Training Future Teachers through Online Exchanges François Mangenot Training future teachers for and through Online Exchange Online interaction and collaboration is ‘infamously’ difficult to organise and implement [O’Dowd, Epal 2009] It is quite clear that our capacity to make effective use of information technology in educational settings is impaired by inadequate preparation of teachers (as well as learners) [Spector, de la Teja, 2001] Outline 1. Overview / parameters of online exchanges (i. e. telecollaboration) 2. A case study: training future teachers into e-learning (and IT) through an online exchange, Le Français en (première) Ligne 3. Planning online interaction through communicational scenarios? 1. Some parameters of on-line exchange « A great diversity » (O’Dowd, Epal 2009)… Language(s) used during the exchange More or less focus on the cultural dimension Tasks, project, collaboration? Number of participants, individuals or groups Tutoring (or no online guidance) Mode of integration (=>assessment), blended learning Communicational tools / scenarios (see part 3) References: Warschauer & Kern (2000), Belz (2003), Belz & Thorne (2006), Dejean & Mangenot (2006), O’Dowd (2007), Degache & Mangenot (2007), EPAL Conference Proceedings 2007 & 2009 (EPAL=« échanger pour apprendre en ligne »). Language(s) Two languages, reception & production: reciprocal learning (Tandem as archetype) Two languages but production only in L1 (Cultura) Several languages of the same family (Galanet: Romance languages) Only one language: not all partners are language learners (O’Dowd, 2006) English as lingua franca (Japan-Korea in O’Dowd) participation in non-educational networks (Hanna & de Nooy, 2003, Ollivier, 2007) future teachers interacting with learners More or less focus on the cultural dimension Cultura as archetype Language always linked with culture, but more or less focus on ICC development: « The move from exchanging information to intercultural learning is very hard to achieve » (O’Dowd, 2009). The issue of « failed communication » (Belz, Thorne, Ware, etc.): Differences in communication style, tools culture-of-use Online intercultural interaction requires specific skills and attitudes Issue of visible and invisible culture: facts and communicative ethos (Kerbrat-Orecchioni, 2004). Tasks? Project? Collaboration? Task-based design (see Müller-Hartmann 2000, 2007): frequent but not unique model Le français en (première) ligne = task-based No compulsory tasks (e-Tandem) Questionnaires + forum discussions (Cultura) Projects (i. e. collective realisation of a « product » over a rather long period, Progetto Incontro, Tridem) Combination of above approaches: Galanet Different distance working modes (Mangenot & Dejean-Thircuir, 2009) Joint problem space, negotiation of meaning Small group work Common output Sharing Not necessary No No (parallel outputs) Discussing Yes No No (but interactivity) Cooperating Yes Yes Collaborating Yes Yes Yes (but division of labor) Yes (all steps in common) Participatory structure (Ellis, 2003) “The participatory structure of a lesson refers to the procedures that govern how the teacher's and students' contributions to the performance of the task are organized ” (Ellis, 2003). “ Careful design ” of “ work flow processes ” (Dooly, 2007) A lot more possibilities online than in F2F class: One to one / e-mail (Tandem) One to one to one / audioconferencing + blogs (Tridem) Small collaborative groups with different tools: Groups of 6 to 10 performing tasks in forums under the guidance of 1 or 2 tutors (Français en (première) ligne) Larger groups performing discussions (Cultura) Example: desktop or room-based videoconferencing (O’Dowd, 2007) At a distance: Projetto Incontro, Tridem Locally: On fait de la radio?, Galanet Guidance? Integration? No online tutors but integration into F2F class (Tandem, Cultura, Progetto Incontro) Online tutors who are more moderators + integration into F2F class (Galanet) Online tutors = future teachers (Le français en (première) ligne) Assessment… (« very little of course grade is awarded for completion of exchanges despite high work load », O’Dowd, Epal 2009) 2. Le français en (première) ligne Learners of French / Pre-service teachers (Masters Program) communicate in French [project devised by Christine Develotte, Lyon, and launched in 2002 by F. Mangenot in Besançon] Different objectives for the 2 groups: learn French / be in contact with French culture through native partners / tutors train ICT & e-learning through a « learning by doing » approach / reflect upon this experience Since 2002 : Australia (Sydney, Melbourne), USA (North