On the Road to the
Naissance of a Good
Technical Papers
(in CS & EEE)
Shujun Li
Institute of Image Processing,
Xi’an Jiaotong University,
China
March, 2002
0. Questions in Naissance
of a Technical Paper
 Select one research area
 Read related textbooks and review papers – How
to Find Them and Get Fulltexts?
 Focus interests on some specific topics
 Re-read review papers and search more review
and original papers to read – How to Find Them
and Get Fulltexts? How to Estimate the
Significance of the found Papers?
 Develop your own ideas, theoretically prove
them (if necessary) and test them by enough
experiments
 Write manuscripts with some word processor –
How 2002
to Write Beautiful
March,
Shujun Li, Compuscripts?
IPC-xjtu
2
Questions in Naissance of
a Technical Paper
 Submit manuscripts to international
conferences or journals – How to Seek
Instructions for Authors and Call-for-Papers?
How to Avoid Ethical Problems?
 Papers are accepted or rejected – How to
Understand Review Procedure and Returned
Results?
 (Maybe) Re-submit rejected (or accepted?)
papers for further publications – How to
Avoid Ethical Problems?
 Papers are published – How to Estimate the
Significance of Your Published Papers?
 Continue to research,
write sequent papers and 3
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
submit them for publication – How to Avoid
 Content with “How to”
 How to Know Technical Papers?
 How to Get Fulltext of Technical Papers?
 How to Seek Instructions for Authors of
Journals and Call-for-Paper Notices?
 How to Estimate Journals & Technical
Papers?
 How to Write Well-Written and WellTypesetted Compuscripts in
English/Chinese?
 How to Avoid Ethical Problems in
Research?
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
4
 How to Understand Review Procedure and
1. How to Know Technical
Papers?
 Well-known indexing products, such as
EI – Engineering Index, SCIE – Science
Citation Index (SCI) Expanded, etc.
 The search engines provided with the
fulltext databases by publishers, such
as the one contained in IEL – IEEE/IEE
Electronic Library and Elsevier
ScienceDirect, etc.
 The search engines freely provided by
some research institutes and
researchers, such as NEC ResearchIndex,
March,
2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
5
etc.
How to Know Technical
Papers?
 The online bibliography databases for
specific research areas, such as The
Collection of Computer Science
Bibliographies, CompuScience WWWDatabase and DBLP Computer Science
Bibliography.
 Citation information: a) references
list of obtained papers; b) citation
information of some indexing products,
such as SCIE and NEC ResearchIndex.
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
6
 What I suggest and
remind
Search EI and SCIE using related
keywords, please note EI can merge
similar keywords, such as “chaos” and
“chaotic”, but SCIE cannot.
Select limited important papers, check
their citation trees in SCIE to find
more papers.
Search IEL with related keywords to
find more newly published IEEE
conference papers.
Search NEC ResearchIndex to see the
March, 2002
Li, IPC-xjtu
significance Shujun
of EI-indexed
conference
7
 What I suggest and
remind
To make your research more effective,
it is strongly recommended that you go
to know enough background information
about well-known indexing products,
creditable research organizations and
technical publishers, high-quality
journals/international conferences. We
briefly introduce some knowledge about
indexing products here, and about
publishers and organizations here.
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
8
2. How to Get Fulltexts of
Technical Papers?
 Find the papers in the electronic
fulltexts databases available in xjtu,
which include IEL, Elsevier
ScienceDirect, Kluwer Online, NEC
ResearchIndex, IEICE Trans. Series. 

 Rush into lib.xjtu and seek them. 
 Rush into other libraries in Xi’an, such
as the ones of 西电 and 西工大, and
seek them. 
 Rush into 情报咨询室 of lib.xjtu and
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
9
request for 文献传递,
but the fee is
How to Get Fulltexts of
Technical Papers?
 Rush into some libraries in other
cities, such as National Library of
China or Libarary of Tsing Hua Univ. 
 Let others abroad (HK, Singapore, USA
or UK, etc.) to help you: a)  seek
them in electronic fulltexts databases
available in their schools; b)  
rush into their libraries.
To know whether or not your papers
are hold in those libraries, visit
their home pages for confirmation.
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
10
 What I suggest and
remind
Generally, many researchers will place
their electronic versions of their
published papers on their personal home
page. We can use google to find them.
