腔洋调的中文,也不许东风压倒西风,变
成油腔滑调的中文,则东西之间势必相互妥
协,以求‘两全之计’。至于妥协到什么程
度,以及哪一方应该多让一步,神而明之,
变通之道,就要看每一位译者自己的修养
了。”
外国学者及翻译家的学说
► “等值论”:以前苏联的费道罗夫为代表的:
“等值翻译就是表达的原文思想内容完全准
确并在修辞上、作用上与原文完全一致。”
► “等效论”:奈达先生的“动态对
等”(dynamic equivalence) 及“功能对
等”(functional equivalence)学说,强调读者
反应,即译文读者对译文所产生的反应与原
文读者对原文所作出的反应基本一致。
英国历史学教授泰特勒(A. F. Tytler)
在18世纪提出的
翻译三原则:
► That
the translation should give a complete
transcript of the ideas of the original work.译文应
完整地再现原文地思想内容
► That the style and manner of writing should be of
the same character with that of the original. 译文
地风格、笔调应与原文的性质相同
► That the translation should have all the ease of
the original composition. 译文应像原文一样流畅自
然
II. Different views of translation
► 1.
以作者或读者两方中某一方为主要着眼点的原则
► 中国汉唐时期的“文”与“质”之争(实际
上是意译与直译之争)
主张“文”的翻译家强调翻译的修辞和通
顺强调译文的可读性(意译);主张“质”
的翻译家则强调翻译的不增不减,强调翻译
的忠实性(直译,甚至是硬译)。
两者都有片面性。
II. Different views of translation
2. 同时考虑作者和读者的翻译原则
► 玄奘的“既须求真,又须喻俗”
► 泰特勒翻译三原则
► 严复的译事三难“信达雅”
► 鲁迅的“凡是翻译,必须兼顾着两面,一当然力求
其易解,一则保存着原作的丰姿。”
► 符号学的翻译原则:“意义相符,功能相似”
(correspondence in meaning and similarity in
function)(意义的分类,文本功能的分类)
II. Different views of translation
3. 从美学角度提出的翻译原则
► 傅雷的“神似”(similarity in spirit) 说:《高老头
重译序》中提出来的:“以效果而论,翻译应当像
临画一样,所求的不再形似而在神似”。“神似”
即要传达原文的意蕴和韵味,“把原文的意义、神
韵把握住”。
► 钱钟书的“化境”(perfection; sublimation) 说:
《林纾的翻译》一文中提出。“把作品从一国文字
转变成另一国文字,既能不因语文习惯的差异而露
出生硬牵强的痕迹,又能完全保存原作的风味,那
就算得入乎‘化境’。” 译作被比作原作的“投胎
转世”(the transmigration of souls)
► 许渊冲的“三美说”:音美、形美、意美
III. The principles we should follow
►
►
►
►
1. Faithfulness & Smoothness
Faithfulness ---- ① faithful to the original; ② keeping the
style of the original
Smoothness ---- with standard language
2. Similarity in Function and Correspondence in
Meaning
A text is a semantic unit with meaning and function.
Meaning and function should be considered as essential for
translation criteria.
(1) Informative function: The core of it is external situation,
the facts of a topic, reality outside language, including
reported ideas or theories. e.g. He is my elder brother./ Look,
that is a newly-built residential area.
(2) Expressive function: The core of it is the mind of the
speaker, the writer, the originator of the utterance. He uses
the utterance to express his feelings irrespective of any
response, e.g. What a beautiful view!
(3) Vocative function: The core of it is the readership, the
addressee. The term is used in the sense of “calling upon”
the readership to act, think or feel, in fact to “react” in the
way intended by the text. e.g. Sit down, please! / Just do
it! (Nike)
► (4) Aesthetic function: This is the language designed to
please the sense, first through its actual or imagined
sound, and secondly through its metaphors, e.g.
► She sells sea-shells on the sea-shore. / Don’t trouble
troubles until trouble troubles you.
► (5) Phatic function: It is used for maintaining friendly
contact with the addressee rather than for imparting
foreign information, e.g. Hello!
► (6) Metalingual function: It indicates a language’s ability to
explain, name and criticize its own features. e.g. Language
is a unique system of signs.
►
IV. What are the highest and
lowest criteria for translation?
► The
highest standard: To make the readers of the
target language have the same feeling as those of
the original works. That is to say, to keep the
same meaning, style and the smoothness.
(最高标准: 达到基本相同的感受, 包括达意、传
神、入化, 即不仅保存原作的思想内容、风格神韵
而且自然流畅,读起来不象是译本)。
► The lowest standard: To keep the same meaning
and make the translated version smooth.
(最低标准:译文起码应该达到的标准。忠实原文,
表达通顺,达意。)
V. What are the reasons that the translation
can’t keep the same feeling as that of the
original material?
