Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottomans, the Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China Civilizations in Crisis • The once wealthy and great Ottoman Empire was rocked in 1798 by Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt. • Napoleon chose to fight the British in Egypt in order to cut British ties to the Middle East, its colony in India, and to damage British trade. Civilizations in Crisis • The French were met by tens of thousands of cavalry bent on defending the Mamluk regime under their leader Murad. Civilizations in Crisis • Murad, when told of Napoleon’s invasion, dismissed the invader as a “donkey boy” whom he would soon drive from his lands. Civilizations in Crisis • Murad’s contempt for Napoleon and the French was symptomatic of the profound ignorance of events in Europe that was typical of the Islamic world at the time. • This ignorance led to a series of crushing defeats to the French, the most famous was fought in the shadows of the great pyramids. Civilizations in Crisis • Napoleon’s victory at the Battle of the Pyramids, July 1798. Civilizations in Crisis • The Mamluks were clad in medieval armor and used spears against French artillery, rifles, and disciplined French legions. • The defeat of the Mamluks was traumatic for the Ottoman world because they were considered fighters of great prowess. Civilizations in Crisis • This also showed how vulnerable the Muslim world was to European aggression, and how far they had fallen behind Europe in their capacity to wage war. Civilizations in Crisis • When the French were forced out by the British in 1799, an Ottoman military officer (of Albanian origin) named Muhammad Ali seized control as an independent ruler. • The Ottoman Empire never did regain control of Egypt. Civilizations in Crisis • Ali, known as the “father of modern Egypt,” was the first non-Western leader in the Middle East to try to modernize his society in Western terms. Civilizations in Crisis • Ali never visited the West (like Peter the Great) but he admired Western achievements and realized he must modernize in order to stay independent of Europe. Civilizations in Crisis • Impressed by the discipline and weapons of the French army, Ali began building an up-to-date European style military force. • He introduced Western-style conscription among the Egyptian peasants, hired French officers to train his troops, and imported Western armaments. Civilizations in Crisis • Ali does what every other country does as it modernizes— it first focuses on the military. • But Ali was unable to create industrialization (like in Western Europe). Civilizations in Crisis • Ali concentrated on developing an export market for Egyptian cotton (considered by many to be the world’s finest), hemp, and indigo. Civilizations in Crisis • Ali had many Western science and technology books translated into Arabic, he hired Western teachers, and he sent Egyptian students to study abroad. • French became an unofficial second language next to Arabic. Civilizations in Crisis • Unfortunately, few in Egypt were actually educated beyond the children of the most powerful families. • Egyptian society, for the most part, wasn’t transformed. Civilizations in Crisis • Ali died in 1848, never able to realize his dream of Egyptian expansion. • His successors, known as the khedives, tended to be weak men content with maintaining the status quo. • The khedives would formally rule Egypt until they were overthrown in 1952. Civilizations in Crisis • Ali was unable to break the limitations imposed by Western dominance of the world economy. • Egypt became increasingly dependent on the Western market for cotton (meaning it had to compete on the world market with India and the southern United States). Civilizations in Crisis • Export earnings were most often insufficient to pay for machines or military equipment so Egypt often went into debt to Western banks. • Egyptians paid a whopping 12% interest on loans for improvements while Europeans paid less than 5%. Civilizations in Crisis • Here was the tragic irony that happened in Egypt, the Middle East, and many other places in the 19th and 20th centuries: • Governments want to modernize their countries, they want to buy new armaments and modernize their militaries, they want industrial machinery, to build public buildings, roads, etc. but these cost a lot of money at a time when their economies were often sluggish. Civilizations in Crisis • Oftentimes, in situations like this, nations are tempted to borrow money from foreign banks. • This gives the foreigners an interest in protecting their loans. If a borrower defaulted on the loan, the Western bank would usually ask for military assistance. • Egypt was being crushed by debt. Civilizations in Crisis • The Crimean War had shown the major powers that the eastern Mediterranean was of pivotal/strategic importance to the Eurocentric system. • So the Europeans invested in building railroads throughout Egypt. Civilizations in Crisis • Napoleon III (nephew of the Napoleon) took a major interest in building the Suez Canal, which would connect the Mediterranean with the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, dramatically