Chapter 6 Section 2
Pages 171-176
FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE
Crash Course
• The Roman Empire. Or Republic.
Or...Which Was It?: Crash Course
World History #10 - YouTube
From Republic to Empire
Main Idea
Governmental and social problems led to the end
of the Roman Republic and the creation of a new
form of government.
Reading Focus
• What problems did leaders face in the late Roman
Republic?
• How did Rome become an empire?
• What helped tie the Roman empire together during the
Pax Romana?
Problems in the Late Republic
By the mid-100s BC, Rome had no rival anywhere in the
Mediterranean world. However, the responsibilities of running
their vast holdings stretched the Roman political system to its
limits.
Social Unrest
• Revolution began
in political, social
institutions
• Tensions grew
between classes
of Roman society
• Gracchi brothers
tried to resolve
tension
Soldier-Farmers
• Tribune Tiberius
Gracchus noted
mistreatment of
soldier-farmers
• Many reduced to
poverty
• Tiberius, brother
Gaius tried to
help soldiers
Public Land
• Gracchi tried to
redistribute public
land to farmers
• Had public support,
but Senate feared
Gracchi trying to
reduce its power
• Senate urged mobs
to kill brothers
The Military in Politics
• 107 BC, social unrest reached new level
• General Gaius Marius elected consul
– Eliminated property restrictions
– Accepted anyone who wanted to join army
• Armies, private forces devoted to general
– Poor hoped to share plunder at end of war
– Ruthless generals realized loyalty of troops could be used
as political tool
Social and Civil Wars
The Social War
Civil War
• Rome’s Italian allies had
been trying to obtain Roman
citizenship
• Social War revealed talent of
General Lucius Cornelius
Sulla
• Sulla became consul, 88 BC;
after consulship ended,
Marius tried to prevent Sulla
from taking military
command
• Sulla marched on Rome,
won civil war, became
dictator
• Carried out program of
reforms to protect power of
Senate
• Senate wanted to maintain
monopoly on power, refused
• 90 BC, Social War broke out
• Italian rebels were defeated,
but Senate agreed to give
them citizenship
Summarize
What challenges faced Rome in the late
Republic?
Answer(s): slave revolts, social unrest, the Social
War, and a civil war in which Sulla became
dictator
Rome Becomes an Empire
Sulla paved the way for major changes in Rome’s government.
The end of the Republic resulted from the ambitions of a few
individuals.
The First Triumvirate
End of Triumvirate
• Julius Caesar, Gnaeus
Pompey, Licinius Crassus
helped bring end to
Republic
• Caesar, Pompey successful
military commanders
• Crassus died; Pompey,
Caesar fought civil war
• Caesar defeated Pompey,
took full control of Rome,
became dictator for life, 44 BC
• Crassus one of wealthiest
people in Rome
• Caesar brought many
changes to Rome, popular
reforms
• 60 BC, the three took over
Roman state, ruled as First
Triumvirate
• Senate feared he would
destroy Roman Republic,
murdered him, Ides of March
1st Triumvirate (in Depth)
• From 82-31 B.C.E civil wars dominated Rome
• Crassus (wealthy man), Pompey, & Julius Caesar
(generals) emerged victorious (1st Triumvirate)
• Crassus was killed, Senate gave power to Pompey
and ordered Caesar to give up army.
• Caesar kept his army and defeated Pompey in 44
B.C.E
– He came, saw and conquered- ”Veni,vidi,vici”
• Demand to be the sole dictator
Caesar’s Reforms
• Caesar makes reforms:
1. grants wider
citizenship
2. creates jobs for poor
3. increases soldier’s pay
• Gave land to the poor and expanded the senate
to 3x its size
• Filled the senate with his supporter which
ultimately weakened it
• Implemented many reform plans
– Public works
– New Calendar
– More help for poor
Group of senators opposes Caesar, assassinate him on March 15, 44 B.C.