►
►
►
►
►
Because of many differences between the two languages
and the culture, etc., readers of the translated works can
not have the same feeling as those of the original ones.
These are reflected from many aspects, such as:
1) 两种语言表达方式不同
由于两中语言的表达方式不同如直译, 很难符合译语的习
惯,容易造成含混费解,或意思走样。在翻译时应与原文的
意思为依据,按译语的习惯重新表达,在用词、句法结构以
及比喻修辞等方面作相应的调整和改变。
2) 原作的对象与译作的对象不同。
作者写作时考虑的是原文的读者的实际情况,写作时着眼点
不同。翻译后是以译语的读者为对象。译语读者和原语读者
在社会背景、文化水平、知识领域以及国情等方面不同。因
此,即使翻译得十全十美, 译文读者对某些地方理解起来
也难免会遇到一些困难。有时要采取“译者注”的办法进行
补救。例如:
Records by Simaqian
► 离骚:Li Sao, a long poem of patriotism
► 水浒传:Heroes of the Marshes(沼泽地)/Water
Margin, a Chinese novel of the early Ming Dynasty
by Shi Nai’an
► 红楼梦:A Dream of the Red Chamber/ Red
Mansions/Shitouji/the Story of the Stone, novel
published in the early Qing Dynasty about 1790 by
Cao Xueqin
► She is as beautiful as Helen. :她是绝代佳人。
(Helen是古西腊女神, 是最美的人)
► 史记:Shiji/Historical
► 3)
原语作者与译语作者的理解和表达水平的
差异。
► 要达到使译文读者的感受与原文读者完全相
同,从理论上讲,应要求译者:一、对原文
的理解水平不低于原文读者的一般水平;
二、对译语的表达能力不低于原文作者的表
达能力。这一点是达不到的。因为译者对外
语(译语)的理解水平不可能等同与原语的
读者,他的表达能力也不可能等同与原语作
者的表达水平。
► 4)
礼俗文化的语境干涉
英、汉语有着各自不同的文化,在表达上各有不
同。如汉语中的自谦语、尊称语问候语、道歉语和
感谢语等体现了汉民族的谦虚仁让。然而, 在该文
化信息转换成目标语时, 信息编码存在很大阻力。
译者虽能译出所指, 却难保语体色彩和感情色彩,
“形似而神不似”, 语境得不到体现。因此给人
“有骨无肉”的遗憾,造成文化失真。 如下面的翻
译:
► a. 自谦语的翻译:
汉语:不才、小人、家兄、谨上、愚师等;
英语:均译为“I, me., mine, myself”。
► b. 尊称语:
汉语:尊姓、贵庚、玉体、令堂
英语:name; age; health, mother
► 5)
典籍文化的语境干涉
► 在各自的语言中都有一些典故,由于东、西放文化
的差异,这些典故如直译出来会造成译文读者的费
解或误解。 在这中情况下就要采取不同的方法,
如增词译法、加注译法或引伸译法以及与译语大致
接近的典故等译法进行翻译, 方可将原译比较贴切
地翻译出来。
► 如:
► 中山狼:the zhongshan wolf, a mountain wolf
attacked and wanted to eat the person who has
just saved him
VI. What are unqualified or
unsatisfactory translation?
Unqualified or unsatisfactory translation are as follows:
( Group work: discuss the following questions and then
ask the students to answer them in class.)
►
1) wrong translation: Read the examples on P41.
►
2)missing translation: Read the examples on P42.
►
3)careless translation: Ditto
►
4) wrong expressions: Ditto
►
5) wrong word collocation: Ditto
►
6) translation difficult to understand: Ditto
►
7) translation sounding like English or the
original language: Ditto
►
8) tasteless translation: Ditto
►
VII. What are the three characteristics
of the same feeling in translation?
► There
are the following characteristics:
► 1) 融为一体:感受强调的是翻译的效果,翻译标
准缺一不可。愿意有出入、译文不通顺、风格不一
致等,都无法达到大致相同的感受。
► 2) 重点突出:注意翻译的传意性和可接受性。任
何意思的歪曲和走样都会影响传意性。
如果是文学作品,除传意外,还要做到传神。形
式一致内容不一致、内容一致风格不一致, 或只传
意不传神, 都无法得到与原文读者大致相同的感
受。以读者对译文的感受为衡量翻译的尺度, 译者
在翻译时还必须考虑译文的可接受性。
VII. What are the three characteristics
of the same feeling in translation?