Try to find the contact information of
the authors, then directly contact them
to request electronic or printed papers.
I have got many papers through the
above two perfect ways.
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
11
 What I suggest and
remind
In addition, there still exist many
online resources containing electronic
papers, books and course lectures etc.
We can discover those resources by
search related keywords in google. I
have found some valuable ones in
cryptology: Counterpane Labs Crypto
Bibliography, Crypto-Log, Cryptology pointers,
The Collection of Computer Science
Bibliographies, Unified Computer Science
TR(Technical Reports) Index, Handbook of
Applied Cryptography (Fulltext of a good book).
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
12
 Some useful information
 Most universities in HK and NUS have
bought the following online databases
(part or full): Academic Press, Elsevier
ScienceDirect, The ACM Digital Library,
Springer LINK, Kluwer Online, Wiley
InterScience, World Scientific WorldSciNet,
OSA Optics InfoBase, APS Journals, AIP OJPS,
OUP Journals, CUP Journals, SIAM Journals, AMS
Journals, The Royal Society Journals, Emerald
Journals, JSTOR, ingenta, CatchWorld.  
(For introduction of the above
fulltext databases, click here)
March, 2002
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13
 Some useful information
 Tisnghua Univ. has bought the following online
databases (not bought by xjtu): JSTOR,
Academic Press, OUP Journals, CUP Journals,
APS Journals, Wiley InterScience, World
Scientific WorldSciNet, Springer LINK “Lecture
Notes xxx” Series  
 The library of Tsinghua Univ. and 兵器工业总公
司21研究所(in Beijing) hold almost all volumes
of Proceedings of SPIE. 
 The libraries of 西电 and 西工大 have some
paper-version journals that cannot found in
lib.xjtu, such as J. Cryptology, Designs,
Codes and Cryptography, Int. J. Bifurcation &
Chaos, Signal Processing: Image Communication.

March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
14
 Some Creditable
Research Organizations
IEEE (USA) & IEE (UK) 
IEEE Societies and Councils: Computer
, Signal Processing, Communications,
Information Technology, Engineering in
Medicine and Biology, Circuits and
Systems, Consumer Electronics,
Vehicular Technology, Intelligent
Transportation Systems, Neural Networks,
Systems, Man, and Cybernetics
ACM – The Association for Computing
Machinery (USA) 
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
15
 Some Creditable
Research Organizations
IFIP – International Federation of
Information Processing (Austria)
IEICE (Japan) – The Institute of
Electronics, Information &
Communication Engineers 
SPIE – The International Society for
Optical Engineering 
IACR – International Association for
Cryptologic Research
IASTED – The International Association
of Science and
Technology for
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
Development
16
 Some Creditable
Research Organizations
ISOC – Internet Society
APS – American Physics Society(US) 
AIP – American Institute of Physics (US)

IoP – Institute of Physics (UK) 
SIAM – Society for Industrial and
Applied Mathematics (US) 
AMS – American Mathematics Society 
The Royal Society (UK) 
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
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 Some Creditable
Technical Publishers
IEEE (US) & IEE (UK): IEL 
Elsevier Science (The Netherlands): EI
Inc.’s mother company  ScienceDirect,
mirror 
KAP – Kluwer Academic Publishers (The
Netherlands): Kulwer Online, mirror 
ACM – The Association for Computing
Machinery (US): The ACM Digital Library
Springer (Germany): Springer LINK
AP – Academic Press: IDEAL Library
March,
2002Wiley &Shujun
IPC-xjtuWiley
18
John,
SonsLi,Inc.:
 Some Creditable
Technical Publishers
World Scientific: WorldSciNet
AIP – American Institute of Physics: AIP
OJPS
SPIE : Journals contained in AIP OJPS
APS – American Physics Society: Online
journals.