The Ides of March
Why? They feel he is trying to destroy the republic
The Second Triumvirate
• Caesar’s murder did not save the Republic
• 43 BC, Second Triumvirate took power—Caesar’s adopted son,
Octavian; loyal officer Marc Antony; high priest Lepidus
• Lepidus pushed aside; Antony, Octavian agreed to govern half
the empire each, Octavian in west, Antony in East
Civil War
• Civil war between Octavian, Antony broke out
• Octavian defeated Antony and his ally, Egypt’s Queen Cleopatra
• Cleopatra, Antony committed suicide; Octavian alone controlled
Rome
• Republic effectively dead; new period in Roman history
beginning
From Octavian to Augustus
Octavian Takes Power
• Octavian faced task of
restoring order in empire
• Had no intention of
establishing dictatorship
when he took power
Principate
• Octavian careful to avoid title
of king or emperor
• Called himself princeps, “first
citizen”
• Government called
Principate
New Political Order
• Octavian decided it
impossible to return Rome to
republican form of
government
• Created new political order,
known today as the empire
New Title
• 27 BC, Senate gave
Octavian title Augustus, “the
revered one”
• Title a religious honor; able
to wear laurel and oak leaf
crown
The Augustan Age
New Imperial Government
• Augustus head of state more than 40 years, made smooth transition
to new imperial government with power divided between him and
Senate
• Most financial, administrative matters under Augustus’s control
Foreign Affairs
• Started program to bring peace to west, particularly to Gaul, Spain
• Began series of conquests that pushed border eastward to Danube
River
• Also took special care of Rome itself
Legacy
• Created police force, fire brigades; stockpiled food, water
• Began building program; presided over moral, religious reforms
• Great period of cultural creativity; great writers like Horace, Ovid,
Virgil
I found Rome built of bricks, I leave
her clothed on Marble
-Augsutus
Julio-Claudians and Flavians
• Augustus died AD 14, empire ruled by Caesar’s relatives for 54
years
• Julio-Claudian Emperors’ abilities varied widely
• Tiberius a good soldier, competent administrator
• Caligula, brutal, mentally unstable; appointed favorite horse as
consul
• AD 68, last of Julio-Claudians, Nero committed suicide
Flavians
• Following Nero’s death, civil
wars raged in Rome
• Four military leaders claimed
throne in turn
• Last, Vespasian reestablished
order, as did reigns of two sons
• Stability returned under
Flavians
The Good Emperors
• AD 96, new line of emperors
established—Good Emperors
• Five rulers governed Rome for
almost a century
• From provinces different than
Rome, continued opening
Roman imperial society
The Good Emperors
Empire grew tremendously under Good Emperors
• Reached limits of expansion under Trajan
• Added what are now Romania, Armenia, Mesopotamia, and
the Sinai Peninsula
• Successor Hadrian thought empire too large
– Withdrew from almost all eastern additions
– Built defensive fortifications to guard against invasions
– Built wall 73 miles long in northern Britain
Explain
How did Rome grow and change after it
became an empire?
Answer(s): The Roman Empire reached the limits
of its territorial expansion and made
developments in building, government, and
culture.
The Pax Romana
The period from the beginning of August’s reign in 27 BC until the
death of the last of the Good Emperors in AD 180 is often called the Pax
Romana—the Roman Peace. This era was characterized by stable
government, a strong legal system, widespread trade, and peace.
Government
• Roman government strongest
unifying force in empire
• Maintained order, enforced
laws, defended frontiers
• Aristocracy participated, but
emperors made all important
decisions
Provinces
• Empire divided into provinces ruled
by governors appointed from Rome
• Provincial government fair, efficient
• Government in Rome kept close
check on governors
• Any citizen could appeal unfair
treatment directly to emperor
Empire brought uniformity to the cities of the Mediterranean world,
which were governed in imitation of Rome.
Laws
Legal System
• Roman law unified the empire
• Laws specified what could, could not be done; penalties for breaking
law
• Same laws applied to everyone in empire, wherever they lived
Agriculture
• Agriculture remained primary occupation throughout Pax Romana
• Most farms, independent with little, no surplus to sell
• Tenant farmers began to replace slaves on large farms
Manufacturing
• Manufacturing increased throughout empire
• Italy, Gaul, Spain—artisans made cheap pottery, textiles
• Fine glassware made in eastern cities like Alexandria
Trade and Transportation
Roads were built for military and
not paved.
Weather often times made
roads impassible.
It was cheaper to ship
product 100 miles via sea
than land. (Why?)
Opportunities for Trade
Trade
• Italy imported grain, meat, raw materials from provinces
• Merchants brought silks, linens, glassware, jewelry, furniture from
Asia
• Rome, Alexandria became commercial centers
Transportation
• Commercial activity possible because of empire’s location around
Mediterranean and extensive road network
• Ultimately about 50,000 miles of roads bound empire together
Military and Merchant Routes
• Most roads built, maintained for military purposes
• Cheaper to transport grain by ship from one end of Mediterranean to
other than to send it overland; most goods went by sea
Analyze
How did government, law, and trade tie the
Roman people together?