► 3)
提高翻译质量:
提高翻译质量有注意处理好信和达的关系。如果
偏重于信,往往只拘泥于形式,死抠原文,结果导
致译文洋化现象严重,表达不合乎译语习惯。译文
不自然、不流畅、生硬、费解甚至不知所云。这样
就导致了翻译症。如果偏重于达, 为了追求译文通
顺、流畅、文字优美, 常常置原文于不顾。从译语
中找一些常用习语去翻译原文中意思并不完全相同
的词语, 结果与原意出入较大,有时会导致错译、
漏译。这就是我们所说的马虎翻译。
汉译英特别强调“通顺”和“地
道”
► 对以汉语为母语者来说,要把英语这样一种
外国语写的“通顺”、“地道”显然很不容
易。(相对而言,写的“正确”,不大出错
还是不难做到的)
► 汉译英切忌拐弯抹角、华而不实、生硬难
懂;有一个“梳理”、“调整”甚至“消
肿”的过程。
基本标准:忠实而通顺
► 在翻译中,忠实与通顺是一个矛盾统一体的
两个方面。二者相辅相成,不可割裂。
► 忠实是翻译的首要问题,因而是矛盾的主要
方面,在翻译中要首先解决好。
► 通顺是矛盾的次要方面,是第二位的,但在
实践中决不可只顾忠实而忽视了通顺,二者
必须“统筹兼顾”。
英语专业八级考试汉译英评分等级表
等级
优秀
良好
中等
及格
(100~90) (89~80) (79~70) (69~60)
不及格
(<59)
项目
忠
实
原文的信息
全部转达,
语气和文体
风格与原文
相一致。
除个别次要
信息有疏漏
外,原文的
重要信息全
部转达,语
气和文体风
格与原文一
致。
有少量理解
错误或有个
别漏译,但
主要精神与
原文一致。
有个别重大
错误或遗漏。
部分信息含
混,但总体
上基本达意。
误译、漏译
较多,不能
转达原文主
要精神。
句式处理恰
当,选词妥
帖,英语比
较地道。
语言基本合
乎英语规范。
行文比较流
畅。
有个别句子
结构错误和
词不达意现
象。行文不
够流畅。
有逐字硬翻,
不符合英语
表达习惯的
现象。句子
不连贯,比
较费解。
有大量句法
与用词错误。
三分之一以
上的句子生
搬硬套、不
知所云。
(60%)
通
顺
(40%)
教学大纲和八级考试汉译英要求
► 能翻译相当于我国《人
民日报》等报刊上各种
文章
► 题材包括:
1)日常生活记叙
2)一般政治、经济、
文化方面的文章
3)文学作品
► 翻译速度为每小时
250~300汉字
► 能运用汉译英的理论和
技巧,翻译我国报刊杂
志上的论述文和国情介
绍,以及一般文学作品
的节录
► 翻译速度为每小时
250~300词
汉译英的出版标准
►
高层次的汉英出版物如上海古籍出版社
等
1. 明白:understandability
2. 通畅: readability
3. 简洁:succinctness
►
我国外文出版发行事业局制定的标准
1. 译文必须忠实于原文
2. 译文必须是流畅的外文
Exercises
►月光如流水一般,静静地泻在这
一片叶子和花上。薄薄的青雾浮
起在荷塘里。叶子和花仿佛在牛
乳中洗过一样;又象笼着轻纱的
梦。
(选自朱自清《荷塘月色》)
► Moonlight
was flowing quietly like a stream
down to the leaves and flowers. A light mist
over-spread the lotus pond. Leaf and flower,
seemed washed in milk.(见《英语世界》
1985年第5期)
► The moon sheds her liquid light silently over
the leaves and flowers, in the floating
transparency of a bluish haze from the pond,
look as if they had just been bathed in milk,
or like a dream wrapped in a gauzy hood.
(见《中国翻译》 1992年第2期)
1.爱就是只要别人幸福快乐,我们就幸福
快乐!
To love is to place our
happiness in the happiness of
another.
2.求婚时想入非非,结婚后如梦方醒。
They
dream
in
courtship, but in wedlock
wake.
3.为了被爱去爱是人类的天性,为了爱去
爱却是天使般的美德
To love for the sake of
being loved is human, but to
love for the sake of loving is
angelic.
4.幸福像一只蝴蝶,你去追逐它,总是捉不
到。当你安静地坐下来,它又会落到你身上。
Happiness is a butterfly,
which, when pursued, is always
just beyond your grasp, but
which, if you will sit down
quietly, may alight upon you.
5.幸福之路源于两个简单的道理:首先,找准你的兴趣和特长
所在;然后,全身心地投入到自己所感兴趣的事物中去,这里
“全身心”指的是:全部的精力、雄心和天赋。
The road to happiness lies in two
simple principles: find out what it is
that interests you and that you can do
well, and when you find it, put your
whole soul into it -- every bit of energy
and ambition and natural ability you
have.
修改下列误译的句子
1.中国人有在正月十五晚上吃元宵、赏
花灯的习俗。
Chinese have the custom that
they eat sweet dumplings made
of glutinous rice flour and
appreciate festive lanterns at
the night of January 15.
