Language
Personalities
EN TI-KRAMPOUEZH
Ar mevel o komz ouzh Soaz.
M.
― Salud
deoc'h. Petra ho po da zebriñ?
S.
― Da
M.
― Mat-tre,
S.
― Ur
grampouezhenn gwinizh gant mel.
M.
― Ha
petra ho po d'evañ? Chistr?
S.
― N'em
M.
― Kafe
S.
― N'em
gentañ, ur grampouezhenn ed-du, gant ognon ha
tomatez, mar plij.
ha petra ho po goude?
bo ket chistr. Laezh-ribod am bo, mar plij.
ho po goude?
bo ket. Met ur banne te am bo.
Kurssi koostuu eri aihepiirien teksteistä, jotka on
jaettu lyhyisiin kappaleisiin. Kunkin kappaleen
lopussa on ymmärtämistä testaavia
monivalintatehtäviä. Kappaleisiin sisältyvät myös
sanastot ja kielioppiosuudet. Yhteistä sanastoa
täydentää vielä kattava yleisimpien verbien (yli
600) eri muodot sisältävä luettelo.
Language Personalities
How the Interplay of Phonology,
Phonotactics and Morpho-phonology
Creates a Linguistic Aesthetic
“The liquid vowels of the Polynesian tongues conjure up
visions of loveliness and languor, full moon and bright lagoon.
Contrariwise, the gutturals of the German language sound, to a
non-German, as harsh and forbidding as winter in the Black
Forest.
The swoops and swirls of Persian script seem, to a Westerner,
as voluptuous and sensual as the quatrains of Omar Khayyám.
But Goethe wrote tender and lyrical word-music in German,
and Persian is prosaically utilitarian for keeping the accounts
of Iranian oil companies.
The personality of a language, like that of a man, is the sum of
many things not always apparent to the casual eye or ear.”
— Gary Jennings, Personalities of Language
“While the national language of a people has its own
personality, a Sprachgefühl distinct from even closely
related tongues, it is at the same time a complex of
sublanguages—regional dialects, trade jargons and the
like—each of which has its own idiosyncrasies. Take a
New York stockbroker and an Alabama sharecropper…or for that matter, any teen-ager and his
grandfather. Each pair speaks one national language,
but with worlds-apart difference.”
—
Džíčet?
― Did
—
Nàà.
― No.
—
Tskwît.
― Let’s
go eat.
—
Wadžavin máin?
― What
did you have in mind?
—
Haubau’tái?
― How
—
Kêj.
― OK.
you eat yet?
about Thai?
(SBA)
Supposedly she’s an heiress or something like that.
(Teen)
She’s like s’posed to be a fucking heiress or some shit.
Phonoaesthetics
Phonasthetics is the reason that Aragorn, having
defeated the evil lord of Mordor, becomes King of
the West and takes the name Elessar Telcontar,
rather than having defeated the evil lord of
Ailuanyemarë and being crowned under the name
Kratchmurg Brogzdoodle.
CONSONANT INVENTORY OF UBYKH
Qui a dit que les chiens ne
pouvaient pas apprendre à parler?
çççççwçwçwçwçwůůůůůůšwšwšwšwšwšwššššššççççwçwçw
pššššššçççççççkšššššssss
noon
sum
pa
frond
say
ma
new
poo
Vaughn
deer
day
parole
come
bun
we
Noon sum pa frond say ma new poo Vaughn
deer day parole come bun we.
Nous ne sommes pas français, ma nous
pouvons dire des paroles comme “bonne
nuit.”
y
eu
haute
ou
cette
à
août
tout
pis
comme
somme
faim
me
sou
est-ce?
te
heure
ne (n’)
Aix
pleurent
heure
Y eu haute ou cette à août tout pis comme somme
faim me sou est-ce te heure n’Aix pleurent heure.
You ought to set out to become some famous
Western explorer.
Ailles ou ans tout crié te Cannes langue tout.
CREATING A PHONAESTHETIC
“FEEL” FOR YOUR CONLANG
Fundamental questions re phoneme inventories:
• Distribution of front vowels vs. back vowels
• Front vowels: To round or not to round? / 2, 9, Y, y /
• Schwa or no schwa?
• /j/ and /w/ onsets (rising diphthongs) after consonants
• “Guttural” sounds? / x, q, X, R, R\, H /
• Affricates or no affricates?
• Glottal stop?
• Secondary articulations or not? palatalization,
labialization, gemination, rhotacization,
pharyngealization, ejectivization, aspiration, nasalization
• Exotic phonemes: /K/ /M\/
CREATING A PHONAESTHETIC
“FEEL” FOR YOUR CONLANG
Phonotactic Patterns and Constraints
• Frequency of front vs. back vowels; should I
have vowel harmony?
• Frequency of rounded front vowels
• Frequency of /j/ and /w/ onsets following
consonants
• Frequency of sibilants and other fricatives
• Syllable Structure: CV vs. CVC vs. CCVCC, etc.
• Ratio of open syllables to closed syllables
CREATING A PHONAESTHETIC
“FEEL” FOR YOUR CONLANG
Vowels:
• Diphthongs?
• Dyssyllabic vowel conjuncts?
• Allophony: Ubykh has 10 or 11 audible vowel
phones but only two vowel phonemes.