Answer(s): The Roman government was the strongest
unifying force, maintaining order, enforcing the laws, and
defending the frontiers. Roman law provided stability and,
with few exceptions, the same laws applied to everyone in
the empire. Trade provided opportunities for commerce
between people in different parts of the empire.
GROG 6-2 (5 Points)
Using your notes, fill in the
interactive graphic organizer by
identifying the causes or effects
of the events listed in the
boxes.
Chapter 6 Section 3
Pages 177-182
ROMAN SOCIETY AND CULTURE
Bell Ringer 6-3 (5 Points)
Write a diary entry as though
you were a trader in Rome
during the Pax Romana. In your
entry, tell how you spent your
day, including where you went,
what you saw, and which goods
you bought or sold.
Roman Society and Culture
Main Idea
The Romans developed a complex society and pioneered
cultural advances that, even today, affect life all over the world.
Reading Focus
• What social and cultural factors influenced life in imperial
Rome?
• What achievements shaped Rome’s cultural legacy to the
modern world?
Life in Imperial Rome
Images of Rome from movies and stories: Gladiators in combat,
temples of marble, soldiers marching to war. What was life
really like?
Life for the Rich
Public Life
• Pax Romana provided
prosperity for many
• Rich citizens
– Had both city, country
homes
– Homes had
conveniences like
running water, baths
• Wealthy men spent much
time in politics
• Public officials not paid;
only wealthy could afford to
hold office
• Roman politicians worked
to perfect public-speaking
skills
• Ties of marriage, friendship,
family alliances as
important as common
interests for public officials,
political groups
Life for the Poor
• Nearly 1 million Romans lived in crowded three- or four-story
apartment buildings
• Fire a constant threat
– Torches used for light
– Charcoal used for cooking
• To keep poor from rebelling
– Free food, public entertainment offered
– Two things interested public—bread, circuses
Entertainments
Public Entertainment
• Romans of all classes enjoyed circus, chariot races
• Held in Circus Maximus—racetrack could hold 250,000 spectators
• Also liked theater, mimes, jugglers, dancers, acrobats, clowns
Bloody Spectacles
• Romans enjoyed spectacles in amphitheaters
• Wild animals battled each other and professional fighters
• Gladiator contests most popular, performed in Colosseum for
50,000 people
Public Baths
• Popular places for entertainment
• Romans well aware of importance of bathing, hygiene for health
• Many public baths had steam rooms, meeting rooms, and pools
for socializing
Give Them Bread and Circuses
• most people are poor
– Over 1 million in Rome
– Most live in three-four story apartments
• In order to keep poor from rebelling
-receive grain from government-Free Bread Circuses- theater, comedies, satires, chariot
races, acrobats, dancers
-150 holidays and Colosseum or Circus
Maximus events created to
control the masses- Animals vs
Criminal, Animal vs Animal, Gladiators
Society and Culture
• The Circus Maximus was an
ancient Roman chariot racing
stadium
Spartacus
• Spartacus (4/9) Movie CLIP - Fight
to the Death (1960) HD - YouTube
Slaves and Captivity
• Slavery is a significant part of
Roman life in both cities and
farms.
• Some slaves become gladiators;
forced to fight to death
Family
Patriarchal Structure
Education and Religion
• Head of family—paterfamilias,
family father—oldest living male
• Had extensive powers over
other members of family
• Within family structure, virtues
of simplicity, religious devotion,
obedience emphasized
• Adoption important in Roman
society, a way to ensure family
name would be carried on
• Women could do little without
intervention of male guardian,
more freedom in lower classes
• Upper class Romans placed
great value on education
• Parents taught children at
home; wealthy families hired
tutors or sent sons to exclusive
schools to learn Latin, Greek,
law, math, public speaking
• Romans adopted much from
Greek mythology, also from
Egyptians, others
• Each family worshipped local
household gods, penates
• Many worshipped emperor
Signs and Augurs
Worshipping the gods
• Romans believed gods sent signs, warnings
– Came in form of natural phenomena
– Flight of birds, arrangement of entrails of sacrificial
animals
• Paid respect to augurs
– Priests who specialized in interpreting signs
– Nothing important undertaken without first consulting
augurs
Contrast
How was life different for rich and poor
citizens in Rome?
