Chapter 6 Section 2 Pages 171-176 FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE Crash Course • The Roman Empire. Or Republic. Or...Which Was It?: Crash Course World History #10 - YouTube From Republic to Empire Main Idea Governmental and social problems led to the end of the Roman Republic and the creation of a new form of government. Reading Focus • What problems did leaders face in the late Roman Republic? • How did Rome become an empire? • What helped tie the Roman empire together during the Pax Romana? Problems in the Late Republic By the mid-100s BC, Rome had no rival anywhere in the Mediterranean world. However, the responsibilities of running their vast holdings stretched the Roman political system to its limits. Social Unrest • Revolution began in political, social institutions • Tensions grew between classes of Roman society • Gracchi brothers tried to resolve tension Soldier-Farmers • Tribune Tiberius Gracchus noted mistreatment of soldier-farmers • Many reduced to poverty • Tiberius, brother Gaius tried to help soldiers Public Land • Gracchi tried to redistribute public land to farmers • Had public support, but Senate feared Gracchi trying to reduce its power • Senate urged mobs to kill brothers The Military in Politics • 107 BC, social unrest reached new level • General Gaius Marius elected consul – Eliminated property restrictions – Accepted anyone who wanted to join army • Armies, private forces devoted to general – Poor hoped to share plunder at end of war – Ruthless generals realized loyalty of troops could be used as political tool Social and Civil Wars The Social War Civil War • Rome’s Italian allies had been trying to obtain Roman citizenship • Social War revealed talent of General Lucius Cornelius Sulla • Sulla became consul, 88 BC; after consulship ended, Marius tried to prevent Sulla from taking military command • Sulla marched on Rome, won civil war, became dictator • Carried out program of reforms to protect power of Senate • Senate wanted to maintain monopoly on power, refused • 90 BC, Social War broke out • Italian rebels were defeated, but Senate agreed to give them citizenship Summarize What challenges faced Rome in the late Republic? Answer(s): slave revolts, social unrest, the Social War, and a civil war in which Sulla became dictator Rome Becomes an Empire Sulla paved the way for major changes in Rome’s government. The end of the Republic resulted from the ambitions of a few individuals. The First Triumvirate End of Triumvirate • Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompey, Licinius Crassus helped bring end to Republic • Caesar, Pompey successful military commanders • Crassus died; Pompey, Caesar fought civil war • Caesar defeated Pompey, took full control of Rome, became dictator for life, 44 BC • Crassus one of wealthiest people in Rome • Caesar brought many changes to Rome, popular reforms • 60 BC, the three took over Roman state, ruled as First Triumvirate • Senate feared he would destroy Roman Republic, murdered him, Ides of March 1st Triumvirate (in Depth) • From 82-31 B.C.E civil wars dominated Rome • Crassus (wealthy man), Pompey, & Julius Caesar (generals) emerged victorious (1st Triumvirate) • Crassus was killed, Senate gave power to Pompey and ordered Caesar to give up army. • Caesar kept his army and defeated Pompey in 44 B.C.E – He came, saw and conquered- ”Veni,vidi,vici” • Demand to be the sole dictator Caesar’s Reforms • Caesar makes reforms: 1. grants wider citizenship 2. creates jobs for poor 3. increases soldier’s pay • Gave land to the poor and expanded the senate to 3x its size • Filled the senate with his supporter which ultimately weakened it • Implemented many reform plans – Public works – New Calendar – More help for poor Group of senators opposes Caesar, assassinate him on March 15, 44 B.C. The Ides of March Why? They feel he is trying to destroy the republic The Second Triumvirate • Caesar’s murder did not save the Republic • 43 BC, Second Triumvirate took power—Caesar’s adopted son, Octavian; loyal officer Marc Antony; high priest Lepidus • Lepidus pushed aside; Antony, Octavian agreed to govern half the empire each, Octavian in west, Antony in East Civil War • Civil war between Octavian, Antony broke out • Octavian defeated Antony and his ally, Egypt’s Queen Cleopatra • Cleopatra, Antony committed suicide; Octavian alone controlled Rome • Republic effectively dead; new period in Roman history beginning From Octavian to Augustus Octavian Takes Power • Octavian faced task of restoring order in empire • Had no intention of establishing dictatorship when he took power