Why is English related
to other languages?
Language family- collection of languages related
through a common ancestor that existed long before
recorded history
Language branch- related through a
common ancestor several thousand years
ago
Language group- collection of languages within a
branch that share a common origin in the
relatively recent past and display relatively few
differences in grammar and vocab
Language
Example
Indo European
Family
Germanic
Branch
West Germanic
Group
English
Dialect
Regional variation
of a language
distinguished by
vocabulary, spelling
and pronunciation
What is an accent?
http://accent.gmu.e
du/browse_atlas.php
What about dialects?
 Ever been to Boston?
 Cah: example: "Take the next
cah to Nawth Station; get off at
Haymahket.“
 Wicked A general intensifier:
"He's wicked nuts!"
 Grinda A sub or spuckie.
 How about Texas?
 The engine's runnin' but
ain't nobody driving
Translation: Not overlyintelligent
 Big hat, no cattle
Translation: All talk and no
action
 Don't call him a cowboy, till
you've seen him ride
Translation: Don't judge a book
by its cover
What is
an
isogloss?
Germanic Branch
(predominate in Northern
and Western Europe)
Indo Iranian Branch (this
branch has the most
speakers with 1 billion
people)
Major IndoEuropean
Branches
Balto-Slavic Branch (wide
range of languages and
land area because of groups
separating and living in
isolation for several years)
Romance Branch (Evolved
from Latin)
What languages
does this include?
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Why is English related to other languages?