shortening the travel time between Europe, Eastern Africa, and Asia. Civilizations in Crisis • Egypt was now one of the most strategic places on earth. • When the French completed the Canal in 1869, Europeans developed a craze for anything Egyptian…architecture, furniture, textiles, art. Civilizations in Crisis • Controlling the Canal became a key objective of the imperial powers. • It was Egypt’s heavy indebtedness to British banks that enabled Britain to gain control of the Suez Canal and then in the 1882, established a protectorate over the Egyptian government. • The British said they were merely protecting their investment. Civilizations in Crisis • Before steamships, it could take 2 years to get a message to/from Britain/India. • Steamships cut that to 4 months (1850’s). • The Suez Canal cut that time to 2 weeks (1870’s). Civilizations in Crisis • Even though Egypt was not formally colonized, the British controlled Egyptian finances and foreign affairs, and British troops ensured British directives were followed. Civilizations in Crisis • The British forced the reshaping of the Egyptian economy from the production of several crops (which maintained selfsufficiency) to the production of only a few crops that were useful to European manufacturing (cotton, tobacco, silk, wheat, rice). Civilizations in Crisis • This made the British a lot of money but the population of Egypt barely eked out an existence. • Britain, France and Germany flooded Egypt and Middle East with cheap manufactured goods, driving artisans from their trades and into low paying work (building railroads or processing tobacco/cotton, etc). Civilizations in Crisis • Instead of basing wages on gender (like in Europe), the Europeans used ethnicity and religion…Muslims were paid less than Christians, and Arabs less than other ethnic groups. • This, a hatred for the occupiers, plus a growing sense of nationalism created the seeds for anti-colonial movements. Civilizations in Crisis • The French asserted control first in Africa by invading Algeria in 1830 to suppress piracy and to collect debts owed them by the Algerian government. Civilizations in Crisis • The French occupied Algiers and two other ports, and when they showed no signs of leaving, resistance to them began. • An Algerian army was raised to defend the Algerian government. Civilizations in Crisis • War broke out, and even though the French won, hostility towards their occupation continued to fester, and new revolts broke out. • By the 1870s the French even occupied rural Algeria and they opened it to French settlers. Civilizations in Crisis • As Egypt fell under British control, they (the British) were drawn into conflicts with Egypt’s southern neighbor, Sudan. • Egypt had tried to control Sudan since the 1820’s, and the Sudanese resisted fiercely. Civilizations in Crisis • By the late 1870’s, Egyptian oppression and British intervention had aroused deep resentment and hostility in Sudan. Civilizations in Crisis • A Sudanese leader arose, known as the Mahdi, who claimed to be a descendant of the Muhammad (he even had a mole on his right cheek and a cleft between his teeth). Civilizations in Crisis • The Mahdi called for jihad as he promised to rid the land of the Egyptian heretics and the British infidels. • He led his followers on violent assaults (usually using guerrilla tactics) on the Egyptians and British. • Within a few years, his forces controlled most of Sudan. • But at the peak of his power, he caught typhus and died (1885). Civilizations in Crisis • But rather than collapse after his death, his followers continued to build a strong Islamic state. • They outlawed smoking, alcoholic drink, dancing, prostitution, theft and adultery. • Islamic religious and ritual practices were strictly enforced. Civilizations in Crisis • In late 1896, the British, tired of this activity (a British general had been killed in 1895), sent an expeditionary force into Sudan to do battle with the Mahdis and end the most serious threat to European domination of Africa. Civilizations in Crisis • At the Battle of Omdurman (September 1898), the spears and magic garments of the Mahdis (who were known as the Sudanese Dervishes) were no match for the artillery and Maxim guns of the British. Civilizations in Crisis • More than 11,000 Sudanese Mahdis were killed and 16,000 wounded compared to less than 40 British soldiers. Civilizations in Crisis • The English left the wounded enemy to die on the plain and later, after triumphantly entering Khartoum, they looted the city and murdered many of the Khalifa’s leading followers. • They also had the Mahdi’s bones exhumed and thrown into the Nile (rumour has it that the commanding general had the Mahdi’s skull made into a drinking cup). Civilizations in Crisis • Within a year, the Mahdist state collapsed, and British power advanced into the interior of Africa while they secured their control of the Nile. Civilizations in Crisis • The Ottoman Empire in the 18th century: Civilizations in Crisis • After Suleyman died in the late 16th century, the Ottoman Empire began a slow and prolonged death rattle. • A long succession of weak or inept sultans caused destructive