Principate • Octavian careful to avoid title of king or emperor • Called himself princeps, “first citizen” • Government called Principate New Political Order • Octavian decided it impossible to return Rome to republican form of government • Created new political order, known today as the empire New Title • 27 BC, Senate gave Octavian title Augustus, “the revered one” • Title a religious honor; able to wear laurel and oak leaf crown The Augustan Age New Imperial Government • Augustus head of state more than 40 years, made smooth transition to new imperial government with power divided between him and Senate • Most financial, administrative matters under Augustus’s control Foreign Affairs • Started program to bring peace to west, particularly to Gaul, Spain • Began series of conquests that pushed border eastward to Danube River • Also took special care of Rome itself Legacy • Created police force, fire brigades; stockpiled food, water • Began building program; presided over moral, religious reforms • Great period of cultural creativity; great writers like Horace, Ovid, Virgil I found Rome built of bricks, I leave her clothed on Marble -Augsutus Julio-Claudians and Flavians • Augustus died AD 14, empire ruled by Caesar’s relatives for 54 years • Julio-Claudian Emperors’ abilities varied widely • Tiberius a good soldier, competent administrator • Caligula, brutal, mentally unstable; appointed favorite horse as consul • AD 68, last of Julio-Claudians, Nero committed suicide Flavians • Following Nero’s death, civil wars raged in Rome • Four military leaders claimed throne in turn • Last, Vespasian reestablished order, as did reigns of two sons • Stability returned under Flavians The Good Emperors • AD 96, new line of emperors established—Good Emperors • Five rulers governed Rome for almost a century • From provinces different than Rome, continued opening Roman imperial society The Good Emperors Empire grew tremendously under Good Emperors • Reached limits of expansion under Trajan • Added what are now Romania, Armenia, Mesopotamia, and the Sinai Peninsula • Successor Hadrian thought empire too large – Withdrew from almost all eastern additions – Built defensive fortifications to guard against invasions – Built wall 73 miles long in northern Britain Explain How did Rome grow and change after it became an empire? Answer(s): The Roman Empire reached the limits of its territorial expansion and made developments in building, government, and culture. The Pax Romana The period from the beginning of August’s reign in 27 BC until the death of the last of the Good Emperors in AD 180 is often called the Pax Romana—the Roman Peace. This era was characterized by stable government, a strong legal system, widespread trade, and peace. Government • Roman government strongest unifying force in empire • Maintained order, enforced laws, defended frontiers • Aristocracy participated, but emperors made all important decisions Provinces • Empire divided into provinces ruled by governors appointed from Rome • Provincial government fair, efficient • Government in Rome kept close check on governors • Any citizen could appeal unfair treatment directly to emperor Empire brought uniformity to the cities of the Mediterranean world, which were governed in imitation of Rome. Laws Legal System • Roman law unified the empire • Laws specified what could, could not be done; penalties for breaking law • Same laws applied to everyone in empire, wherever they lived Agriculture • Agriculture remained primary occupation throughout Pax Romana • Most farms, independent with little, no surplus to sell • Tenant farmers began to replace slaves on large farms Manufacturing • Manufacturing increased throughout empire • Italy, Gaul, Spain—artisans made cheap pottery, textiles • Fine glassware made in eastern cities like Alexandria Trade and Transportation Roads were built for military and not paved. Weather often times made roads impassible. It was cheaper to ship product 100 miles via sea than land. (Why?) Opportunities for Trade Trade • Italy imported grain, meat, raw materials from provinces • Merchants brought silks, linens, glassware, jewelry, furniture from Asia • Rome, Alexandria became commercial centers Transportation • Commercial activity possible because of empire’s location around Mediterranean and extensive road network • Ultimately about 50,000 miles of roads bound empire together Military and Merchant Routes • Most roads built, maintained for military purposes • Cheaper to transport grain by ship from one end of Mediterranean to other than to send it overland; most goods went by