Company LOGO Experiencing English 2 Company LOGO Unit 8 Computers And Security Company LOGO Unit 8 Computers and Security In this unit, you will first listen, and then talk about computers and security ; read about computer viruses and the damage they may inflict ; learn new words and expressions; write about what should be done to protect against computer viruses ; practice the use of omission and emphasis ; write an Internet notice check goals; visit Culture Salon for an introduction to milestones in computer history Company LOGO Unit 8 Computers and Security Part I Listen and Talk Directions: Listen to the following passage and fill in the missing words in the blanks. Have you ever listed everything the computer does to enhance modern life? From finding research to doing research, from ________ use to home use, from ________ with friends and family to searching for a job, computers simplify our lives and allow us to learn and ________ things with the click of a mouse. The Internet is like a highway system, moving bits of information across telephone lines and cables with such speed that when we ________ the web address or search for websites, within seconds the information appears on the computer screen. The ________ of the computer and the Internet has revolutionized how we live and work. How did we ever ________ without computers? Directions: Listen to the following passage and fill in the missing words in the blanks. There is ________ in all things and the computer is not an exception. While it provides us with many good things at our fingertips, there are those who ________ programs that infect the computer with "viruses" which destroy its ________ and frustrate the computer owner. Anti-virus programs, however, are ________ to combat the problem. Cybercrime is also rising as Internet privacy is violated in a variety of ways, creating the need for better Internet security systems to be developed. Company LOGO Unit 8 Computers and Security Directions: Listen to the following paragraphs and decide which picture is described in detail. Unit 8 Computers and Security The photos are all related to Computers and Security . Describe them to your classmates with the help of the following question. What are the basic skills you need to be effective in using computers ? How do you think the Internet can help in our modern life? Explain. How can you avoid being a victim of cybercrime? Communicative tasks (1) Topic: Talking about computers and security Roles: Brian and Pei Situation: Brian likes to download funny game software from the Internet, but he doesn't feel it's very funny now because his computer crashes frequently these days. He poured out his worries to Pei who advised him to install anti-virus software. Tips: Suggested expressions and sentences for talking about computers and security download unlicensed / unauthorized / unsupported software cause conflicts with existing software install firewall / anti-virus software on one's computer hacker restart one's computer Can you help me out here? My computer is acting very strange / won't start. My laptop does not work properly / crashes a lot these days. Communicative tasks (2) Topic: Talking about computers and security Roles: Victor and Lingling Situation: Victor was excited to get an email from a "Lucy" with the subject "I Love You", but his excitement vanished too quickly with a click on the attached file. It was the Love Bug virus. Lingling suggested that he never open an attachment unless he's been told to expect it and always keep the anti-virus system active. Tips: Suggested expressions and sentences for talking about computers and security be infected by viruses transmitted via email attachments click on the attached file spread the virus / bug delete the message empty the Recycle Bin mess up the computer run some anti-virus software on one's computer clean off the virus Is there any message in the email? Viruses come in email with an attached file. Company LOGO Unit 8 Computers and Security Part II Read and Explore Unit 8 Computers and Security Passage A You Are the Weakest Link, Goodbye Passage B So Sorry to Bug You Passage A You Are the Weakest Link, Goodbye Think about it Do you often download free software from the Internet? Explain. Have you installed anti-virus software on your computer? What is it? Is it possible for us to find a way to get rid of computer viruses permanently? How do computer viruses spread? How should companies and other organizations as well as home users protect themselves against computer viruses? Passage A Preview Check 1. Who so employees turn to for help when their computers are affected by a virus? They turn to their IT staff in their company. 