Answer(s): Rich—often had two homes and spent
time in politics, women's lives controlled by
guardians; Poor—lived in crowded conditions,
lower-class women had more freedom, often
worked outside the home
Rome’s Cultural Legacy
Although the Western Roman Empire fell in 476, much of
Roman culture continued to influence life for centuries. In fact,
we can still see many of the legacies of the great empire today.
Science and
Galen
Other Thinkers
Engineering
• Physician, AD
• Ptolemy stated
100s
knowledge of
• Romans less
others as single
interested in
• Wrote volumes
theory in
original scientific
summarizing all
astronomy
research than in
medical
collecting and
knowledge of his
• Pliny the Elder
organizing
day
wrote about
information
Mount Vesuvius
• Greatest authority
in medicine for
centuries
Practical Knowledge
• Romans practical, tried to apply knowledge gained from
science to planning cities, building water, sewage systems,
improving farming
• Roman engineers constructed roads, bridges, amphitheaters,
public buildings, aqueducts to bring water to cities
• Without aqueducts, cities would not have grown as large
Concrete
• Romans developed concrete, with which they built amazing
structures that still stand today
• Roman bridges still span French, German, Spanish rivers
• Roads that connected Rome with provinces still survive today
• Added urban plan to every city they conquered; many still
seen today
Aqueducts
Unlike Greeks,
knowledge
would be for
practical uses,
not just
knowledge for
knowledge sakes
Roman Forum
Modern Influences
• Greek Art
Museum
• Monticello, T.J
House
Architecture and Language
Locations
Advances
• Many examples still seen
throughout southern Europe,
northern Africa, Southwest
Asia
• Arch, vault allowed Romans
to construct larger buildings
than earlier societies
• Dominant advances—round
arch and the vault
Ruins
• Ruins of buildings inspired
generations of architects
• Michelangelo, Thomas
Jefferson, others
• Have been used for
centuries, still seen in many
countries
Beyond Latin
• Romance languages
developed from Latin
• Spanish, French, Italian,
Portuguese, Romanian
Legacies
English
Literature
• English owes much
vocabulary to Latin
• Technique of satire derived
from Roman authors
• Examples: et cetera, veto,
curriculum
• For centuries, writers have
borrowed from authors like
Virgil
Law
Civil Law Systems
• Romans used system called
civil law, based on written
code
• Systems carried to Asian,
African, American colonies
• Adopted by many countries
in Europe after empire fell
• Roman influence still seen in
today’s legal system
worldwide
Summarize
What are some areas in which Rome’s
influence is still seen?
Answer(s): science, engineering, architecture,
language, literature, and law
GROG 6-3 (5 Points)
Using your notes, fill in the
interactive graphic organizer by
writing a sentence that
summarizes the ancient
Romans’ views on the subject
in each outer circle.
Chapter 6 Section 5
Pages 188-191
FALL OF ROME
Bell Ringer 6-5 (5 Points)
Write two paragraphs
comparing and contrasting life
for rich and poor Romans. In
one paragraph, explain how the
two lifestyles were similar. In
the other paragraph, explain
how they were different.
Crash Course
• Fall of The Roman Empire...in the
15th Century: Crash Course World
History #12 - YouTube
The Fall of Rome
Main Idea
Events and conditions inside as well as outside the Roman
Empire weakened it and led to its collapse in the west in the
400s.
Reading Focus
• What problems weakened the empire in the 200s?
• How did Diocletian and Constantine attempt to reform the
empire?
• What caused the invasion and ultimate fall of the empire in the
400s?
The Empire Weakens
The Roman army’s inability to stop the Huns was one symptom
of the weakness that befell the empire after the end of the Pax
Romana.
Weak Leaders
Military Dictatorship
• After 180, empire confronted • Emperors increased size of
by challenges from outside,
Rome’s army
growing problems within
• Demands on financial resources,
• When last of Good Emperors military caused economic crisis
died, Rome had no strong
• Empire: military dictatorship
leader
• Legions deposed emperors,
• Civil wars broke out
elevated own leaders to throne
• Rome under increasing
• Twenty emperors in 49 years; all
threat of invasions on
but one died violently
eastern, western frontiers
Economic Troubles
• Insecurity of civil wars, invasions affected Roman life
• Robbery, piracy increased; travel hazardous
• Merchants feared to ship goods
• Military needs required more revenue; emperors raised
taxes
Inflation
• Value of money declined as taxes rose
• Emperors minted new coins with copper, lead, and silver
• People refused to accept currency at face value
• Result was dramatic rise in prices, or inflation
Inflation
Analyze
What problems faced Rome in the late 200s?