power struggles within various factions, all vying for power. Civilizations in Crisis • No longer able to afford the enormous expense of maintaining a far-flung empire, and consistent losers in battle, several surrounding states began chipping away at the edges of territory controlled by the Ottomans. Civilizations in Crisis • By the early 18th century, the Austrians and the Russians had removed the Ottomans from control of the northern Black Sea region, from Hungary, and from the northern Balkans. • By the early 19th century, revolts in Serbia (eventually put down) and Greece (gained independence 1830) showed an empire in collapse. Civilizations in Crisis • For the empire to survive, reform initiatives had to be performed from within the government. • Unfortunately, many initiatives were met with resistance from those factions that stood to lose power or prestige from their implementation. Civilizations in Crisis • For example, Sultan Selim III (r. 1789-1807) understood the need to make his government more efficient and to build a new army and navy. Civilizations in Crisis • The powerful Janissary corps felt threatened by this and staged a revolt, killing the sultan and ending his modest reforms. Civilizations in Crisis • Twenty years later, Sultan Mahmud II (r. 1808- 1839) secretly built a small, elite, private army with European help. • In 1826, he incited the Janissaries to mutiny, then had them slaughtered by his private army. • Mahmud II now felt able to enact reforms. Civilizations in Crisis • While religious leaders and traditionalists wanted a return to past models, Mahmud II pushed for Western styled reforms. • European military advisors were hired to modernize and Westernize the army and navy (armaments and training). Civilizations in Crisis • Mahmud II also established a Western styled diplomatic corps and exchanged ambassadors with the European powers. • But Mahmud’s modest reforms were not enough to strengthen the Ottoman military to the point where it could repel the European powers. Civilizations in Crisis • Britain, France, Germany, and Italy snatched Northern Africa from the Ottomans who were so weak by the middle of the 19th century, the once great empire was known as the “sick man of Europe.” Civilizations in Crisis • The European powers could have taken whatever they wanted from the Ottomans but those powers could not decide who got what, so they left the center of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey-Asia Minor) intact. Civilizations in Crisis • The Crimean War (1853-56) was an example of Ottoman weakness. • The Russians pressed against Ottoman territory and had it not been for the aid of the British and French, the Russians might have been successful in dismembering the empire. • The British didn’t want the Russians controlling the eastern Mediterranean. Civilizations in Crisis • Starting after the reign of Mahmud II, Western influence became even more pronounced in what became known as the Tanzimat reforms (1839-1876). • Tanzimat means reorganization or reform in Turkish. Civilizations in Crisis • Reforms tried to encourage Ottomanism among the many ethnic groups that lived in the Ottoman Empire and to prevent the slow decline of the empire. • The reforms attempted, but failed, to integrate non-Muslims and nonTurks more thoroughly into the Ottoman society through civil liberties and regulations. Civilizations in Crisis • The initial Tanzimat reforms included: • Western styled university educations; • Training in European sciences and mathematics; • Establishing a state-run postal service and telegraph service; • Railroad construction (1860s); • Establishing newspapers in major cities and extensive legal reforms. Civilizations in Crisis • In 1856, the Ottoman government under sultan Abdul Mecid I (r. 1849-1861), issued the Hatt-i Humayun, the most far-reaching reform of the century. Civilizations in Crisis • It abolished the civil authority of religious leaders. • Equality before the law was guaranteed. • Open eligibility for public office without regard of one’s religion. • The army was opened to Muslims and Christians. • The political ideas of Montesquieu and Rousseau were translated. Civilizations in Crisis • Sultan Abdul Mecid I sent 52 volumes of Ottoman literature, mathematics, poetry, history, and logic to the new School of Oriental Languages at Harvard. Civilizations in Crisis • But the reforms also lifted trade barriers which hurt the artisans, whose position was weakened now that they were unprotected against the competition of the West. Women gained very little from the reforms because even though women’s education was discussed, not much was accomplished. Civilizations in Crisis • In 1876 the sultan Abdul Hamid II (r.1876-1909) promoted a constitution which declared the Empire would promote personal liberty, freedom of education, freedom of the press, and a parliamentary government. Civilizations in Crisis • But within two years, he threw out the constitution and dissolved the parliament because he believed his power was being threatened. • Reforms concerning women (education, ending seclusion and the veil, and polygamy) were debated, but few, if any, were actually