2. What are the several malicious computer viruses mentioned in the passage? Viruses such as Melissa, the Love Bug, etc. 3. Are employees always alert to computer viruses? Explain. No, they aren’t. They forget about the harm a computer virus may bring when that virus is off news headlines. 4. What are the cases when employees might put their company at risk? They open unsolicited attachments and download unauthorized software. 5. Do you agree with author that the human factor is the most important to protect a company against virus attack? Explain. Open. Text Framework Part I: (1-3): The problem of computer viruses and the application of anti-software. Part II (4-7) : Even with the guarantee of anti-virus software, computer security is a myth. Part III (8-10) : The human reasons for the spread of computer viruses. Part IV (11-12) : The solution to the problem of computer viruses: education of the employees to make them practice safe computing. You Are the Weakest Link, Goodbye 1. Do you remember the good old days? Innocent times spent sharing documents and executable files without a care in the world. Okay, every month or so you might encounter a boot sector virus — but they were easy to deal with even if the anti-virus software didn't pick them up. You Are the Weakest Link, Goodbye 2. But those long lazy summers disappeared too fast. Macro Viruses made Information Technology (IT) administrators grow up fast as they realized there was a type of virus which could spread very quickly throughout an organization. It wasn't unusual to find hundreds of computers within personal company infected by viruses transmitted via email attachments. The IT staff were amongst the fittest departments in your company, running from Personal Computer (PC) to the next cleaning them up. You Are the Weakest Link, Goodbye 3. There had to be a better way. Companies now realize that viruses aren't "urban myths", and can have a serious impact on their operations. They invest in anti-virus software on the desktops, servers and email gateways and even put in place procedures to ensure their antivirus is up-to-date with the very latest detection routines. 4. It sounds like companies have put in place adequate defenses to protect against viruses. But have they? You Are the Weakest Link, Goodbye 5. Anti-virus software detects most of the viruses your users are likely to encounter — often without the user even knowing. However, the software must be updated regularly, preferably daily in any large company. Even then, a very new virus can infect your users. With the rapid transmission of files through networks and the Internet, a virus can spread a considerable distance before it can be identified and protected against. Fortunately, only a few viruses ever do this but the likes of Melissa and the love bug can inflict serious damage before their progress is stopped. Whilst employees become suddenly aware during the ensuing media excitement, they soon forget about the virus threat as the stories disappear from the news headlines. You Are the Weakest Link, Goodbye 6. This is the danger. Complacency can set in when there is no perceived "action" on the virus front with no global crisis, and the importance of being vigilant about viruses recedes in your users' minds. They forget what the big deal was in the first place — after all, the anti-virus software deals with the viruses, doesn't it? And isn't it the IT department's job to look after this sort of thing? You Are the Weakest Link, Goodbye 7. Before you know it your users are opening unsolicited attachments once more, downloading unauthorized software, and putting your company's data and credibility at risk. All because the users think that they are working in a safe environment. Employees see antivirus software, firewalls and IT departments as guarantees that their computers will work and will be safe. Of course, there aren't any guarantees. Anti-virus software plays one, (albeit important), part in the defense of your company from malicious attack but the security of your computer system is only as strong as the weakest link. And that, more often than not, is the human factor. You Are the Weakest Link, Goodbye 8. No employer wants to come across as a killjoy or an ogre. Most will willingly accept that the happiest employees are those who feel that they are respected and trusted by their employer. Many companies accept that employees will send and receive a certain amount of