Answer(s): The empire had weak leaders, civil
wars, threats of invasion, and inflation led to a
weak economy. Piracy and robbery made travel
hazardous.
Attempts at Reform
The crises of the 200s shattered the Roman world. Drastic reforms had to be
made if the empire were to survive. Two capable emperors rose to power and
gave the empire another two centuries of life.
Diocletian
• Diocletian took
power, 284
• Changed empire
into absolute
monarchy
• Placed self above
subjects, ruled
with no
accountability to
anyone
Divided Empire
• Divided empire in
two to improve
efficiency
• Ruled eastern
half himself,
appointed coemperor to rule
western
provinces
• Caesars helped
run empire
Rigid Order
• Forced society into
rigid order
• Sons to follow
trades, social
positions of fathers
• Peasants tied to
land they farmed
• Increased army, full
attention to defense
Economic Reforms
Imperial economy came under state direction with Diocletian
• Commercial, manufacturing activities geared toward needs of
imperial defense
– New tax system raised more money for government, army
– Reforms drastic, successful
• Saved empire from immediate economic collapse
Constantine
Diocletian Retires
• Diocletian’s initiatives worked
well while he remained
emperor
• Diocletian, co-emperor retired,
305; two caesars rose to
become co-emperors
• New emperors quarreled;
empire plunged into civil war
• 312, order restored when
Constantine declared emperor
by his troops; put end to
fighting
State Control
• Constantine continued state
control over society
• Made two profound
decisions to affect direction
of future empire: converted
to Christianity; built new
capital—Constantinople,
“city of Constantine”—on site
of village of Byzantium
• Eastern half of empire richer,
better defended; Constantine
wanted capital there
Analyze
How did Diocletian and Constantine try to
save Rome?
Answer(s): Diocletian—tried to make
governmental and economic reforms and build up
the army; Constantine—moved capital to the
eastern half of the empire
Invasion and Fall
Unfortunately, the reforms of Diocletian and Constantine did not
solve the overwhelming problems of the empire. During the 300s
and 400s, these problems were only worsened by tribal peoples’
increasing pressures on the empire’s frontier.
The Invaders
Huns
• Germanic tribes lived along,
raided Rome’s frontiers for
centuries
• New peoples moved west from
Central Asia, pushed Germanic
tribes into empire
• Rulers in Rome, Constantinople
tried to hold empire together
• Late 300s, Huns stormed out of
east and sent Germanic tribes
fleeing
• Imperial defenses in east held,
but those in west overwhelmed
• Huns formed vast empire
among nomadic steppe peoples
of Eurasia
About 370 Huns attacked the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people
living north of the Black Sea.
Migrating Tribes
Goths
• Assault on Ostrogoths frightened kinsmen, Visigoths
• Visigoths fled into Roman Empire, Italy
• Visigoths captured and sacked Rome itself, 410
Vandals
• Other migrating tribes soon attacked Roman Empire
• Infamous for destroying everything in path; Vandals attacked Rome
in 450s
• Term vandal came to mean “one who causes senseless destruction”
Attila
• Leader of Huns, led attack on Gaul
• Roman army allied with Visigoths, defeated Huns, 451
• Attila next turned on Rome; but Pope Leo I persuaded him to leave
Italy
Western Empire
Fall of the West
• Despite Huns’ withdrawal, Western Empire in shambles
• Germanic tribes ruled most of western provinces, including
Italy
• Ostrogoths overthrew last emperor
• Many historians consider this the end of the Western Roman
Empire
Eastern Empire
• Despite western collapse, Eastern Empire endured for several
centuries
• People of Eastern Empire always thought of selves as Romans
• Over time other influences, especially Greek, crept into culture
• As a result of these influences, historians refer to the later
period of the Eastern Empire by a new name, the Byzantine
Empire.
The Huns
Identify Cause and Effect
How did invaders contribute to Rome’s fall?
Answer(s): The invasion of tribes from Central
Asia caused Germanic tribes to flee into the
Empire, where resistance had been weakened.
GROG 6-5 (5 Points)
Using your notes, fill in the interactive
graphic organizer by listing in order of
importance (from most important to
least) the major problems or factors
that contributed to Rome’s fall and
write a sentence explaining the effect
of that problem or factor.
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Chapter Six: Ancient Rome and Early Christianity 500 B.C