/f √nAl √dZi/
/t/
[tH] [/] [t˘] [t]
English 306A; Harris
Sets
/water/
[ice]
[steam]
English 306A; Harris
[water]
Sets
/water/
Prototype
[ice]
[steam]
English 306A; Harris
[water]
Sets
[water]
Prototype
[ice]
[steam]
English 306A; Harris
/t/ & [t]
phones, phonemes, allophones
/t/
[tH] [/] [t˘] [t]
English 306A; Harris
Phonemic - phonetic
/p√k/
[pH√k|]
English 306A; Harris
Phone, phoneme, allophone
/t/ =
[tH][t] [/]
[t|] [t˘] [R]
English 306A; Harris
Phone, phoneme, allophone
Phone: a speech sound
Phoneme: set of related speech sounds
Allophone: a member of a set of related
speech sounds (i.e., an allophone is a
member of a phoneme)
/t/
[tH]
English 306A; Harris
Phone, phoneme, allophone
Phone
A noise systematically exploited by
communities of language users to construct
signifiers
A concrete thing, not an abstract thing
Language independent
Watch for the brackets
[tH]
English 306A; Harris
Phone, phoneme, allophone
Phoneme
A mental entity, not an acoustic entity
An abstract notion, not a concrete notion
Language dependent
Watch for the slashes
/t/
English 306A; Harris
Phone, phoneme, allophone
Phoneme
Represented by one of the allophones (the
least predictable, most basic one), but not
pronounceable
A critical diagnostic: the minimal pair
pill till kill bill dill gill fill sill shill hill chill
Jill will mill rill Lil nil
English 306A; Harris
Phone, phoneme, allophone
Allophone
Does not make sense except in terms of
some specific phoneme
There is no such thing as “an allophone”,
only “an allophone of some phoneme”
It is defined by its relationship to a
phoneme
/t/
[tH]
English 306A; Harris
Phone, phoneme, allophone
Allophone
[tH] is not “an allophone”, it is “an allophone
of /t/ (in English)”
English
/t/
[tH]
English 306A; Harris
Phone, phoneme, allophone
Allophone
A phone can be an allophone of more than one
phoneme (in a given language).
English
/t/
/d/
[R]
English 306A; Harris
Phoneme: easy to hear
Allophone: hard to hear
[R], [d], [D]
Spanish
English
English 306A; Harris
Phoneme*: easy to hear
Allophone: hard to hear
[R], [d], [D]
* Phonemic
distinctions
English 306A; Harris
Phoneme: easy to hear
Allophone*: hard to hear
[R], [d], [D]
* Allophones
of the same
phoneme
English 306A; Harris
Phoneme: easy to hear
Allophone: hard to hear
English
Spanish
soda
[soR´]
toro
[toRo]
dough
[do]
donde
[dAnde]
though
[Do]
todos
[toDos]
English 306A; Harris
Phoneme: easy to hear
Allophone: hard to hear
English
easy
Spanish
hard
easy
hard
[d] vs [D] [d] vs [R] [d] vs [R] [d] vs [D]
[R] vs [D]
[D] vs [R]
English 306A; Harris
Phoneme: easy to hear
Allophone: hard to hear
English
Spanish
/d/
[R] [d]
/d/
[D] [d]
/D/
[D]
/r/
[R] [r]
English 306A; Harris
Phone, phoneme, allophone
Allophone
A phone can be an allophone of different
phonemes in different languages.
English
/t/, /d/
Spanish
English
/r/
/D/
[R]
/d/
[D]
English 306A; Harris
Spanish
Phone, phoneme, allophone
Allophone
A critical diagnostic: complementary
distribution
Phonetic similarity + mutually exclusive
neighborhoods
[pHIl] [spIl] [lIp|]
English 306A; Harris
Phonological processes
Allophonic patterns
The same alternations with classes of related
sounds
[pHIl] [tHIl] [kHIl
Phonological rules
Expressions in a formal notation for
describing (‘predicting’) such alterations
X  Y ⁄ W
English 306A; Harris
Z
Phonological processes
Allophonic patterns
The same alternations with classes of related
sounds
[pHIl] [spIl] [lIp|]
[tHIl] [stIl] [lIt|]
[kHIl] [skIl] [lIk|]
English 306A; Harris
Phonological processes
[pH] [tH] [kH]
[p|] [t|] [k|]
[p] [t] [k]
Phones
Voiceless stops
English 306A; Harris
Phonological processes
Phonemes
Voiceless stops
/p/ /t/ /k/
[pH] [tH] [kH]
[p|] [t|] [k|]
[p] [t] [k]
Phones
Voiceless stops
English 306A; Harris
Phonological processes
Phonemes
Voiceless stops
/p/ /t/ /k/
[pH] [tH] [kH]
[p|] [t|] [k|]
[p] [t] [k]
Allophones
English 306A; Harris
and phones
and voiceless stops
Phonological processes
Phonological rules
Express allophonic regularities
Have the form:
X  Y ⁄ W
English 306A; Harris
Z
+stop
-voice 
+aspirated / 
+syllabic
+stress
/p/ /t/ /k/
[pH] [tH] [kH]
[p|] [t|] [k|]
[p] [t] [k]
Allophonic
distribution of
voiceless stops
in English
English 306A; Harris
+stop
-voice 
-release
⁄
#
/p/ /t/ /k/
[pH] [tH] [kH]
[p|] [t|] [k|]
[p] [t] [k]
Allophonic
distribution of
voiceless stops
in English
English 306A; Harris
???  ????