sea Analyze How did government, law, and trade tie the Roman people together? Answer(s): The Roman government was the strongest unifying force, maintaining order, enforcing the laws, and defending the frontiers. Roman law provided stability and, with few exceptions, the same laws applied to everyone in the empire. Trade provided opportunities for commerce between people in different parts of the empire. GROG 6-2 (5 Points) Using your notes, fill in the interactive graphic organizer by identifying the causes or effects of the events listed in the boxes. Chapter 6 Section 3 Pages 177-182 ROMAN SOCIETY AND CULTURE Bell Ringer 6-3 (5 Points) Write a diary entry as though you were a trader in Rome during the Pax Romana. In your entry, tell how you spent your day, including where you went, what you saw, and which goods you bought or sold. Roman Society and Culture Main Idea The Romans developed a complex society and pioneered cultural advances that, even today, affect life all over the world. Reading Focus • What social and cultural factors influenced life in imperial Rome? • What achievements shaped Rome’s cultural legacy to the modern world? Life in Imperial Rome Images of Rome from movies and stories: Gladiators in combat, temples of marble, soldiers marching to war. What was life really like? Life for the Rich Public Life • Pax Romana provided prosperity for many • Rich citizens – Had both city, country homes – Homes had conveniences like running water, baths • Wealthy men spent much time in politics • Public officials not paid; only wealthy could afford to hold office • Roman politicians worked to perfect public-speaking skills • Ties of marriage, friendship, family alliances as important as common interests for public officials, political groups Life for the Poor • Nearly 1 million Romans lived in crowded three- or four-story apartment buildings • Fire a constant threat – Torches used for light – Charcoal used for cooking • To keep poor from rebelling – Free food, public entertainment offered – Two things interested public—bread, circuses Entertainments Public Entertainment • Romans of all classes enjoyed circus, chariot races • Held in Circus Maximus—racetrack could hold 250,000 spectators • Also liked theater, mimes, jugglers, dancers, acrobats, clowns Bloody Spectacles • Romans enjoyed spectacles in amphitheaters • Wild animals battled each other and professional fighters • Gladiator contests most popular, performed in Colosseum for 50,000 people Public Baths • Popular places for entertainment • Romans well aware of importance of bathing, hygiene for health • Many public baths had steam rooms, meeting rooms, and pools for socializing Give Them Bread and Circuses • most people are poor – Over 1 million in Rome – Most live in three-four story apartments • In order to keep poor from rebelling -receive grain from government-Free Bread Circuses- theater, comedies, satires, chariot races, acrobats, dancers -150 holidays and Colosseum or Circus Maximus events created to control the masses- Animals vs Criminal, Animal vs Animal, Gladiators Society and Culture • The Circus Maximus was an ancient Roman chariot racing stadium Spartacus • Spartacus (4/9) Movie CLIP - Fight to the Death (1960) HD - YouTube Slaves and Captivity • Slavery is a significant part of Roman life in both cities and farms. • Some slaves become gladiators; forced to fight to death Family Patriarchal Structure Education and Religion • Head of family—paterfamilias, family father—oldest living male • Had extensive powers over other members of family • Within family structure, virtues of simplicity, religious devotion, obedience emphasized • Adoption important in Roman society, a way to ensure family name would be carried on • Women could do little without intervention of male guardian, more freedom in lower classes • Upper class Romans placed great value on education • Parents taught children at home; wealthy families hired tutors or sent sons to exclusive schools to learn Latin, Greek, law, math, public speaking • Romans adopted much from Greek mythology, also from Egyptians, others • Each family worshipped local household gods, penates • Many worshipped emperor Signs and Augurs Worshipping the gods • Romans believed gods sent signs, warnings – Came in form of natural phenomena – Flight of birds, arrangement of entrails of sacrificial animals • Paid respect to augurs – Priests who specialized in interpreting signs – Nothing important undertaken without first consulting augurs Contrast How was life different for rich and poor citizens in Rome? Answer(s): Rich—often had two homes and