enacted. Civilizations in Crisis • Abdul Hamid II became increasingly fearful of anything Western. • For example, new chemistry books for the university were considered seditious because he thought their chemical symbols were secret codes. Civilizations in Crisis • However, Abdul Hamid continued to push for westernizing his military (he hired German military advisors). • He also extended telegraph/communication lines between cities and railway lines (including the Orient Express and the Berlin to Baghdad line). Civilizations in Crisis • But financial mismanagement and incompetence, along with national revolts in the Balkans and eastern Anatolia, the French occupation of Algeria and Tunisia, the takeover by the British in Egypt and the Italians in Libya, threatened to end the very existence of the Empire, let alone its reforms. The Young Turks • Abdul Hamid’s despotism caused several intellectuals and political opponents to move to Paris. • There, they formed the Ottoman Society for Union and Progress (1889), more commonly known as the Young Turks. • The Young Turks wanted to restore the 1876 constitution and continue the reforms they felt necessary for the empire to survive. The Young Turks • In 1908, the Young Turks staged a coup that put military officers in charge of the government. The Young Turks • They restored the constitution and freedoms of the press. • Educational reforms and reforms for women were promised. • The sultan was not killed, but he was reduced to merely being a political figurehead and the religious leader of Islam. The Young Turks • But the Young Turks didn’t fare much better, as they lost wars in the Balkans (1912) and they lost Libya (their last possession in North Africa) to Italy. • Only by playing the European powers against each other did the Ottoman Empire survive (but barely). The Armenian Genocide • In the three decades before the creation of modern Turkey (1890’s1918), Turkish nationalism took an ugly course. • Traditionally, the Ottomans had let minorities live in their own communities and practice their own religions. From the 1890’s until WWI, Turkish nationalism clashed with minority peoples who wanted their own states. The Armenian Genocide The Armenian Genocide • One such group were the Christian Armenians, who were concentrated in the mountainous eastern region of the empire. The Armenian Genocide • After joining the Central Powers, the Ottomans looked for a way to “solve” their “Armenian question.” • They forced the Armenians to turn over every pistol or rifle they owned. • Armenians in the Turkish military (about 40,000 men) were forced to turn over their weapons then sent to slave labor camps. The Armenian Genocide • When Armenians protested against Ottoman repression, the sultan had tens of thousands arrested and murdered. • The genocide began in April 1915 as 300 Armenian religious, cultural, and political leaders were taken from their homes, tortured, then hung or shot. The Armenian Genocide • The Muslim Turks distrusted the Christian Armenians and accused them of siding (and fighting) with Russia against the Ottomans. • Mass arrests of thousands of men ended in their murders, usually on the outskirts of their villages. The Armenian Genocide • Women, children, and the elderly were next as they were told to leave all possessions behind (they were told they were quickly being re-located to a non-military zone— for their own safety). • They were actually being sent on death marches southward towards the Syrian desert. The Armenian Genocide • They were sent without food and water and were escorted by Turkish horsemen. • Many were forced to march in the desert sun completely nude, where they died of dehydration or exhaustion. The Armenian Genocide • Some were killed by being thrown off cliffs, burned alive, or drowned in rivers. • An estimated 75% of the Armenians on these death marches died. • The Turkish countryside became littered with corpses. The Armenian Genocide • Between April 1915January 1919, the New York Times ran 190 articles related to the genocide. America raised money but did little else. • Even the Pope asked Kaiser Wilhelm to intervene. The Armenian Genocide • By the end of WWI, over 1 million Armenians had been killed, victims of ethnic cleansing and the 20th century’s first genocide. The Armenian Genocide • After the war, the Allies asked the United States to be the guardian of the new Republic of Armenia. • President Wilson’s attempt to make Armenia an American protectorate failed in Congress in May 1920. • Armenia was eventually absorbed by Soviet Russia. The Armenian Genocide • An unfortunate lesson of history: When Hitler decided to conquer Poland in 1939 he told his generals: "Thus for the time being I have sent to the East only my 'Death's Head Units' with the orders to kill without pity or mercy all men, women, and children of Polish race or language. Only in such a way will we win the vital space that we need. Who still talks nowadays about the Armenians?" Civilizations in Crisis • After the Ottomans sided with the Central Powers in WWI (and lost), the Allies agreed to partition the Ottoman Empire (particularly Turkey) in favor of a ‘greater’ Greece. • After the war, Greek, Italian, and French forces invaded Turkey while Italian, French, and British forces tried to capture Istanbul and take it away from the Turks. The Birth of Modern Turkey • When the Ottoman sultan agreed to peace terms with the Allies, he didn’t know the Allies wanted to divide up much of Turkey’s territories among themselves. • Upset by the sultan’s inability to defend Turkey, the army rallied behind a Turkish military hero, General Mustapha Kemal (18811938). The Birth of Modern Turkey • Kemal organized a Turkish national resistance movement that, with help from Soviet Russia, expelled the Greek and Western invasion forces. The Birth of Modern Turkey • Kemal’s success produced a 1923 treaty that created the Turkish Republic as a new, independent state. The Birth of Modern Turkey • Turkish independence guaranteed the nation’s strategic importance in European and Russian (and later American) affairs because of its important geographic location. The Birth of Modern Turkey • As Turkey’s first President, Kemal’s vision was to create a modernized Islamic state, able to stand up to Europe. The Birth of Modern Turkey • After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Turkey became the first secularized (meaning without religious influence) Middle Eastern attempt at statehood. • Like Muhammad Ali in Egypt a century before, Kemal fostered a new Turkish nationalism separate from religious faith. Turkey became the first Muslim country to separate the state and religion. The Birth of Modern Turkey • One of the first things to happen was to transport over 1.4 million Greeks from Turkey back to Greece. This large Greek minority had lived in Turkey since 1000 BCE. • At the same time, 400,000 Turks were removed from Greece and sent back to Turkey. The Birth of Modern Turkey • This exchange created a largely homogeneous Turkish population (except for a Kurdish minority in eastern Turkey). • Kemal moved the capital from Istanbul to Ankara, in the Turkish heartland. The Birth of Modern Turkey • Influenced by Western political ideas, Kemal introduced parliamentary institutions, universal male suffrage, and a modern voting system. • But his version of democracy was tightly controlled with a single party-(the People’s Party)preventing any legal opposition. The Birth of Modern Turkey • Like many before (and after) him, Kemal believed that authoritarianism was an essential precondition to change. • Kemal believed his people had to be forced to accept reforms. The Birth of Modern Turkey • He vigorously attacked the hold of Islam over the state; civil marriage was required, and a secular school system was created. • Many Muslim symbols and customs became outlawed, including polygamy and the wearing of veils. The Birth of Modern Turkey • Like Peter the Great (Russia) and the Meiji Emperor (Japan), Kemal’s government looked to the West. • Traditional clothing was frowned upon--Western dress and hair styles were expected and promoted. The Birth of Modern Turkey • In the case of Kemal, the largest attack came against the fez, the traditional cap of an upper-class Ottoman male. • Kemal saw the fez as backward and conservative. The Western style hat was the symbol of progress. The Birth of Modern Turkey • “It was necessary to abolish the fez, which sat on our heads as a sign of ignorance, of fanaticism, of hatred to progress and civilization, and to adopt in its place the hat, the customary head-dress of the whole civilized world, thus showing that no difference existed between the Turkish nation and the whole family of civilized mankind.” Kemal The Birth of Modern Turkey • Laws of the state (modeled after Swiss legal codes) overruled the Muslim laws of the Qur’an (Sharia). • Sunday, not Friday, became the day of rest. • Extending school age and building more schools reduced illiteracy from 85% in 1914 to 42% in 1932. Today Turkey has a literacy rate of 86%. The Birth of Modern Turkey • The Western calendar and metric system were adopted. • Family surnames, like those in the West, were used. Kemal himself was granted the surname Ataturk (Father of the Turks) by the Turkish parliament in 1934. • Against Islamic tradition, in 1934 Ataturk granted women the right to vote, hold public office, and to get an education. The Birth of Modern Turkey • Arabic script was replaced with the Latin alphabet for the Turkish language. • In this famous photo, Ataturk teaches Latin letters to school children. The Birth of Modern Turkey • Ataturk developed a five-year economic plan. The Turks were determined not to be dependent on Western capital. • Turkey trained engineers and technical experts so the country wouldn’t have to rely on foreigners. The Birth of Modern Turkey • Under Ataturk, industrialization increased, factories were established under state guidance, and cities grew. • Unions were forbidden to strike (so as not to impede economic growth). The Birth of Modern Turkey • But Ataturk’s goals were not entirely fulfilled. • The rural majority was not entirely supportive so many secular reforms did not overcome Muslim objections. • Economic growth was slow and poverty continued to be widespread. Civilizations in Crisis • Qing