⁄ ???
???
/p/ /t/ /k/
[pH] [tH] [kH]
[p|] [t|] [k|]
[p] [t] [k]
Allophonic
distribution of
voiceless stops
in English
English 306A; Harris
Phonological Rules: classes of
sounds
/ p /  [ph] / 
V
/ t /  [th] / 
V
/ k /  [kh] / 
V
+stop
-voice 
+aspirated / 
English 306A; Harris
+syllabic
+stress
Phonological processes
Some English rules
Voiceless stops are aspirated at the
beginnings of stressed syllables
-voice
+stop
+syllabic
+stress
 [+aspirated] / 
Stops (voiced and voiceless) are
unreleased at the ends of words
[+stop]  [-released]
⁄
English 306A; Harris
#
Vowel nasalization: English
[bQt|]
[gAt|]
[bEt|]
[lAk|]
[rIp|]
(bat)
(got)
(bet)
(lock)
(rip)
[bQ‚n]
[gA‚n]
[bE‚n]
[lA‚N]
[rI‚m]
(ban)
(gon)
(Ben)
(long)
(rim)
Complementary distribution
English 306A; Harris
Vowel nasalization: English
[bQt|]
[gAt|]
[bEt|]
[lAk|]
[rIp|]
(bat)
(got)
(bet)
(lock)
(rip)
[bQ‚n]
[gA‚n]
[bE‚n]
[lA‚N]
[rI‚m]
What’s the rule?
English 306A; Harris
(ban)
(gon)
(Ben)
(long)
(rim)
Vowel nasalization: English
[bQt|]
[gAt|]
[bEt|]
[lAk|]
[rIp|]
(bat)
(got)
(bet)
(lock)
(rip)
[bQ‚n]
[gA‚n]
[bE‚n]
[lA‚N]
[rI‚m]
What’s the rule?
[+syllabic]
English 306A; Harris
(ban)
(gone)
(Ben)
(long)
(rim)
Vowel nasalization: English
[bQt|]
[gAt|]
[bEt|]
[lAk|]
[rIp|]
(bat)
(got)
(bet)
(lock)
(rip)
[bQ‚n]
[gA‚n]
[bE‚n]
[lA‚N]
[rI‚m]
What’s the rule?
 [+nasal]
English 306A; Harris
(ban)
(gone)
(Ben)
(long)
(rim)
Vowel nasalization: English
[bQt|]
[gAt|]
[bEt|]
[lAk|]
[rIp|]
[bQ‚n]
[gA‚n]
[bE‚n]
[lA‚N]
[rI‚m]
(bat)
(got)
(bet)
(lock)
(rip)
(ban)
(gone)
(Ben)
(long)
(rim)
What’s the rule?
⁄
English 306A; Harris
[+nasal]
Vowel nasalization: English
[bQt|]
[gAt|]
[bEt|]
[lAk|]
[rIp|]
[bQ‚n]
[gA‚n]
[bE‚n]
[lA‚N]
[rI‚m]
(bat)
(got)
(bet)
(lock)
(rip)
(ban)
(gone)
(Ben)
(long)
(rim)
What’s the rule?
[+syllabic]  [+nasal]
⁄
English 306A; Harris
[+nasal]
Vowel length: English
[bQt|]
[gAt|]
[bEt|]
[m√k|]
[lAk|]
[rIp|]
(bat)
(got)
(bet)
(muck)
(lock)
(rip)
[bQ˘d|]
[gA˘d|]
[bE˘d|]
[m√˘g|]
[lA˘g|]
[rI˘b|]
(bad)
(god, God)
(bed)
(mug)
(log)
(rib)
Complementary distribution
English 306A; Harris
Vowel length: English
[bQt|]
[gAt|]
[bEt|]
[m√k|]
[lAk|]
[rIp|]
(bat)
(got)
(bet)
(muck)
(lock)
(rip)
[bQ˘d|]
[gA˘d|]
[bE˘d|]
[m√˘g|]
[lA˘g|]
[rI˘b|]
What’s the rule?