spent time in politics, women's lives controlled by guardians; Poor—lived in crowded conditions, lower-class women had more freedom, often worked outside the home Rome’s Cultural Legacy Although the Western Roman Empire fell in 476, much of Roman culture continued to influence life for centuries. In fact, we can still see many of the legacies of the great empire today. Science and Galen Other Thinkers Engineering • Physician, AD • Ptolemy stated 100s knowledge of • Romans less others as single interested in • Wrote volumes theory in original scientific summarizing all astronomy research than in medical collecting and knowledge of his • Pliny the Elder organizing day wrote about information Mount Vesuvius • Greatest authority in medicine for centuries Practical Knowledge • Romans practical, tried to apply knowledge gained from science to planning cities, building water, sewage systems, improving farming • Roman engineers constructed roads, bridges, amphitheaters, public buildings, aqueducts to bring water to cities • Without aqueducts, cities would not have grown as large Concrete • Romans developed concrete, with which they built amazing structures that still stand today • Roman bridges still span French, German, Spanish rivers • Roads that connected Rome with provinces still survive today • Added urban plan to every city they conquered; many still seen today Aqueducts Unlike Greeks, knowledge would be for practical uses, not just knowledge for knowledge sakes Roman Forum Modern Influences • Greek Art Museum • Monticello, T.J House Architecture and Language Locations Advances • Many examples still seen throughout southern Europe, northern Africa, Southwest Asia • Arch, vault allowed Romans to construct larger buildings than earlier societies • Dominant advances—round arch and the vault Ruins • Ruins of buildings inspired generations of architects • Michelangelo, Thomas Jefferson, others • Have been used for centuries, still seen in many countries Beyond Latin • Romance languages developed from Latin • Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian Legacies English Literature • English owes much vocabulary to Latin • Technique of satire derived from Roman authors • Examples: et cetera, veto, curriculum • For centuries, writers have borrowed from authors like Virgil Law Civil Law Systems • Romans used system called civil law, based on written code • Systems carried to Asian, African, American colonies • Adopted by many countries in Europe after empire fell • Roman influence still seen in today’s legal system worldwide Summarize What are some areas in which Rome’s influence is still seen? Answer(s): science, engineering, architecture, language, literature, and law GROG 6-3 (5 Points) Using your notes, fill in the interactive graphic organizer by writing a sentence that summarizes the ancient Romans’ views on the subject in each outer circle. Chapter 6 Section 5 Pages 188-191 FALL OF ROME Bell Ringer 6-5 (5 Points) Write two paragraphs comparing and contrasting life for rich and poor Romans. In one paragraph, explain how the two lifestyles were similar. In the other paragraph, explain how they were different. Crash Course • Fall of The Roman Empire...in the 15th Century: Crash Course World History #12 - YouTube The Fall of Rome Main Idea Events and conditions inside as well as outside the Roman Empire weakened it and led to its collapse in the west in the 400s. Reading Focus • What problems weakened the empire in the 200s? • How did Diocletian and Constantine attempt to reform the empire? • What caused the invasion and ultimate fall of the empire in the 400s? The Empire Weakens The Roman army’s inability to stop the Huns was one symptom of the weakness that befell the empire after the end of the Pax Romana. Weak Leaders Military Dictatorship • After 180, empire confronted • Emperors increased size of by challenges from outside, Rome’s army growing problems within • Demands on financial resources, • When last of Good Emperors military caused economic crisis died, Rome had no strong • Empire: military dictatorship leader • Legions deposed emperors, • Civil wars broke out elevated own leaders to throne • Rome under increasing • Twenty emperors in 49 years; all threat of invasions on but one died violently eastern, western frontiers Economic Troubles • Insecurity of civil wars, invasions affected Roman life • Robbery, piracy increased; travel hazardous • Merchants feared to ship goods • Military needs required more revenue; emperors raised taxes Inflation • Value of money declined as taxes rose • Emperors minted new coins with copper, lead, and