2.他的不合作态度使这个项目进展十分
缓慢。
The project makes
progress
because
of
incooperation.
less
his
3.你们谁想参加春游就在星期五之前报
名并交费。
You whoever wants to go
spring outing please sign up
your name and pay dues before
Friday.
4.我觉得这个店里的衣服即使打六折也
还是太贵
I think the clothes prices in
the shop were so expensive even
if they are made 60 percent
discount.
5.就目前情况看,工程造价将会超出预
算百分之三十
With respect to the current
situation, the cost of this
engineering will exceed 30
percent of the budget.
6.万一你想取消这次旅行,请至少提前
一个月书面通知我们
If you want to cancel this
travel, please tell us by writing
at least one month earlier.
7.想让他答应如此要求恐怕不大可能。
I’m afraid it is impossible for
him to agree such requirement.
8.在董事会年会上, 他请大家注意一个
被普遍忽视的问题。
On the annual board of
directors, he reminded everyone
to pay attention to a problem
which was ignored in common.
基尤植物园
►
伦敦有许多美丽的公园和花园, 但基尤植物园
景色最美。它每天都开放, 乘公共汽车从伦敦市中
心出发只需20分钟就可到达。一年四季都可以看到
各种各样的花,在这个植物园里十万种不同的植物
是从许多国家采集来的。喜爱温暖气候的植物生长
在玻璃房中, 我们把这些玻璃房称为温室, 最大
的是棕榈温室, 它有将近150年的历史。棕榈室的
构思很巧妙。大量的阳光能射进来照在植物上。在
温室内,你可以爬到20米高的阶梯顶端,从上往下
观看棕榈树、橘子树和香蕉树,其景色令人心旷神
怡。
Kew Gardens
►
London has many beautiful parks and
gardens but Kew Gardens is the most beautiful of
all. It’s only twenty minutes by bus from the
middle of London and it’s open every day. All
through the year you can see lots of flowers,
because Kew gets its plants --- 100,000 different
ones --- from many countries. The plants that like
hot weather live in glass houses which we call
greenhouses. The biggest is the Palm House. It’s
nearly 150 years old. The idea of the Palm House
is clever. A lot of light can get in to the plants.
Inside you can climb a stair twenty meters to the
top. It’s exciting to look down on palm trees,
oranges and bananas.
What is Translatability?
► 什么是可译性?
一种语言译成另一种语言时原文信息得
以传达的最大可能性
► 翻译的可能性,建立在文化的共性上。
Limits of Translatability
► 什么是可译性限度?
可译性的大小取决于客观因素对翻译过
程中意义转换的限度,即“可译性限度”
► 翻译的局限性,建立在文化的个性上
语言文字的限制
► 诗词的翻译
► 所有要求内容与形式相统一的翻译
1、汉语中的拆字:
弓长张 耳东陈 木子李
切瓜分片,横七刀,竖八刀,
冻雨洒窗,东两点,西三点。
信是人言,本是取信于人,因而必须言而有信。
烟乃火因,曾见抽烟起火,应该因此戒烟。
无田不富,有禾才稳。
人曾是僧,人弗可以成佛;
女卑是婢,女又何妨称奴。
2、象形:马走日,象走田
3、双关语:
东边日出西边雨,道是无晴却有晴
骑毛驴看唱本---走着瞧
外甥打灯笼 ---照旧(舅)
擀面杖吹火--- 一窍不通
孔夫子搬家--- 尽是输(书)
4、回文:
客上天然居,居然天上客
人过大佛寺,寺佛大过人
英语双关语
► ---What’s
the relationship between the doormat and the door?
--- A step father.
► ---“Call
me a taxi,” said the fat man.
--- “Okay,” said the doorman. “You’er a taxi,
but you look more like a truck to me.’
► ---Why
is a room full of married people very
empty?
---Because there isn’t a single person in it.
►---At
a wedding a man looses his
bachelor’s degree and a woman wins
her master’s.
►---
A teacher came to a prison to teach
the inmates English. He began his
lesson by saying “I suppose you all
know what a sentence is.”
►American
former president Ford once
said, “I’m a Ford, not a Lincoln.” ( “我是
福特,不是林肯。” “我是福特车而
不是林肯车。”)
文化因素的限制
► 文化空缺
(导致词汇空缺)
中国特有的事物(China English):
中医、中药、武术、菜谱、阴阳、称
谓语(“你好,表哥”怎么翻译?)等等
► 文化冲突 (导致词汇冲突)
动物:龙、狗、蝙蝠等
颜色词:红、绿、黄等
译者的任务
► 如何提高可译程度:对原语和译语在语言文
化方面的差异进行分析,尽力找出最大限度
地传达原语信息的方法。
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第二讲 翻译的标准 - 西北大学精品课程建设网