personal email and make the odd personal telephone call. 9. However, the worry comes when employees start risking company security in pursuit of personal amusement. Funny screensavers and games downloaded from the Internet can seem harmless enough but they could easily be harboring a dangerous virus. You Are the Weakest Link, Goodbye 10. Software downloaded from the net is often unlicensed and unsupported, and may cause conflicts with existing software in use at your company. Unlicensed, pirated software is an ideal vector for a computer virus. Virus writers and hackers often use such software as the ideal "kick-start" for their virus distribution. You Are the Weakest Link, Goodbye 11. It is vitally important that employees (should) be educated about the virus threat but this cannot be an one-off event. The potential threat should always be in the back of an employee's mind and precautionary measures should be taken as a matter of course. There is no harm in reminding people about what could happen if they let their guard down. In the end, education is the key to a virus-free environment and this is a continual process. It may not be the most exciting thing on the agenda but it works. You Are the Weakest Link, Goodbye 12. The lesson is simple. You can have the best software in the world protecting your company's defenses; you can even be the biggest IT company in the world; but without your users practicing safe computing they will always be the weakest link. Summary The weakest link in the protection of a company’s computers against viruses is the individual computer user. There is a strong tendency that the employees assure it is the company’s computer security experts’ job to worry about the viruses and they can bring the problem under control. But everyone must do their share to prevent viruses. Any unsolicited email attachment or any untested type of software may contain a virus. Even the best antivirus software is not always effective and must be frequently updated. Constant education of all employees about viruses is the key to virus prevention. No one should ever be allowed to relax their defenses, even if this means the company must have some rules set that employees might not like. The Internet The Internet is a computer network made up of thousands of networks worldwide. An Internet user has access to a wide variety of services: electronic mail, file transfer, vast information resources, interest group membership, interactive collaboration, multimedia displays, real-time broadcasting, shopping opportunities, breaking news, and much more. Email Electronic Mail (email) is the most frequently used application of the Internet. Many people who have access to the Internet at school, home, and work, use the Internet for no other purpose than to send and receive email. Email allows computer users locally and worldwide to exchange messages. Each user of email has a mailbox address to which messages are sent. Messages sent through email can arrive within a matter of seconds. Computer Virus A computer virus is a program that invades your computer system, hides there, and makes copies of itself. Viruses spread when you launch an infected application or start up your computer from a disk that has infected system files. All computer viruses are manmade. A simple virus that can make a copy of itself over and over again is relatively easy to produce. Even such a simple virus is dangerous because it will quickly use all available memory and bring the system to a halt Macro Viruses Macro viruses are computer viruses that use an application's own macro programming language to distribute themselves. These macros have the potential to inflict damage to the document or to other computer software. The infecting files can be modified or deleted and may not be recoverable. Melissa Melissa affects Word documents. If launched, the macro virus will attempt to start Microsoft Outlook to send copies of the infected document via email to up to 50 people in Outlook’s address book as an attachment. The Love Bug The Love Bug virus is also called the Love-letter Virus, or simply I Love You.nThe virus is circulating through email and affecting many customers. If run, the virus could overwrite .jpg, .mp3, and other file types, and attempt to send a copy of itself to everyone in the recipient's address book. The e-mail containing the virus typically carries a subject line of "ILOVEYOU". Inside the mail is a short message saying "Kindly check the attached LOVELETTER coming from me" and an attachment named LOVELETTER-FOR-YOU.txt.vbs. Innocent adj. 1. Uncorrupted by evil, malice, or wrongdoing; sinless: eg. an innocent child. 