IoP – Institute of Physics (UK) 
OSA – Optical Society of American:
Optical InfoBase
Oxford University Press (UK): OUP
March,
2002 Journals
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
19
Online
 Some Creditable
Technical Publishers
SIAM – Society for Industrial and
Applied Mathematics (US): Online
Journals
AMS – American Mathematics Society: AMS
Journals Program
The Royal Society (UK): Online
Publications
Blackwell Publishers (UK): online
journals contained in ingenta
Cambridge University Press (UK): CJO –
Cambridge Journals
Online
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
20
Emerald (UK): Online Journals Fulltext
 Some Online Databases
for Technical Journals
 JSTOR – Journals STORage: a scholarly journal
archive (with PDF-format papers)
 ingenta: a center of online technical journals
 SwetsnetNavigator (The Netherlands): another
center of online technical journals
 CatchWorld: Similar to the above two
 M/E/O/S: similar to the above two
 ARL DSEJ – ARL (Association of Research
Libraries, US) Directory of Scholarly
Electronic Journals and Academic Discussion
Lists
 arXiv.net e-Print archive: Physics /
March,
2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
Mathematics
/ Nonlinear
/ Computer Science. 21
3. How to Seek
Instructions for Authors
of
Journals?
 Generally speaking, one “good” journal
must have its home page, where you can
find anything what you want about this
journal, including instructions for
authors.
 In most cases, the home page of a
journal is incorporated in the web site
of the publisher.
 In many cases, the home page of a
journal is established by the sponsor
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
22
or the edit-in-chief.
 What I suggest and
remind
Many journals publish special issues.
Generally, special issues have
deadlines and the call-for-papers can
also be found in the home pages of the
journals or the sponsors.
Essentially, each volume of some
journals is published as a “special
issue”, or each volume contains papers
of “special focus”. Two examples are
IEEE ISAC – IEEE J. Selected Areas in
Communications, Proceedings of IEEE,
and2002
AIP ChaosShujun
.
March,
Li, IPC-xjtu
23
 What I suggest and
remind
Compared with Chinese journals, English
Journals seem to be much more difficult
for most Chinese researchers. But I do
not think so. Consider the following
facts: a) Nothing is impossible, if you
really want to do it; b) If your paper is
really good, it should be accepted by some
reviewers even after some times rejections –
so please submit and submit until you succeed
; c) Once you really enter a research area,
you will find it is not so difficult. d) The
review periods of many English journals are
not so long; e) Even if your paper is rejected,
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
24
the reviewing results may be very valuable.
3’. How to Seek Call-forPaper of International
Conferences?
 Generally speaking, the notice of callfor-paper of a international conference
can be found in the web site of the
sponsor. For example, all information
about IEEE sponsored and co-sponsored
conferences can be found at IEEE site.
 Many international conference series
have its own permanent home pages, such
as IEEE Int. Conf. on Consumer Electronics,
IEEE Computer Security Foundations Workshop,
International Conference on Software
Engineering, etc.
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
25
How to Seek Call-for-Paper
of International
Conferences?
 There are many online search engines
and web pages providing rich
information about forthcoming
international conferences and workshops.
Generally, research organizations,
institutes, researchers, related
companies (such as RSA Security, Inc.
in cryptology) all may run such online
services. The most famous and important
one in CS & EEE is IEEE conference
database. We will give a brief list
about
conference
services later 26
March,
2002online Shujun
Li, IPC-xjtu
(to the best of my knowledge).
How to Seek Call-for-Paper
of International
Conferences?
 The publishers of forthcoming
proceedings may also provide
information about the conferences in
their web sites.
 Generally, many technical journals will
publish call-for-papers about
conferences related with the journals.
 Using google to find more call-forpapers of forthcoming conferences, and
more useful online services about your
research, especially the ones
March,
2002
Li, IPC-xjturesearchers. 27
maintained
byShujun
individual
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
?What is the difference between the
following words: conference, symposium
and workshop?
 Conceptually, symposium ≈ conference >
workshop. Many workshops will become
conferences or symposiums after several
successes; some conference will
organize workshops (also called
satellite conferences, such as ICM 2002
– International Congress of Mathematics
2002, Beijing) for some specially
selected
topics.
March,
2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
28
(to be continued)
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
?What is the difference between the
following words: conference, symposium
and workshop?
 (continued) There are still some other
equivalent terms of conference:
congress, meeting (SPIE's Annual
Meeting), convention (Int. Convention
on Multimedia and Hypermedia Systems),
colloquium (Int. Colloquium on Automata,
Languages, and Programming). When you
use keywords to search “conferences” in
google,
note
the use of
March,
2002 please
Shujun
Li, IPC-xjtu
29
different words “conferences”.