China: Qing China • In Qing (Manchu) China (16441912), technical, bureaucratic, and organizational innovation that had been among the hallmarks of Chinese society went into serious decline. • This will set the stage for both internal turmoil and external pressure. Qing China • American foodstuffs from the Columbian Exchange (corn, potatoes, sweet potatoes, peanuts, etc) helped China’s population explode during the Qing period. • More people in a stagnating empire is a recipe for disaster for the ruling elite. Qing China • The Qing also greatly underestimated the tenacity of the “barbarian” Europeans they were going to encounter. • Even though Britain (and Europe) had a fraction of China’s population, Europe had greatly advanced technologically and was by the late 18th century, China’s superior. Qing China • China remained politically and socially independent as it was not directly ruled by Europeans. • But China, like so many others, lost its economic independence as it was drawn into the European dominated world economy. Qing China • Further away and stronger than Africa or India, China was able to keep the West at bay until the late 1830’s. • But by the 1830’s, Europe’s desire to get into China was unstoppable… especially the British who were too strong to be kept out…they wanted new markets and more Chinese products. Qing China • The British wanted Chinese trade goods but there was little the Chinese wanted in return from Britain. • So a lot of British bullion (silver) flowed to China (making the British very unhappy). Qing China • The Qing (Ching) maintained the Ming policy of restricting foreign trade. • In 1793, the British sent a diplomatic delegation led by Lord Macartney to establish better trade relations with the Chinese. Qing China • Lord Macartney brought samples of British-made goods to show the advantages of trade with the West. • The Chinese thought these goods were crude products and merely gifts of tribute to the emperor. Qing China • Macartney insisted on an audience with the emperor and was told he would have to perform the traditional kowtow (touching his head to the ground to show respect for the emperor). Qing China • Macartney refused, and further insulted the Chinese by speaking of the “natural” superiority of the British. • The negotiations went nowhere and Lord Macartney returned to Britain without a deal. Qing China • Emperor Qianlong (r. 1736-1795) wrote a letter to King George III denying Britain’s request for more trading rights and permanent ambassadors. How does his language express his view that China is superior to Britain? Qing China • “As to what you have requested in your message, O King…this does not conform to the Celestial Empire’s ceremonial system, and definitely cannot be done…How can we go so far to change the regulations of the Celestial Empire…because of the request of one man—of you, O King? We have never valued clever articles, nor do we have the slightest need of your country’s manufactures…You, O King should simply act in conformity with our wishes by strengthening your loyalty and swearing perpetual obedience so as to ensure that your country may share the blessings of peace.” Qing China • For the 82 year old Chinese emperor, nearing the end of his long reign (59 years), the concept of permanent representation by a European power at the Chinese court was inconceivable. • His letter expressed the emperor’s continuing belief in China’s central position in the world, and his lack of understanding of the changes taking place in the West during the early industrial revolution. Qing China • By the early 1800’s, China faced several internal problems. A continuously rising population put pressure on resources and the government’s administrative capacity. • The 100 million people of 1650 tripled to 300 million in 1800 and reached 420 million by 1850. Qing China • More land was needed but the Manchus wouldn’t allow Chinese settlement in their homeland. • Nor did they increase the size of their bureaucracy to service the growing population…instead delegating responsibilities to inept/corrupt local authorities. Qing China • One strength of the Chinese economy was the sale of tea, silk, and porcelains to the West in exchange for silver and gold. • Through time, the British discovered the Chinese would accept opium in place of bullion. Qing China • So the British began selling opium to the Chinese in exchange for silver and goods in the late 1700’s (about 1000 chests a year/133lbs per chest). • By 1838, Britain shipped over 40,000 chests of opium to China a year (over 5 million pounds). Qing China • Even though China had laws prohibiting the importation and sale of opium, the Chinese government did little to enforce their laws. • By the 1820’s, China was purchasing so much opium that the flow of silver was going back to Britain. Qing China • Levels of addiction eventually grew so large, China created more laws banning the importation, sale, and use of the drug. Chinese drug dealers were executed. • Addiction was so rampant (over 1% of the population) that it began to affect the ability of the military and government to conduct daily business. Qing China • The Chinese government wanted