2. Not guilty of a specific crime or offense; legally blameless: eg. Mr. Smith is innocent of all charges. 3. Within, allowed by, or sanctioned by the law; lawful. 4. Not dangerous or harmful; innocuous: infect v. 1. To contaminate with a pathogenic microorganism or agent. 传染：通过致病的微生物或媒介来传染3. To invade and produce infection in. 感染：侵入并发生感染 4. To contaminate or corrupt: eg. envy that infected their thoughts; a society that was infected by racism. 5. To affect in a contagious way: 使受影响：以感染的方式来影响： eg. “His fear infected me, and . . . I followed as fast as I could” fit adj. 1. Suited, adapted, or acceptable for a given circumstance or purpose: eg. It’s not a fit time for flippancy. 2. Appropriate; proper: eg. Do as you see fit./你认为怎么合适就怎么做. 3. Physically sound; healthy: Up to date The newest, the latest, the most recent Be up-to-date with sth.: the equipped with the latest achievements of sth. Considerable adj. 1. Large in amount, extent, or degree: a writer of considerable influence. 2. Worthy of consideration; significant: The economy was a considerable issue in the campaign. 3. n.Informal A considerable amount, extent, or degree. Whilst employees become suddenly aware during the ensuing media excitement, they soon forget about the virus threat as the stories disappear from the news headlines. 当媒体轰动，争相报道时，员工 会突然警觉起来，而一旦新闻头条不 再报道这些事件，他们就会很快将其 抛之脑后。 Complacency n. 1. A feeling of contentment or self-satisfaction, especially when coupled with an unawareness of danger or trouble. 自满: 一种满足或自满，尤指未意识到危险或麻烦时 2. An instance of contented self-satisfaction. 自鸣得意：一种得意的自我满足 Complacency can set in when there is no perceived "action" on the virus front with no global crisis, and the importance of being vigilant about viruses recedes in your users' minds. 若病毒战线没有能察觉到的“大动作”， 也没有全球性的危机，人们就会变得洋洋自 得，对病毒保持警惕的重要性的意识就会在 用户的脑子中渐渐淡化。 (并列复合句) Solicit v. 1. To seek to obtain by persuasion, entreaty, or formal application: a candidate who solicited votes among the factory workers. 2. To petition persistently; importune: solicited the neighbors for donations. 3. To entice or incite to evil or illegal action. / 教唆 4. To approach or accost (a person) with an offer of sexual services.勾引 5. v.intr.（不及物动词） To make solicitation or petition for s Albeit conj. Even though; although; notwithstanding: clear albeit cold weather. 虽然天冷但仍很晴朗 The phrase “albeit important” in the text functions as an insertion in the sentence, which means “though important” and will not hazard the grammatical correctness of the sentence when canceled. the security of your computer system is only as strong as the weakest link. And that, more often than not, is the human factor. 在保护公司不受恶意攻击的战斗中，只 能起到一定的作用。公司的计算机系统安 全与否实际上系于最薄弱的一个环节。 而这个环节往往就是人的因素。 Come across v phr. 1. To meet or find by chance: came across my old college roommate in town today. 2. Slang 3. To do what is wanted. 4. To pay over money that is demanded: came across with the check. / 开支票支付 5. To give an impression: “He comes across as a very sincere, religious individual”. Harbor v. 1. To give shelter to: / 窝藏： harbor refugees; harbor a fugitive. / 收留难民；窝藏 逃犯 2. To provide a place, home, or habitat for: a basement that harbors a maze of pipes; streams that harbor trout and bass. 3. To entertain or nourish (a specified thought or feeling): / 持有或抱有（某种特殊的思想或感情） harbor a grudge. Pirate v. 1. To attack and rob (a ship at sea). / 抢劫（海上船只） 2. To take (something) by piracy. / 剽窃，盗用：通过剽 窃途径获得 3. To make use of or reproduce (another's work) without authorization. / 非法翻印，非法仿制：未经授 权而使用或复制他人（作品） 4. v.intr.（不及物动词） To act as a pirate; practice piracy. Agenda n. 【复数】 agendas A list or program of things to be done or considered: / 议事日程：给待做或待议诸事项所列的目录清 单或 Languag e Focus Keys to exercise 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 adequate vitally document distribution urban 6. potential 7. continual 8. infecting 9. threat 10. undated Keys to exercise 5 1. 2 3. 4. 5. let down came across as in the back of … mind as a matter of course cleaning up Exercise 6: Translate the following sentences into English. 1. 为了追求正健康的饮食，人们现在比过去 吃愈多。(in pursuit of) In pursuit of a healthier diet, people are eating more fish than they used to. Exercise 6: Translate the following sentences into English. 2. 我们需要在坏天气到来之前叫人把屋顶修一 修。(set in) We need to have the roof repaired before the bad whether sets in. Exercise 6: Translate the following sentences into English. 3. 这种疾病正在蔓延，所以儿童都有被传染 的危险。(at risk) The diseases are spreading, and all young children are at risk. Exercise 6: Translate the following sentences into English. 