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
?International conferences < journals?
 It is not always true at any time.
Consider the following facts: a) many
conference proceedings are published as
special issues of journals; b) many
conferences adopt strict peer-to-peer
review and have low acceptance ratios,
such as ACM CCS’99: 0.19, IEEE S&P’98:
0.16; c) major achievements in some
areas are reported in conferences (not
journals); one example is cryptology
(LNCS>J.
Cryptology).
March,
2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
30
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
?International conferences < journals?
 (continued) d) Many researchers only
publish their papers on top “conferences”
and top journals, such as many “good”
researchers in Computer Science (沈向洋
@微软); d’) Many researchers only read
“new” conferences proceedings for recent
progress in their areas and “old”
journals for long-term research. e)
Statistics of NEC ResearchIndex shows
that top conferences play more positive
roles
research
March,
2002in latest
Shujun
Li, IPC-xjtueven than top 31
journals.
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
?How to judge the significance of an
international conferences?
 The following facts are conceptually
right: a) “conferences” with lower
acceptance are better, such as
SIGRAPH>ICCV; b) “conferences” (not
workshop!) that accept less papers are
generally better, such as
ICCV>CVPR>ICIP; c) peer-to-peer review
>> committee review >> abstract review,
such as LNCS>IEEE>SPIE (not every!);
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
32
(to be continued)
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
?How to judge the significance of an
international conferences?
 (continued) d) If a conference is ranked
by NEC ResearchIndex, the higher the
score is, the more significant the
conference MAY be; e) de facto viewpoint
about a conference, please specially
note different criteria exist in
different research areas; for example,
ICIP is a “good” conference for
image/video coding but just a general
one2002
for pattern
recognition
and
March,
Shujun
Li, IPC-xjtu
33
computer vision (from 微软).
 Some Online Conference
Services
IEEE Conference Database
Conference Services of IEEE Societies
and Councils: the most important and
useful one is Computer Society
Conference Wire.
ACM Conference Calendar
IFIP Calendar of Events
SPIE Conferences Information
IACR Calendar: The 1st List in
Cryptology
March,
2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
IEEE
Cipher Calendar
of Security and
34
 Some Online Conference
Services
Calendar from UCL Crypto Group (Belgium)
IASTED Conferences
IMA Conferences: IMA – Institute of
Mathematics & its Applications (UK)
sponsors related conferences, such as
Cryptography & Coding and Mathematics
in series conferences.
Springer Notice for Forthcoming
LNCS/LANI Proceedings: LNCS – Lecture
Notes in Computer Science ; LNAI –
Lecture Notes in Artificial
March, 2002
Li, IPC-xjtu
Intelligence,Shujun
sub-series
of LNCS.
35
4. How to Estimate the
Significance of Journals?
 The significance of a technical journal
can be estimated based on the following
facts: a) Which indexing products index
it, SCI, SCIE or EI? b) If it is
reported by JCR, how about its IF –
Impact FactorTM, Immediacy IndexTM, its
rank and stability? c) If it is
contained in PF – Prestige Factor, how
about its Prestige FactorTM (or Review
FactorTM), Impact-Like Factor,
Publishing IndexTM, rank and stability?
d) Its acceptance
ratio; e) The total 36
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
number of published papers per year;
How to Estimate the
Significance of Journals?
 (continued) f) If it is contained in NEC
ResearchIndex, how about its score and
rank? g) The sponsor(s) and founder(s).
Example: JNSNS – Int. J. Nonlinear
Science and Numerical Simulation
founded by Ji-Huan He (何吉欢) at
Shanghai Univ., China in 1999; h) de
facto significance of this journal,
such as J. Cryptology is only indexed
by SCIE but it SHOULD be indexed by SCI
in my opinion; i) Non-uniformity
phenomena,
i.e.,
March,
2002
Shujundifferent
Li, IPC-xjtu papers have 37
different significances in a journal.
 Some useful information
– ISI’s JCR
 As the top one (and the only one in the
past 30 years) product about the
estimation of technical journals (and a
small number of conference proceedings
and book series, such as LNCS / LNCIS /
LNM / STMP / TAP, etc.), JCR – Journal
Citation Reports provided by ISI Inc.
yearly has gained its good reputation.