Virginia, Berkeley), Spain, Japan, Latvia // universities of Besançon, Grenoble 3, Lyon 2, Luxembourg (>500 students) All online tasks and interactions have been saved… Project website (description, tasks, interaction samples): http://w3.u-grenoble3.fr/fle-1-ligne Some features of Le français en (première) ligne Fully integrated project (part of study plan – and Asymmetric roles of the partners (peer / tutor, Dejean- Task-based approach, strong guidance (=> pre-service assessment - on both sides) Thircuir & Mangenot, 2006) teachers learn how to design tasks for distance learning and how to be a tutor) For the future teachers, ICT training through a situated learning approach (Develotte, Mangenot, Zourou, Recall 17(2), 2005, Mangenot, Zourou, 2005) e. g. Audacity (see Mangenot, Zourou, 2007, Alsic) A cultural dimension exists for both groups Which teaching skills aimed at through this project? Two different versions in Lyon and in Grenoble: synchronous vs. asynchronous interactions (which lead to different skills, see Guichon, 2009, Salam & Valmas, 2009) Technological know-how: LMS, sound, picture and video software, communication tools Integrating technology into a syllabus, conceptualising CALL (Levy) Task design: more accurate instructions, input Online tutoring: socio-affective, socio-cognitive and organisational dimensions, corrective feedback Intercultural competence How are the future teacher evaluated? No grade for task design nor for tutoring (high motivation, see Develotte, Mangenot, Zourou, 2005) Interaction analysis of a previous year (done in dyads) = 50% of the grade Reflective blog advised… Reflective report due after the end of the exchange = 50% of the grade Two difficult dimensions A time consuming project (for the future teachers) Problem: task design and tutoring takes approx. 10 hours / week (+ 4 h in class) Solution: a course with 7,5 credits (ects) Another solution: task design by a pair for the whole group, synchronous exchange (Lyon) Intercultural competence: Cultural differences may remain unnoticed or not enough deepened. Example 1 Reflective practices, but not enough time… and no change in attitude. Example 2… Forum message extracts from Japanese students (the task consisted in comparing the course of an ordinary student’s day in France and in Japan – French tutors had provided a multimedia description of their day) So, I don’t do much homework. I think you work more than me. Me too, I watch TV in the evening, but I don’t work much. I think you are more hardworking than me. I work less than you after dinner; hence you are a better student than me!!!! Then, you work much better than me… After [dinner], I do my homework for the next day. But I am more whimsical than you; hence I stop at 10 pm. Example taken from (Mangenot, Zourou, 2007) A « revisited rich point » (Thorne, 2006) which did not elicit a change in attitude As I already said it in class, I had a hard time coping with our learners behaviour: they were underestimating themselves all the time, and were so perfectionist with their productions. Whereas at the beginning, I could give attention to their anxiety, later I got fed up with repeating all the time « Don’t worry! You manage pretty well, go on like this! ». I had a feeling of dishonesty (“j’ai eu l’impression d’être hypocrite”) and I really didn’t appreciate this situation. [Extract from a reflective report, 2008] Tokyo – Grenoble exchange: a communicative challenge Partners do not know each other Dissimilar cultures / attitudes / ethos Communication mainly through asynchronous forums (exchange of audio files) One or two tutors for up to 12 students (like in a real e-learning course) Different settings of the Moodle working space (“espace d’exposition discursive”, Develotte, 2006). => Examples showing how communication may be affected by the way tools are set up. 3. Communicational scenario The range of activities available in online settings and the multiple conditions of time in which they take place are evidence that the technology demands placed on online teachers are somewhat more significant than those associated with classroom teachers. [Spector, de la Teja, 2001] Bringing future teachers to think in terms of communicational scenarios (for a given task) might be heuristic: pedagoggical and instrumental dimensions. Definition: planning of envisaged online communication (linked to a task) Learning scenario Communicational scenario (tools) Task(s) (outcome) Genre ? Interactions Resources Sub-tasks student/tutor Chronology Mangenot, 2008 between peers Parameters of a communicational scenario Degree of collaboration, participatory structure, roles “Work flow processes” (Dooly, 