silver • People refused to accept currency at face value • Result was dramatic rise in prices, or inflation Inflation Analyze What problems faced Rome in the late 200s? Answer(s): The empire had weak leaders, civil wars, threats of invasion, and inflation led to a weak economy. Piracy and robbery made travel hazardous. Attempts at Reform The crises of the 200s shattered the Roman world. Drastic reforms had to be made if the empire were to survive. Two capable emperors rose to power and gave the empire another two centuries of life. Diocletian • Diocletian took power, 284 • Changed empire into absolute monarchy • Placed self above subjects, ruled with no accountability to anyone Divided Empire • Divided empire in two to improve efficiency • Ruled eastern half himself, appointed coemperor to rule western provinces • Caesars helped run empire Rigid Order • Forced society into rigid order • Sons to follow trades, social positions of fathers • Peasants tied to land they farmed • Increased army, full attention to defense Economic Reforms Imperial economy came under state direction with Diocletian • Commercial, manufacturing activities geared toward needs of imperial defense – New tax system raised more money for government, army – Reforms drastic, successful • Saved empire from immediate economic collapse Constantine Diocletian Retires • Diocletian’s initiatives worked well while he remained emperor • Diocletian, co-emperor retired, 305; two caesars rose to become co-emperors • New emperors quarreled; empire plunged into civil war • 312, order restored when Constantine declared emperor by his troops; put end to fighting State Control • Constantine continued state control over society • Made two profound decisions to affect direction of future empire: converted to Christianity; built new capital—Constantinople, “city of Constantine”—on site of village of Byzantium • Eastern half of empire richer, better defended; Constantine wanted capital there Analyze How did Diocletian and Constantine try to save Rome? Answer(s): Diocletian—tried to make governmental and economic reforms and build up the army; Constantine—moved capital to the eastern half of the empire Invasion and Fall Unfortunately, the reforms of Diocletian and Constantine did not solve the overwhelming problems of the empire. During the 300s and 400s, these problems were only worsened by tribal peoples’ increasing pressures on the empire’s frontier. The Invaders Huns • Germanic tribes lived along, raided Rome’s frontiers for centuries • New peoples moved west from Central Asia, pushed Germanic tribes into empire • Rulers in Rome, Constantinople tried to hold empire together • Late 300s, Huns stormed out of east and sent Germanic tribes fleeing • Imperial defenses in east held, but those in west overwhelmed • Huns formed vast empire among nomadic steppe peoples of Eurasia About 370 Huns attacked the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people living north of the Black Sea. Migrating Tribes Goths • Assault on Ostrogoths frightened kinsmen, Visigoths • Visigoths fled into Roman Empire, Italy • Visigoths captured and sacked Rome itself, 410 Vandals • Other migrating tribes soon attacked Roman Empire • Infamous for destroying everything in path; Vandals attacked Rome in 450s • Term vandal came to mean “one who causes senseless destruction” Attila • Leader of Huns, led attack on Gaul • Roman army allied with Visigoths, defeated Huns, 451 • Attila next turned on Rome; but Pope Leo I persuaded him to leave Italy Western Empire Fall of the West • Despite Huns’ withdrawal, Western Empire in shambles • Germanic tribes ruled most of western provinces, including Italy • Ostrogoths overthrew last emperor • Many historians consider this the end of the Western Roman Empire Eastern Empire • Despite western collapse, Eastern Empire endured for several centuries • People of Eastern Empire always thought of selves as Romans • Over time other influences, especially Greek, crept into culture • As a result of these influences, historians refer to the later period of the Eastern Empire by a new name, the Byzantine Empire. The Huns Identify Cause and Effect How did invaders contribute to Rome’s fall? Answer(s): The invasion of tribes from Central Asia caused Germanic tribes to flee into the Empire, where resistance had been weakened. GROG 6-5 (5 Points) Using your notes, fill in the interactive graphic organizer by listing in order of importance (from most important to least) the major problems or factors that contributed to Rome’s fall and write a sentence explaining the effect of that problem or factor.