Consonants:
• Key concept is phonetic assimilation
• Complexity and variety of consonant clusters
CREATING A PHONAESTHETIC
“FEEL” FOR YOUR CONLANG
• Influence of semivowels: diphthongs
• Heterogenous consonant conjuncts , e.g.,
septiembre – settembre – setembre
• Effect of liquids: Latin root clam- 
cllam-, llam- ,cham• Metathesis and apocope, e.g.,
pericolo – peligro – perigo
CREATING A PHONAESTHETIC
“FEEL” FOR YOUR CONLANG
Morpho-phonology:
• Reduplication, vowel loss (syncope, apocope,
aphaeresis), epenthesis
• Vocalic mutation: umlaut/ablaut,
diphthongization, dyssyllabification
• Consonantal mutation: nasal, rhotic, lateral,
fricativization, voicing/devoicing, gemination
• Sandhi and juncture rules: assimilation again
• Stress shifts
• Tone shifts / tone sandhi
ir ‘to go’
= ( )-ir
= ( ) + INFINITIVE
yendo ‘going’
= ( )-iendo
= ( ) + GERUND
id ‘go!’
= ( )-id
= ( ) + 2nd PLURAL IMPERATIVE
= ven-( )
= ‘come’ + 2nd SG. IMPERATIVE
venir ‘to come’
ven ‘come!’
“¡Ven!”
“¡ !”
Apo ket olua taraskentel brihaprai.
Ámpyë hêth olwae tarasentela periorië.
Happói yeutta ööhlü traθkãčeł bžöfré.
Apo ket olua taraskentel brihaprai.
Pho’ qetlh ûrwagh třašqetnálh gridzo’přââ.
Can you figure out the steps to get to this one?
Wepp’wa hé’èeyat ówàay t’alàaskwenné’ew
i’lispwa’hàay.
Verdurian – Mark Rosenfelder
So hepdën pirei esë
Piro esë e fascotene uestu. E so sanno Buyelei, im dáluan
Verdúrë. Eluá, mun racontretu, er lelmo tal fascotene e.
Scúreden, zet ečite fruece er hicete soem bouem pro utron.
Eššane ti-velec atüčy velne ana is can nočín.
Širden, rihe soa dumora domei cum hozënán taë er miran
esë. Oce lyö faše er mis dy eu trodonecî, dy e gašul uestu,
dy deve vagir soi ďiteli com precun feyämán. Nikto řo nime
cuesan eta so lešel šualië, escatelië er vinei lië.
amman îar
by David Bell
i rîellisse életh an alanin erthendelon.
The girl kissed him.
alan életh an nerin erhiron narnen.
He told me a story.
alan életh áni dais cûos erechöiron i daurar.
He killed the tiger with a bow in the forest.
Minhast by Nick Campanilla
Phonology: Egyptian Colloquial Arabic, Persian, Akkadian, Korean.
Grammar/Syntax: Iroquoian, Ainu, Yupik, Georgian, Arabic, Persian,
Basque, Tagalog, Ilocano
Rrldhla
by Tom Corcoran
Estyesh jye lhrrln nal chrr nrr rrpludh egeik
lrrzbagrrn: rmp rhaolh, jye mrlelhrthr nrr ye'rr tu
zdhu estyesh tu rrshle. Estyesh na m'mrlelhrthr
rngrrl trr oimrrzdhye kla chrr'r la'rrstae'in, estyesh
na m'zboi kla trr rgya chrr'r la'rrstae'in.
Hwaerd Raaz
by Durandal Brytting
Hwa! C'prex'rraa, b'lac drrang'loc fece jonte, cadz'dz'
kloc flec ruc gorrontruk te borgarj farex.
You smell dreadful, as if you have spent the last weeks rolling around
in rotting camel corpses and the excrement of elephants.
Hwa! Barc'gl þutte ruc an tomp el c'lodz, þu j'lep
j'mekrunt.
Drown yourself in a vat of mud, you worthless sack of fat.
Hwa! Gowecar spoce p'fπ dzamae un þun blec.
Your hair frightens little children.
Qþyn|gài by Henrik Theiling
Phonoaesthetics & Music
• Suitability of phonotactical patterns to the
type of music, e.g.,
– Samba and Brazilian Portuguese
– Soukous and Lingala
– Mbalax and Wolof
Phonoaesthetics & Music
• On the Conlang front:
– Christian Vander’s Magma and Kobaian
Phonoaesthetics & Music
• Poor “fit” between music and language, e.g.,
– Rap/hip-hop and French
– Renaissance polyphonic liturgical music and
Latin
Loquebantur variis linguis apostoli, alleluia.
Magnalia Dei, alleluia.
Phonoaesthetics & Music
• The Ultimate Language for Song
Po vdes nga etja pranë një burimi,
Kur zjarri ndizet, dhëmb mbi dhëmb kërcet,
Djeg zhegu, dridhet buza nga thëllimi,
Në vendin tim jam si në vend të shkretë.
Si krimb i çveshur, veshur porsi mbret,
Mes lotësh qeshem dhe me shpresa rri,
Mua më jep zemër veç dëshpërimi i zi.
Dëfrehem dhe asgjë nuk më gëzon.
I fortë jam — pa forcë, pa fuqi.
Kudo më presin, gjithëkush më zbon.
Language
Personalities
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Language Personalities