4. 信息通过电话线从一台电脑传到另一台电 脑。(transmit) The information is transmitted from one computer to another through a telephone line. Exercise 6: Translate the following sentences into English. 5. 杰克是个相当好的赛跑运动员。他在大多 数情况下都能获胜。(more often than not) Jack is a fairly good runner. He wins more often than not. Write about it Directions: Write a paragraph of around 80 words explaining that companies should do more than invest in anti-virus software to protect against computer viruses. The following points may help you to organize your writing. And the first sentence has been written for you. Write about it Points for your reference: 1) It is true that anti-virus software may protect against viruses. 2) Employees may use office computers for personal amusement. 3) Education of the employees is the key. The first sentence of your passage: To protect against computer viruses, companies should do more than invest in anti-virus software on the desktops, servers and email gateways. Passage B Sorry to Bug you Think about it How often do you email your friends? How would you solve the problem if your computer is inflicted by viruses? What would you do if you accidentally spread a virus? Passage B Preview Check 1. What happened to the author when he clicked Work Offline? He found 65 infected messages ready to be sent. 2. What did the author do when he knew that his computer was attacked by a virus? He deleted the message and emptied the Recycle Bin. Then he went to the Web for help. 3. What is the worst part of the Homepage virus? It can mail itself to others in one’s Address Book. 4. What is the author’s advice to those who get an email message with an attachment? Never open it, unless they are told to expect it. 5. What are the effective ways to protect your computer from being attacked by viruses? Open. Text Framework Part I: (1-2): I had unleashed a computer virus unconsciously on my home computer. Part II (3-6) : Despite my quick and great efforts, the virus automatically forwarded itself to all the addresses in my address book. Part III (70) : A lesson : Never open an attachment, even from a friend, unless you’ve been told to expect it. And always use virus protection. Sorry to Bug You You’d think after all these years I’d know better than to spread a virus by email. You’d be wrong. 1. The email was from a woman I knew decades ago, back when we were spooning teenagers. We had corresponded electronically maybe three times since then, I swear. The subject line on this latest missive was “Homepage.” The message read, simply: “Hi! You’ve got to see this page! It’s really cool.” It was signed with a goofy emotion, a winking, sideways smiling face. “Ho, ho! You sly thing!” I thought, recalling the feverish summer of ’70... and clicked on the attached file. Pause. Uh-oh. Sorry to Bug You 2. It was the dumbest thing I’d done since 1979, when I pitched a tent on a colony of army ants in Mexico. My screen started shimmering like a Yucatan sunset. I had unleashed a computer virus. Sorry to Bug You 3. I felt like the doctor in The Andromeda Strain; the clock was outracing me. I went to my email program, clicked on File, then selected Work Offline. That, I assumed, would cordon me off from the Net and keep me from spreading the bug while I figured out how to get rid of it. Next I checked my Outbox. Argh! Sixty-five messages were queued up, waiting to be sent to my friends. Each was from me. Each bore the subject line “Homepage.” Each had a file attached, as doomladen as a warhead. Sorry to Bug You 4. I deleted the messages and emptied the Recycle Bin. Then I went to the Web for guidance. Cursing myself for not using an anti-virus program on my home computer, I learned that the Homepage virus is the most common bug — technically, it’s a “worm” — out there. It afflicts only PC users of Microsoft Outlook and would not damage my computer. But it would immediately mail itself to everyone in my address book — that is, everyone to whom I’ve ever sent a Reply message. The worm also resets your browser’s home page to one of four porn sites. The This last bit had not happened to mine. Was I spared? Sorry to Bug You 5. Gingerly, I fired up Outlook and connected to the Net. Fifty messages poured into my Inbox. Most were from corporate servers — such as Time Inc.’s — informing me that my email was being returned unopened since it contained a virus. The last message was from my friend Marshall: “If you don’t mind my asking, which homepage?” Double argh! I had spread the accursed worm. I wrote a mea culpa