 JCR contains many values, in which the
most important one about the estimation
of a journal is IF – Impact Factor®.
Generally,
larger
IFIPC-xjtu
means more
March,
2002
Shujun Li,
38
significance.
 Some useful information
– ISI’s JCR
 IF=C/A, where A=the number of papers
published in the last two years, C=the
cited times of the above papers in the
current year.
 Another useful value is IX – Immediacy
Index, which reflects the influence of
papers published in current year, and
is calculated with the same formula,
while A, C both represent the number in
the current year.
 An example: Nature in JCR 2000. IF =
March,
2002 + 30512)
Shujun
Li, IPC-xjtu
39
(21013
/(1016
+ 980) ≈ 25.814;
 What I suggest and
remind
Some serious defects still exist in JCR:
a) Review papers will dramatically and
inadequately raise IF and IX of a
journal; b) Considering the reviewing
and publication procedure, IX can only
partially reflect immediacy influence
of a journal; c) Self-citations, which
is made by the same authors and the
same journal, are not eliminated in IF
and IX. d) IF/IX (.%3f) is not enough to
distinguish middle-degree journals,
i.e.,
have close (even 40
March,
2002many journals
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
the same) IFs/IXs.
 Some useful information
– Prestige FactorTM
 Now, the monopolization of ISI Inc. has
been history, since a new citationbased product: PF – Prestige FactorTM
has emerged, which is specially
designed to avoid the defects of JCR: a)
More accurate categories; b) Much less
price and more flexible packages; c)
Review papers are separately dealt as a
value called Review IndexTM and only
original papers are used to calculate
Prestige FactorTM; d) The ranges of each
value
toIPC-xjtu
0~1000;
March,
2002is extended
Shujun Li,
41
(to be continued)
 Some useful information
– Prestige FactorTM
 (continued) e) IF and IX in JCR are
replaced by a new combined value
Prestige FactorTM PF=C/A, where A and C
both represent the numbers in the
current year and the last two years; f)
A newly introduced Publishing FactorTM
(about rejection ratio) can be used for
authors to determine which journals
they should submit their manuscripts.
For more details, visit the web site of
the provider PrestigeFactor.com.
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
42
 Some useful information
– SCI/SCIE vs. EI
 SCI/SCIE: no concept of indexing ratio,
all papers (titled with some authors)
in an indexed journal will be indexed.
Such a mechanism is called “cover-tocover” indexing.
 EI: Indexing ratio is its well-known
but rather “useless”(in my opinion)
feature. All papers in an indexed
journal must be “estimated” and then
indexed. Strangely and unreasonably,
for an indexed conference proceedings,
almost
will
be indexed
March,
2002 all papers
Shujun Li,
IPC-xjtu
43
without any selection! (consider ICSP
 Some useful information
– SCI/SCIE vs. EI
 SCI/SCIE: Citation information of each
paper is used to estimate the influence
and significance of the paper and the
related journals (used in JCR). It is
useless that a paper is indexed by
SCI/SCIE, while the non-self cited
number is the final golden standard.
 EI: No any mechanism is adopted to
estimate the significance of EI-indexed
papers. From such a viewpoint, EI even
is worse than NEC ResearchIndex. EI is
just
a somewhat
“good”
search engine for44
March,
2002
Shujun
Li, IPC-xjtu
technical papers.
 What I suggest and
remind
Problems with SCI/SCIE: I have found
many references are not correctly
indexed by SCI/SCIE. a) Conference
proceedings and book series are indexed
with a very chaotic way so that many
papers can not be dealt timely (most
papers in LNCS are indexed after 1~3
years later!), which will cause the
citation information about related
papers is dramatically lowered; b) Some
cited papers are discarded because of
unseen
(the
destiny of one
March,
2002 reasons!
