Special Topic 1 The Translation of the Bible and the Recovery Version Bible Mainland Scholars’ Gospel Main Content • Introduction • The General Principles of Bible Translation • The Translation of the King James Version • The Translation of the Recovery Version • Conclusion Introduction • The Bible has been the #1 best-selling books in the world. • The Bible has been translated into 392 languages by 2002. • There have been at least 63 English translations since 1950, at least 10 of them are widely-accepted. General Principles of Bible Translation • “Original Text”? – The Bible translators need to depend on Archaeology and Biblical Textual Criticism to produce a most authoritative “original” text that closely resembles the “autographs”. – The most authoritative original text accepted by most modern biblical scholars are: • NT: eclectic text – United Bible Societies (UBS) – Nestle-Aland • OT: Masoretic Text – Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia） General Principles of Bible Translation • The Principle of Bible Translation – Literal Translation – Dynamic Equivalence – Combination • Changes in Language • The Advancement of the Knowledge of Truth The Translation of the King James Version (KJV) • Original Text – NT: Textus Receptus – OT: Complutensian Polyglot; Antwerp Polyglot – “only sixteen years after its publication Codex Alexandrinus arrived at the British Museum from Constantinople, too late to be incorporated into this version.” (Paul Wegner, The Journey from Text to Translations, 311.) • Translation Principle – A Word-for-Word translation The Translation of the King James Version (KJV) • Language – This version leaves its mark upon the English language with such expressions as “lick the dust,” “skin of his teeth,” and “salt of the earth.” – The English language continued to develop, however, so that in time the wording of KJV would become archaic and in need of improvement. The Translation of the Recovery Version • Origin – In 1948, Watchman Nee proposed to produce 4 kinds of Bible translations, covering the entire spectrum of translation principle, i.e., from Literal Translation to Dynamic Equivalence Literal Translation 4: Extreme Literal Translation Combination 3: More Literal Translation 2: Balanced Translation Dynamic Equivalence 1: Extreme Paraphrasing The Translation of the Recovery Version • Translation Process – Witness Lee, Watchman Nee’s closest coworker, continued Nee’s burden. From 1974, he led semi-annual life-study trainings in U.S. and expounded the NT book by book. Meanwhile, with the help of experts in Greek, he translated the NT into English and added footnotes, outlines and references and named it the Recovery version. It was completed in 1985. The Translation of the Recovery Version – In 1988, Witness Lee continued to lead lifestudy trainings on OT and translated OT to English with the help of experts in Hebrew. The complete Recovery Version Bible was printed in 1999. The Translation of the Recovery Version • Original Text – NT: Nestle-Aland 26th Edition – OT: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia • Translation Principle – “Translating the Bible depends not only on an adequate comprehension of the original language but also on a proper understanding of the divine revelation in the holy Word. Throughout the centuries the understanding of the divine revelation possessed by the saints has always been based upon the light they received, and this understanding has progressed steadily. The consummation of this understanding forms the basis of this translation and its footnotes. Hence, this translation and the accompanying footnotes could be called the ‘crystalization’ of the understanding of the divine revelation which the saints everywhere have attained to in the past two thousand years. It is our hope that the Recovery Version will carry on the heritage that it has received and will pave the way for future generations.” – “The Recovery Version embodies extensive research into the meaning of the original text and attempts to express this meaning with English that is to the point, easy to understand, and readable.” Comparison of Translation Between RcV and KJV Verse KJV RcV Comparison Matt 10:32 Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father which is in heaven. Every one therefore who will confess in Me before men, I also will confess in him before My Father who is in the heavens; The RcV faithfully translates the Greek preposition εν, which means “in”. However, KJV omits it. Furthermore, RcV captures the union between the Lord and those who confess Him, revealing the mystery of the organic union between God and man. Phil 3:11 If by any means I might attain unto the resurrection of the dead. If perhaps I may attain to the outresurrection from the dead. The goal of the Apostle Paul is to attain to the out-resurrection from the dead, not the general resurrection from the dead. This out-resurrection The Translation of the Recovery Version • Reference Materials – Watchman Nee and Witness Lee stood on the shoulders of the former Bible teachers and scholars, and use the Scripture as the unique standard to filter all the teachings: • Henry Alford, New Testament Word Study • F. W. Grant, Numerical Bible • Young’s Analytical Concordance to the Bible, Strong’s Concordance • Kittel, Greek Word Study • More than 50 English translations Conclusion • The RcV Bible is based on the most current authoritative Hebrew and Greek text, and is a crystalization of the understanding of the divine revelation which the saints everywhere have attained to in the past two-thousand years. • The RcV Bible is focused on faithfulness to the original text in order to reveal the divine revelation inherent in the Scripture Conclusion • Therefore, the RcV Bible is an excellent study Bible to help the believers to dive into the truths and to grow in life.