Phonology
Rebecca Bergey
TRED 256
What is the difference?
Share your ideas with a partner.
Phonetics
The study of
speech sounds.
Phonology
The study of the
way speech
sounds form
patterns.
Phonemes
• The basic form of a sound
• What is sensed or felt in your mind
Morphophonemic rules
• Rules that determine the phonetic form
plural morpheme and other morphemes
Allophone
• The sound that describes a phoneme
• It may differ according to environment
• There may be several allophones for the
same phoneme
Phonological rules
• When looking at a phoneme, the rules
that describe which allophone is used in
which environment
Minimal Pairs
• Help us to determine the rules for a
particular phoneme
• Two words with different meanings that
are the same except for one sound that
occurs in the same place in each word
• Are like the control sample when doing a
scientific experiment of a hypothesis
• Example: cap, cab or cat, mat
Distinctive feature
• Something that distinguishes one
phoneme from another phoneme and
therefore creates a different word
• Ex. Seal vs. Zeal
Non-distinctive
• Redundant
• Predictable
• Follows a rule for a particular class of
sounds
Differences in usage across
languages
• Different phonological rules
• Allophones used in different ways
• Phonemes or allophones that do not occur
across languages
How does this work?
Input
phonemic representation of word
phonological rules
Output
phonetic representation of word
Phonology in the classroom
Some downfalls of the Audio-lingual approach to second language instruction:
• Language is not only speech, but must also include writing.
• If second language learners are literate adults, they should not be taught
•
using only a phonological system.
Phonology should not be taught isolated from the syntactic system of a
language.
Warhaugh, Ronald. (1970) An evaluative comparison of present methods for teaching
English phonology. TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 1.
A web resource
http://www.philseflsupport.com/phonology.htm
An overview of phonology and a few web based
activities for practice.
Phil’s EFL Support. Retrieved July 19, 2007 from
http://www.philseflsupport.com/phonology.htm
Exercise #1
Consonants Initial
/k/-/g/
/m/-/n/
/l/-/r/
/b/-/v/
/b/-/m/
/p/-/f/
/s/-/ /
/t /-/d /
/s/-/z/
Medial
Final
Bibliography
Phil’s EFL Support. Retrieved July 19, 2007 from
http://www.philseflsupport.com/phonology.htm
Warhaugh, Ronald. (1970) An evaluative comparison of
present methods for teaching English phonology. TESOL
Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 1.
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