2007), information to be exchanged Chronology (synchronous / asynchronous) Tutoring Tools and their affordances (ex. blog), their “habitual uses in society” (O’Dowd, 2007) Examples from Tokyo – Grenoble (1) Task: « Would you prefer to study in Paris or in Grenoble? » Type/genre: Discussing an issue Resource: Internet sites about both cities Challenge: finding the right arguments Participatory structure: dyads of Japanese students record their voice (mp3); ideally, one prefers Paris, the other Grenoble… Transcript of an oral production in French (Paris –Grenoble, total length = 1 min.) Where do you want to study? I prefer Paris. Why? Because it is more convenient, there is a subway, buses, etc. And you, where do you want to go? I prefer Grenoble, because I love skiing. I envy you. In Paris, there is a lot to see, for instance the Louvre or Orsay Museum. In Grenoble, there is a lot of nature. […] Examples from Tokyo – Grenoble (2) Task: « Tell me about a Japanese tradition » Type/genre: Explaining something Resource: a self-made (by the tutors) video about the ritual of tasting wine Challenge: managing to explain traditions Participatory structure: dyads of Japanese students record their voice (mp3) for the French tutors Transcript of an oral production in French (Japanese tradition, total length = 1 min.15) Hello, I’m Takuya I’m Naokazu Today, we are going to present you with Japanese traditions. I think a unique and funny tradition in Japan is the crowded train. There are a lot of people in a car. I often hear foreigners who get surprised at seeing the crowded trains at peak hours. It’s quite tiring for the people who go to work that way. So, we go to Hanami [Cherry blossom feast] to take a rest in spring. [Naokazu tells about the Hanami tradition] Examples from Tokyo – Grenoble (3): instructions Task 5: The land of the rising sun and me Step 1: You are going to listen to short interviews of 4 French people of different ages: Romain (10), an elementary school pupil, Camille (17), who is in her last secondary school year (just before entering university), Ludovic (39) and Françoise (55), who are both employed. We asked them what Japan called up for them. Step 2: […] fill in the comprehension sheet […] Step 3: You are going to reply to at least 3 French people you’ve just listened to. Tell them about Japan taking into account what they have said. Work individually. Record separate monologues (at least 1 min each) for each person. Speak to the person: « Hello, Romain, you are right », « Hello, Camille, you ought to… ». Transcript of oral productions Interview : (French tutor, her son Romain 10) So, Romain, I’d like to hear what you know about Japan. I know… er… there are many mangas… there are many videogames, there are many people… So is it… Reaction from a Japanese student: Hello Romain. You are right, in Japan there are quite interesting mangas. I like Dragon Ball most of all. Which mangas do you like? And then, I also like videogames. I love… The land of the rising sun and me Task: replying to 4 French people of different ages (other than the tutors) who express what Japan calls up for them Type/genre: Dialogue (but asynchronous) Resource: 4 brief interviews (audio files, 1’) Challenge: to establish a contact with unknown interlocutors despite asynchronicity Participatory structure: one to one (a Japanese student talks to one of the 4 French people, and then to another); French people may reply. Summary of part 3 Communicational scenario: tools, participatory structure, working mode, chronology, guidance, information flow… Exploiting tools in relation to their affordances Importance of a real information exchange (see TBLT) Input / Output as social genres (ex. 2 & 3) Conclusion : our future teachers have been trained to… Design online tasks (internet as input and as medium) and communicational scenarios Communicate socially online (socio-affective role of a tutor) Explain/Correct/Assess online (cognitive role) Reflect upon their practice Reflect about cultural differences (Intercultural Communicative Competence) And last but not least: they have learnt how to organise an online exchange… Extract from a reflective report (translation) After a 3 months participation in « Le français en première ligne », it is time for me to reflect on this experience and to assess it. This project has been terribly time-consuming throughout the whole semester and demanded a strong personal commitment. It has taken me a lot of time to put this experience at a some distance and I still don’t always manage to do it, because I became so much involved both personally and emotionally. Thank you for your attention !