warning, which I mailed to everyone in my address book: Don’t click on that attachment! Sorry to Bug You 6. The worst part was that many of the people I had emailed were newbies — subscribers who had emailed me for help in connection with this column. Most of these folks were kind; only one asked me to remove her name from my address book. A guy from the Philippines, birthplace of the dread Love Bug virus, wrote, “It is quite ironic that I got a worm from you.” Sorry to Bug You 7. Let that irony be a lesson to you: Never open an attachment, even from a friend, unless you’ve been told to expect it. And always use virus protection. Finally, if you get an email from me whose subject is “Homepage,” run. Summary The author, who writes an online computer column and ought to know better, had is personal computer attacked by a virus when he opened an attachment from a former girlfriend without using virus protection. The computer automatically forwarded the attachment to all the addresses in the author’s address book. He quickly stopped 65 infected messages from being sent, but soon received 50 replies from other people stating that the attachment to his message contained a virus. Then he wrote to everyone in his address book apologizing and warning them of the virus. Fortunately most of them forgave him. Only one subscriber to his column asked to be deleted from its mailing list. The lesson of this story is to use virus protection and ignore unexpected and attacked. Josh Quittner (author) A graduate of Grinnell College and the Columbia School of Journalism, Josh Quittner is managing editor of ON magazine (formerly TIME Digital) a monthly guide to personal technology. He is responsible for the editorial direction of the magazine, development of stories and the expansion of its web site, onmagazine.com. Quittner was named one of top 20 most influential technology journalists two years in a row by ADWEEK's Technology Marketing magazine. Mexico Mexico is the largest Spanishspeaking country and the second-largest Roman Catholic nation in the world. Mexico City, the capital, is one of the world's fastest-growing metropolitan areas with an estimated population of 18 million. Yucatan, Mexico The Yucatan peninsula has been the home of the Maya for at least 4,000 years. Breathtaking sculpture and mural-covered pyramids stand witness to the magnificent civilization, which formerly existed here. Today, thatchcovered houses and hand-embroidered costumes of villagers are vivid reminders that the Maya are still very much alive. Andromeda Strain Andromeda Strain is a movie which combines a classic sciencefiction theme (disaster virus) with a contemporary distrust of political affairs. The concept is simple: "A top-secret government team investigating rare diseases, some so bizarre they seem to come from outer space." It was directed by Robert Wise and adapted from novel by Michael Crichton The Homepage Virus VBSWG.X, also known as Homepage, is an e-mail worm found on May 9th, 2001. Homepage worm spreads using Outlook Application. It sends messages with the content as shown in the picture right: When the attached file is executed, the worm will send (mass mail) itself to each recipient in every address book. Then the worm tries to hide the mass mailing. It deletes all messages from Inbox and Deleted Items folders which contain a subject 'Homepage'. The Philippines The Philippines is an independent island nation in the western Pacific Ocean some 800 km off the coast of mainland Southeast Asia. Over centuries foreign elements have been added to the native Malay culture, creating a culture that reflects both Eastern and Western influences. Correspond v. 1. To be in agreement, harmony, or conformity. / 一致：一致、和谐或相配 Correspond to sth. 2. To communicate by letter, usually over a period of time. / 交流：通过信件交流、通常 在一段时期内 missive n. A written message; a letter a colony of : a group of colony n. Ecology A group of the same kind of animals, plants, or one-celled organisms living or growing together. / 【生态学】 群体：一 群生活或生长在一起的同种动物、植物或 单细胞有机体 Shimmer v. To shine with a subdued, flickering light.See Synonyms at flash. / 闪闪发光：以柔和、闪 烁的光线发光 cordon v. n. A line of people, military posts, or ships stationed around an area to enclose or guard it. / 封锁线：驻扎于一个地区周围 包围或保卫它的一列人、军事岗位或船只 v. To form a cordon around (an area) so as to prevent movement in or out: / 封锁：在某 一地区周围形成封锁线以阻止出入： Troops cordoned off the riot zone. Laden adj. ( pp. of “lade”) 1. Weighed down with a load; heavy: / 承受 重负的： The warmish air, laden with the rains of those thousands of miles of western sea. / 暖暖的空气 充满着几千里外西方海洋的雨水。 