Phonology Rebecca Bergey TRED 256 What is the difference? Share your ideas with a partner. Phonetics The study of speech sounds. Phonology The study of the way speech sounds form patterns. Phonemes • The basic form of a sound • What is sensed or felt in your mind Morphophonemic rules • Rules that determine the phonetic form plural morpheme and other morphemes Allophone • The sound that describes a phoneme • It may differ according to environment • There may be several allophones for the same phoneme Phonological rules • When looking at a phoneme, the rules that describe which allophone is used in which environment Minimal Pairs • Help us to determine the rules for a particular phoneme • Two words with different meanings that are the same except for one sound that occurs in the same place in each word • Are like the control sample when doing a scientific experiment of a hypothesis • Example: cap, cab or cat, mat Distinctive feature • Something that distinguishes one phoneme from another phoneme and therefore creates a different word • Ex. Seal vs. Zeal Non-distinctive • Redundant • Predictable • Follows a rule for a particular class of sounds Differences in usage across languages • Different phonological rules • Allophones used in different ways • Phonemes or allophones that do not occur across languages How does this work? Input phonemic representation of word phonological rules Output phonetic representation of word Phonology in the classroom Some downfalls of the Audio-lingual approach to second language instruction: • Language is not only speech, but must also include writing. • If second language learners are literate adults, they should not be taught • using only a phonological system. Phonology should not be taught isolated from the syntactic system of a language. Warhaugh, Ronald. (1970) An evaluative comparison of present methods for teaching English phonology. TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 1. A web resource http://www.philseflsupport.com/phonology.htm An overview of phonology and a few web based activities for practice. Phil’s EFL Support. Retrieved July 19, 2007 from http://www.philseflsupport.com/phonology.htm Exercise #1 Consonants Initial /k/-/g/ /m/-/n/ /l/-/r/ /b/-/v/ /b/-/m/ /p/-/f/ /s/-/ / /t /-/d / /s/-/z/ Medial Final Bibliography Phil’s EFL Support. Retrieved July 19, 2007 from http://www.philseflsupport.com/phonology.htm Warhaugh, Ronald. (1970) An evaluative comparison of present methods for teaching English phonology. TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 1.