to stop the opium trade but the British refused. The British insisted on the right of “free trade.” Qing China • In 1839, the Chinese government blockaded the port of Canton hoping to force the British opium traders to hand over their opium. • The leading English opium trader was arrested and 20,000 chests of opium were confiscated. Qing China • The British responded with force by declaring war on the Chinese (to protect British “interests”). • China was no match for British firepower as Britain flexed its new industrial might. Qing China • Outdated Chinese ships and weapons were quickly rendered useless. • British troops landed in southern China and quickly captured five key port cities and destroyed several Chinese forts. Qing China • In 1842 the British made the Chinese accept the Treaty of Nanjing which forced China to open its markets to European commerce. Christian missionaries were now also permitted to preach in China. • The treaty also gave the British five coastal ports (the most famous was Hong Kong). Qing China • The flow of opium to China continued. The Chinese even had to pay the British a huge indemnity (payment for losses in the war). • Europeans lived in their own separate sections of these five port cities and were not subject to Chinese law (extraterritoriality). Qing China • After their crushing defeat to the British in the Opium War, the Manchu’s (or Qing) tried to westernize by trying to modernize their army and by trying to develop an industrial base (railroads, armaments, shipbuilding, etc). Qing China • But the Manchu were weak and getting weaker. • European traders and missionaries made inroads for the West. • This interaction with the West, creating both major economic and cultural pressure on China, helped create a mass movement called the Taiping Rebellion (“Heavenly Kingdom of Peace”) 1850-1864. Civilizations in Crisis • This pressure was compounded by widespread poverty, an extravagant royal court, widespread official corruption, and tax evasion of the rich. • The leaders of the rebellion promoted “radical” ideas like prohibition of opiumsmoking, gambling, the use of tobacco and wine, polygamy, the sale of slaves, and prostitution. Civilizations in Crisis • They promoted the equality of the sexes, they abolished foot-binding, and even appointed of women as administrators and officers in the Taiping army. • They also tried to abolish the private ownership of land and property while developing a program for the equal distribution of land. Civilizations in Crisis • Hong Xiuquan, leader of the Taiping (he believed he was the younger brother of Jesus). • By the mid-1850’s the Taiping controlled half of China. • The Qing asked the British and French for aid in exchange for greater influence. Civilizations in Crisis • The Taiping Rebellion (actually it was a civil war) became the most devastating peasant revolt in history. • It has been estimated that between 20-30 million people died. Civilizations in Crisis • When the rebellion was finally crushed, the Manchu were still weak and Western powers had virtually unlimited access to China. • Several nations then developed spheres of influence (exclusive trading or mineral rights to a region) within China. Civilizations in Crisis • Britain, France, Russia, Germany, and Japan all had spheres of influence in China, where they paid a regional warlord for the rights to his province. • China was even forced to lease these powers land to build naval bases to protect their “spheres.” Civilizations in Crisis • In 1894, the Chinese suffered a humiliating defeat by the Japanese in the Sino-Japanese War. Japan now controlled the Korean Peninsula and the Island of Taiwan. Civilizations in Crisis • This war, and the European spheres of influence, has often been referred to “carving up the Chinese melon.” Civilizations in Crisis Civilizations in Crisis • The Russians got Port Arthur, the British got the “New Territories” around Hong Kong, the Germans got a leasehold in Shantung, and the Americans got nothing. • Concentrating largely on the Philippines and Guam, the Americans had missed the Chinese boat and so insisted on an "open door" policy in China. Civilizations in Crisis • The American response to spheres of influence was Secretary of State John Hay’s “Open Door Policy” (1899). • Hay insisted that the United States receive the same commercial rights as the other foreign powers. It demanded equal access for all nations to trade in China. Civilizations in Crisis • The “Open Door Policy” was meant to prevent foreign powers from carving China into colonies. • The “Policy” was sent to the diplomatic missions of Britain, France, Germany, Russia, and Japan but Secretary Hay never received a formal response. • He took that to mean that everyone accepted his proposal. Civilizations in Crisis • In reality, the Open Door Policy was an attempt by the United States to get in on the Chinese market before it was totally used up by the European powers. • Chinese frustration with the West exploded in 1898-1900 in what became known as the Boxer Rebellion. Civilizations in Crisis • The influx of foreigners and foreign ways gave rise to a nativist group called