English 306A; Harris
(bad)
(god, God)
(bed)
(mug)
(log)
(rib)
Vowel length: English
[bQt|]
[gAt|]
[bEt|]
[m√k|]
[lAk|]
[rIp|]
(bat)
(got)
(bet)
(muck)
(lock)
(rip)
[bQ˘d|]
[gA˘d|]
[bE˘d|]
[m√˘g|]
[lA˘g|]
[rI˘b|]
(bad)
(god, God)
(bed)
(mug)
(log)
(rib)
What’s the rule?
[+syllabic]  [+long]
English 306A; Harris
⁄
[+voice]
English vowel allophones
[Q], [Q˘], [Q‚]
[A], [A˘], [A‚]
[E], [E˘], [E‚]
[√], [√], ˘[√] ˜
[I], [I˘], [I‚]
etc.
English 306A; Harris
English vowel allophones
[Q], [Q˘], [Q‚]
[A], [A˘], [A‚]
[E], [E˘], [E‚]
[√], [√], ˘[√] ˜
[I], [I˘], [I‚]
etc.
˜
i.e., V, V:, V
/V/
English 306A; Harris
[V:] /
˜ /
[V]
[+voice]
[+nasal]
[V] / elsewhere
English vowel allophones
/V/
[V:] /
˜ /
[V]
[+voice]
[+nasal]
[V] / elsewhere
[+syllabic]  [+long]
[+syllabic]  [+nasal]
⁄
[+voice]
⁄
English 306A; Harris
[+nasal]
Nasalization: Scots Gaelic
[mo)˘r]
[ni)]
[fuar ]
(big)
(cattle)
(cold)
[mu)] (about)
[ne)˘l] (cloud)
[¬iuF] (wet)
Complementary
distribution
English 306A; Harris
Nasalization
English
[bQ‚˘n]
[gA‚˘n]
(ban)
(gone)
Scots Gaelic
[mu)] (about)
[ne)˘l] (cloud)
English 306A; Harris
Nasalization: Scots Gaelic
[mo)˘r]
[ni)]
[fuar ]
(big)
(cattle)
(cold)
[mu)] (about)
[ne)˘l] (cloud)
[¬iuF] (wet)
What’s the rrrrrrrule?
[+syllabic]  [+nasal]
⁄ [+nasal]
English 306A; Harris
Vowel length: Yap (Western Pacific)
[TIs]
[pul]
[/er]
(to topple)
(to gather)
(near you)
[TI˘s]
[pu˘l]
[/e˘r]
English 306A; Harris
(a post)
(moon)
(lagoon part)
Vowel length: Yap (Western Pacific)
[TIs]
[pul]
[/er]
(to topple)
(to gather)
(near you)
[TI˘s]
[pu˘l]
[/e˘r]
Minimal pairs
English 306A; Harris
(a post)
(moon)
(lagoon part)
Vowel length: Yap (Western Pacific)
[TIs]
[pul]
[/er]
(to topple)
(to gather)
(near you)
[TI˘s]
[pu˘l]
[/e˘r]
i.e., V, V:
/V/, /V:/
English 306A; Harris
(a post)
(moon)
(lagoon part)
Vowel length: Yap (Western Pacific)
[TIs]
[pul]
[/er]
(to topple)
(to gather)
(near you)
[TI˘s]
[pu˘l]
[/e˘r]
What’s the rule?
i.e., V, V:
/V/, /V:/
English 306A; Harris
(a post)
(moon)
(lagoon part)
Vowel length: Yap (Western Pacific)
[TIs]
[pul]
[/er]
(to topple)
(to gather)
(near you)
[TI˘s]
[pu˘l]
[/e˘r]
What’s the rule?
None!
There is no allophonic
variation in the data.
English 306A; Harris
(a post)
(moon)
(lagoon part)
Aspiration: Khmer
[pç˘N]
[tçp]
[kat]
(to wish)
(to support)
(to cut)
[pHç˘N] (also)
[tHçp]
(be suffocated)
[kHat]
(to polish)
English 306A; Harris
Aspiration: Khmer
[pç˘N]
[tçp]
[kat]
(to wish)
(to support)
(to cut)
[pHç˘N] (also)
[tHçp]
(be suffocated)
[kHat]
(to polish)
Minimal pairs
English 306A; Harris
Aspiration: Khmer
[pç˘N]
[tçp]
[kat]
(to wish)
(to support)
(to cut)
[pHç˘N]
[tHçp]
[kHat]
Minimal pairs
English 306A; Harris
(also)
(be suffocated)
(to polish)
/p/, /pH/
/t/, /tH/
/k/, /kH/
/f √nAl √dZi/
(Phones), Allophones, Phonemes
Minimal pairs
Complementary distribution
Phonological processes/rules
English 306A; Harris
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