Shujun
Li, IPC-xjtu
45
paper cited by my PLA paper)
 Some useful information
–Comparison by SCI(E)
 It must be kept in mind that journals in
different areas cannot be compared at all and
comparing review journals with original
journals by SCI/SCIE is entirely nonsense
since review journals’ IFs >> original journals’
IFs. Generally, we can rank the different
areas as the average IFs: Medicine ≈
Multidisciplinary Science ≈ Biology >
Chemistry > Physics > Mathematics ≈
Electrical & Electronic Engineering ≈
Computer Science. Please note that neither
Nature (25.814, 10th) or Science (23.872, 13th)
is the top one journals in SCI – Annual Review
st , Annual Review of
of
Immunology:
50.34,
1
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
46
nd
rd
Biochemistry: 43.429, 2 , Cell: 32.44, 3
 Some useful information
–Comparison by SCI(E)
 Another fact: although “letters” papers are
generally much shorter and “simpler” than
“papers” papers, the former trend to have
higher cited times than the latter. is It is
the reason that Physical Review Letters (6.462,
8th) is the top one Physics original journal in
JCR 2000 (seven journals with higher IFs are
all review journals), and that Optics Letters
(2.989) is the top one Optics original journal
in JCR 99 (two journals with IFs 4.941, 3.909
are both review journals). Another evidence is:
the most cited paper in the story of science
is a letter-like paper in Journal of Biology
Chemistry,
which
is cited
over 187000 times 47
March,
2002
Shujun
Li, IPC-xjtu
(the second is only 59000)!.
 Some useful information
– Chinese Journals in SCI
 Only 14 Chinese journals are indexed by
SCI 2000: Science in China Series A~E (0.309,
0.751, 0.291, 0.475, 0.309, 中国科学A~E辑),
Chinese Science Bulletin (0.414, 科学通报),
Communications in Theoretical Physics (0.302),
Acta Mechanica Sinica (0.575, 力学学报), Acta
Chimica Sinica (0.435, 化学学报), Chinese
Physics Letters (0.638 中国物理快报), Chinese
Journal of Chemistry (0.707 中国化学),
Chemical Journal of Chinese UniversitiesChinese (0.54, 高等学校化学学报), Chinese
Medical Journal (0.107, 中华医学杂志), Acta
Pharmacologica Sinica (0.485, 中国药理学报).
March,
2002see the Shujun
IPC-xjtu
We can
IFs ofLi,the
SCI-indexed journals48
are not high (the largest is 0.751).
 Some useful information
– Chinese Journals in SCIE
 Besides the 14 SCI-indexed journals,
totally 60 (?) Chinese journals are
indexed by SCIE 2000. We will only
enumerate useful ones for our research:
Chinese Journal of Electronics, Journal of
Computer Science and Technology, Journal of
Infrared and Millimeter Waves (0.146, 红外与毫
米波学报), Acta Physica Sinica (0.21, 物理学报
海外版), Chinese Journal of Geophysics-Chinese
Edition (0.097,地球物理学报), Chinese Physics,
Acta Mathematica Sinica-English Series (0.234,
数学学报英文版), Chinese Annals of Mathematics
Series B (0.153), Journal of Computational
March,
2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
49
Mathematics
(0.250),
 Some useful information
– Chinese Journals in SCIE
 (continued) Journal of Central South
University of Technology (中南大学学报),
Journal of University of Technology Beijing
(0.118, 北京科技大学学报英文版), Journal of
Wuhan University of Technology-Materials
Science Edition (0.185, 武汉理工大学学报材料科
学版), Biomedical and Environmental Sciences
(0.400), Progress in Biochemistry and
Biophysics (0.077!), Progress in Natural
Science (0.249, 自然科学进展). Most Chinese
journals have no IFs because they have not
been indexed for 3 years. The above journals
are still in the database of SCIE 2002.
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
50
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
?How to compare SCI, SCIE, EI and PF?
 Generally, it is right that
SCI>SCIE≈PF>EI, but the actual
relationship is much more complicated
than it should be. Because of the lack
of my knowledge, I can only enumerate
several related facts: a) J. Cryptology
is the top one journal in cryptology,
which is only indexed by SCIE, not SCI;
b) Physical Review E is not indexed by
PF! c) EI without conference proceedings
≈ 2002
SCIE (numerically);
d) The coverages 51
March,
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
of EI, SCIE, PF are rather different.
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
?EI-indexed papers = high-quality papers?
 I think the answer should be absolutely
false. The reasons: a) Chinese journals
are often indexed/ceased with nonprofessional reasons, a good example is
西安交通大学学报; b) It is said that
almost all Chinese journals are dealt
by two Chinese! c) Too many conference
proceedings are indexed, such as
Proceedings of SPIE and most IEEE
conference proceedings. d) Many really
good
journalsShujun
are Li,
even
not indexed,
March,
2002
IPC-xjtu
52
such as LNCS and Physics Letters A/B.