the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists… they were commonly called the Boxers. The boxing stance was thought to protect them from Western bullets Civilizations in Crisis • The Boxers looked to kill all foreigners and Chinese Christians. • The goal of the Boxers was to rid China of the “foreign devils” who were polluting the land with their un-Chinese ways (clothes, hairstyles, food, etc), strange buildings, machines (like the railroad), and telegraph lines. Civilizations in Crisis • This is an orthodox • These are examples icon of Chinese of traditional weapons Christian martyrs from used by the Boxers. the Boxer Rebellion. Civilizations in Crisis • The Boxers were secretly favored by Manchu officials and the court of the Empress Cixi who hoped to use them to rid the country of foreigners. Civilizations in Crisis • The Boxers moved through north-eastern China, attacking foreigners and killing more than 250 missionaries, thousands of Chinese Christians, and a German embassy official. • They derailed railroads, cut telegraph lines, and attacked anything foreign. Civilizations in Crisis • Then they besieged foreign diplomats and their families living in the diplomatic compound of Peking (Beijing). After several weeks of siege the diplomats were nearly out of food and on the verge of annihilation. Civilizations in Crisis • An international military force of 50,000 troops (led by Japan) came in and crushed the Boxers. Civilizations in Crisis • Humiliated, the Chinese government was forced to pay the western powers for all damages. The Manchu government became even shakier and revolution was in the air. • The indemnity the Chinese were forced to pay these nations amounted to $333.0 million (in silver) to be paid over the next 39 years. Civilizations in Crisis • Of that sum, $24.5 million was to go to United States. • When the U.S. government realized that this was far more than the expense for its troops and the damages caused from the fighting, it reimbursed the Chinese government $18.0 million. • The Chinese government was so grateful, Sino-American relations became very close. Civilizations in Crisis • As a result of the Boxer Rebellion, China was forced to allow foreign troops to be stationed on her soil and to allow foreign naval vessels to patrol Chinese rivers and coastal waters. • Before the Boxer Rebellion, the Empress Cixi (Tz’u-hsi) had resisted Western influences and change. • Now China was forced to change. Civilizations in Crisis • An education system, based on the Western model was established. • Even a regional, ELECTED assembly was established in 1905. • Elections for a national assembly took place in 1910. Civilizations in Crisis • These reforms were not enough to stem the mounting discontentment with the Manchu dynasty. Its days were numbered. • When the Empress Cixi (Tz’u-hsi) died in 1908, she had named a two year-old prince (nephew) to become emperor. Henry Puyi (P’u-yi) became known as the “last emperor.” Civilizations in Crisis • In 1911, revolutionaries led by American educated Dr. Sun Yat-sen overthrew the Manchu and declared China to be a republic (the ROC). • Over 2,500 years of dynastic rule in China was over. Civilizations in Crisis • Unfortunately, Dr. Sun Yat-sen did not have the full backing of the army and a civil war ensued. • Dr. Sun Yat-sen fled the country but returned seven years later as the leader of the “new” China. Civilizations in Crisis • Dr. Yat-sen promoted the ideas of liberalism, and pushed for a nationally elected president, a publicly elected parliament, and a constitution. • These ideas were new to China. • He also promoted equalizing land ownership (something not done until the Communists much later). Civilizations in Crisis • Most famously, Dr. Sun Yat-sen developed a political philosophy known as The Three Principles necessary to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful country: • 1). nationalism • 2). Democracy (or government of the people) • 3). social welfare (government making sure people had access to food, clothing, housing, transportation) Civilizations in Crisis • From before WWI and into the 1920’s, there was a growing acceptance of Western culture, especially among the growing urban (and increasingly educated) middle class. Civilizations in Crisis • Western hairstyles, western clothes, western novels, western art, western music, etc all became very popular with the growing middle class. Civilizations in Crisis • Westernization positively affected the Chinese economy in three ways: • 1). The West introduced modern production methods (the factory system), transportation, and communications. • 2). The West created an expanded Chinese export economy. • 3). The West re-integrated China into the world economic system. • Unfortunately, the downside was local Chinese industry was often destroyed and most profits went overseas. Civilizations in Crisis • Traditional Confucian ideals declined in influence throughout the first quarter of the 20th century. • But despite China’s natural resources, large population, and initial Westernization, it remained relatively weak and was a primary target of Japanese aggression in the decade leading up to World War II.