2. Oppressed; burdened: /受压迫的；沉重的： laden with grief. / 满怀忧伤 afflict v. torture: To inflict grievous physical or mental suffering on. / 折磨：予以…剧 烈的肉体或心理打击 gingerly adv. With great care or delicacy; cautiously. / 小心谨慎的：非常小心谨慎地；小心翼翼 地 adj. Cautious; careful. / 谨慎的；小心的 accursed adj. 1. Abominable; hateful: / 可恶的；可厌的： This accursed mud. / 可恶的泥浆 2. Being under a curse; doomed. / 受诅咒的； 注定完蛋的 Languag e Focus Keys to exercise 12 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 colonies technologically cursed corresponding folks 6. dread 7. swear 8. Were spared 9. protection 10. dumb Keys to exercise 13 1. 2 3. 4. 5. was cordoned off fired up queued up get rid of poured into Exercise 14: Translate the following sentences into English. 1. 如果你删掉50个字，我们就可以把整个故 事排一夜之上。(delete) If you delete 50 words, we can put the whole story on one page. Exercise 14 : Translate the following sentences into English. 2. 有那位著名拳击手亲笔签名(signature)的拳 击手套正在展出。(bear) On display were boxing gloves which bore the famous boxer’s signature. Exercise 14 : Translate the following sentences into English. 3. 我们想不通他怎么会干出那样的傻事。 (figure out, dumb) We can’t figure out why he did such a dumb thing. Exercise 14 : Translate the following sentences into English. 4. 约翰逊一家对我很好，使我感到就像他们 家的一员。(feel like) The Johnson's were very kind to me. They made me feel like one of the family. Exercise 14 : Translate the following sentences into English. 5. 他们说，像就合同的细节和你谈谈。。(in connection with) They say they want to talk to you in connection with the details of the contract. General Writing Omission and Emphasis An important aid to economy in writing English is the elliptical clause. In many cases, it is possible to leave out a relative pronoun that normally would join a dependent clause to an independent clause. Sometimes a dependent clause contains neither subject nor verb. It is known as an elliptical clause. Examples: • The movie I wanted to see was not playing. (which or that unexpressed) • When in Barcelona, try to find a quiet hotel room. (When you are in Barcelona) General Writing Omission and Emphasis Another kind of elliptical construction occurs most commonly after the words "than" and "as". Examples: • The chairman spoke longer than he. (spoke is not repeated) • Are you as old as she? (is is omitted) Practical Writing: Internet Notice An internet notice is written to inform the public of the affairs concerning computer use and the Internet communication. The place for the notice to be put is called Internet Notice Board. A model notice: --- VIRUS ADVISORY --— [email protected] — McAfee.com has seen a large and growing number of computers infected with [email protected] This is a MEDIUM RISK virus. As always, we recommend that you keep your anti-virus software up-to-date for the best protection. McAfee.com will continue to update you on the latest details of the [email protected] virus, click here. Sincerely, McAfee.com Note: McAfee is an anti-virus company in the U.S (http://dispatch.mcafee.com/dispatches/mylife/) Task Directions: Choose one of the following topics and write an Internet notice. 1. Finding of a serious virus 2. Change of one's email address 3. Establishment of a website Culture Salon Milestones in Computer History 1992-2001 1992 1994 1993 1995 1998 1999 1996 1997 Microsoft releases 3.1, Jim andreleases MarcWindows Andreessen Apple Microsoft Computer introduces introduces Office Marc An Clark innovative Andreessen releases technology creates Windows Internet a the latest version ofnew its version Windows found Netscape and launch the 2000, iMac, offering the latest tool for of graphical 95 which called Explorer 4.0 Web consists webtv and browser of seizes more combines called a than key operating system. Windows 3.1 Netscape Navigator 1.0,arena. aby its users to popular create content Macintosh and Mosaic. 10,000,000 television place in This the and lines success the Internet ofInternet computer leads to offers improvements suchWeb. as browser for viewers the World Wide computer. save it new directly The to iMac awith Web abandons site. the instructions providing This organization developed Web of browser Netscape tools by 300 to is True Type fonts, multimedia such conventional features as a greeted tremendous Communications person-years navigate thewith Web. of effort. Corporation. capability, and object linking and floppy drive but customerdisk demand. embedding (OLE). In wins two customers3,000,000 with itscopies futuristic months, of design, see-through Windows 3.1 are sold. case, and easy setup. Company LOGO Thank You!