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
?IEEE journals = top-quality journals?
 The answer is not always true at any time,
although it is for most IEEE Journals. But
many IEEE Transactions are not the top one
journals in related areas. Here, we can
give some examples, IEEE Trans. Consumer
Electronics, which is ranked 1725th in all
2223 journals indexed by PF 2001; and IEEE
Trans. Broadcasting, ranked 1758th. In
addition, IEEE Signal Processing Letters
is only indexed by SCIE and IEEE Trans.
ITS has not been indexed by either SCI or
March,
2002
Li, IPC-xjtu
53
SCIE.
(to Shujun
be continued)
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
?IEEE journals = top-quality journals?
 (continued) Here, we list most IEEE
related journals (and some others for
comparison) as their ranks in PF (the
value in brackets is the rank in all
2223 journals in PF 2001):
 Nature (1), Science (2), Cell (4), PRL (14),
Trans. MI (166), Chaos (184), Trans. IP (215),
IBM J. Research & Development (237), J. ACM
(247), Trans. PAMI (260), Comm. ACM (325),
Physica D (333), IJCV (342), Personal Comm.
(348), Trans. Visualization & Computer
March,
2002 (377),Shujun
Li, (380),
IPC-xjtu J. Cryptology 54
Graphics
J. SAC
(382),
(to be
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
?IEEE journals = top-quality journals?
 (continued) Trans. Soft. Eng. (396), Trans.
Biomed. Eng. (417), Trans. Ultras. Ferr. Freq.
(422), IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking (443),
Computer Graphics & Appl. (505), Internet
Computing (514), Network (527), Trans. Comm.
(543), Trans. Compu. (565), Trans. SP (567),
PLA (614), IBM Systems J. (627), Trans. NN
(637), Pattern Recognition (697), Computer
(705), Software (719), Trans. CAS-VT (721),
Intell. System & Appl. (729), Spectrum (747),
Trans. Nucl. Sci. (782), IEE Electronics
Letters (792), Trans. Know. Data. Eng. (817),
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
55
Trans. SA Processing
(844),
(to be
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
?IEEE journals = top-quality journals?
 (continued) Trans. IT (871), Trans. Parallel
& Distributed Systems (908), Micro (944), SP
Mag. (995), Trans. SMC-C (997), Eng. In
Medicine & Biology Mag. (1002), Trans. VLSI
Systems (1080), Chinese Physics Letters (1085),
Trans. VT (1089), Int. J. Bifurcation & Chaos
(1135), Trans. SMC-B (1137), Trans. CAD-ICS
(1144), Signal Processing (1154), Trans. CAS-I
(1324), Trans. SMC-A (1392), Trans. CAS-II
(1425), Signal Processing Letters (1614),
Chinese Science Bulletin (1663), Trans. CE
(1725), Trans. Broadcasting (1758), Science in
March,
2002
Li, IPC-xjtu
56
China
Series A Shujun
(1814).
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
?What about IEE journals?
 It is widely-acknowledged that IEEE >> IEE. It
is really a truth that the actual influence of
IEE journals are much smaller than the one of
IEEE journals. But IEE still have some highfocused journals, the most important one is
Electronics Letters, whose IF in JCR 2000 is
0.931 and ranked 52th in all EEE journals, and
better than many IEEE journals (such as IEEE
Trans. IT, for more details click here). In
Prestige Factor, Electronics Letters is ranked
792th in all 2223 journals. Here, please note
the papers in Electronics Letters may be not
March,
2002
Shujun
IPC-xjtu
excellent
because
of Li,its
fast yes-no review 57
procedure.
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
?How to adequately and correctly
understand the roles of SCI(E) and EI
in research?
 Now Chinese scientific community has been in a
undesirable tendency to pursue overestimated
achievements and more published papers,
especially indexed papers by SCI(E) in science
(and also EI in engineering). Many provident
Chinese scholars in China and aboard have
criticized such a problem. A rich number of
discussions about this issue can be found in
New Thread (新语丝), and some reports has been
published in Nature (v 414 n 6861 p 235) and
March, 2002
Science (v 293 Shujun
n 5532Li,pIPC-xjtu
1039).
(to be58
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
? How to adequately and correctly understand the
roles of SCI(E) and EI in research?
 (continued) 中国高校排行榜 yearly published by
ISTIC (中国科技信息研究所) has adopted SCI(E)
and EI as practical and statistical tools to
rank good Chinese universities, which further
compel leaders and researchers in universities
to chase “quicker”, “easier”, “safer” and more
self-overestimated publications and
achievements to gain “illusory” reputation. As
the first university using SCI as a
requirement of professor posts, Nanjing Univ.
has made dramatically numerical “success”.
(to 2002
be continued)
March,
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
59
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
? How to adequately and correctly understand the
roles of SCI(E) and EI in research?
 (continued) Then other famous universities
also “woke”, Tsinghua Univ. has used SCI to
“spur” doctor students. What’s worse, many
ethical problems have arisen and connived,
such as plagiarism (抄袭/剽窃), multisubmissions or multi-publications of papers
(一稿多投), coxcombry (浮夸), fraud behaviors
(学术欺诈, 如假造学历/学术成就及学术界涉及的商
业欺诈行为). In such a non-serious research
air, it has been reported that China’s
technical competition capacity decreases
although
percentage
March,
2002 the number,
Shujun Li,
IPC-xjtu and rank of 60
technical papers in SCI(E) increase.(to be
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
? How to adequately and correctly understand the
roles of SCI(E) and EI in research?
 (continued) Apparently, each Chinese
researcher must make his own decision on this
problem. I agree to the following attitude:
SCI(E) and EI are just useful tools for
scientific statistics and technical papers
retrieving, not the only and accurate
measurement to the achievements of one
researchers. In fact, many researchers hold
the similar opinions: 方守贤院士 – “SCI作为唯一标
准会导致功利性走向”, 蔡睿贤院士 – “SCI不应作为唯一
标准”, 中科院评估中心连燕华 – “...SCI 论文只是指标
之一,并没有将SCI作为唯一指标”,
March,
2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu中国地质大学王亨君61
教授 – “SCI评估不应当挫伤科技创新积极性”.
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
? Are there a real standard to estimate papers?
 I think the answer is negative and SHOULD be
negative. Now, SCI(E) and JCR are the best
tools but are not enough to fulfill such a
difficult and complicated task. In fact, the
actual influence and acknowledgement of a
paper in scientific community is a better tool
than SCI. That is to say, if most researchers
say “OK”, then it MAY be really OK.
Unfortunately, sometimes the scientific
community may make mistakes, we will tell some
stories about such misfortunes of many perfect
papers later. If such misfortunes happen to
you,2002
do not be Shujun
discouraged
and just continue 62
March,
Li, IPC-xjtu
to struggle and go ahead!
5. How to Write “Good”
Compuscripts?
 There are several requirements of a
really good paper: well-written and
easily-understood technical English,
meticulous and clear description,
delicate experiments and/or simulations.
Besides the above all, there is still
another two desirable features: welltypesetted and well-formatted style,
and easily-exchanged electronic file
format.
 What is “compuscript”? It means the
electronic
file
ofLi,aIPC-xjtu
manuscript when we63
March,
2002
Shujun
use digital computer to prepare the
How to Write “Beautiful”
Compuscripts?
 Here, I will only focus my attention on
the two additional features: how to
write beautiful and easily-exchanged
compuscripts? The answer is TeX, a
really scientific typesetting system
and widely-used in international
scientific community for over 20 years.
Almost all scientific publishers have
adopted LaTeX as the chief tool to make
beautiful journals and technical books,
and many technical journals can only
accept
compuscripts.
March,
2002 LaTeX Shujun
Li, IPC-xjtu
64
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
? Microsoft Word is rather good and easy, why I
have to study a new difficult typesetting
language?
 Consider the following facts about Word: a) Do
you still remember the terrible error of “磁盘
已满,无法保存当前文件”?   b) When you
edit a .doc file for several hours, suddenly
the computer is “dead”, then … c) When you
want to change the sizes of all equations in
your .doc file, then … d) Can you insert Z F
into your equations? e) Assume one paper of
yours contains 100 references, when you
delete/add one into the reference list, what
will2002
you do forShujun
your Li,
content?
March,
IPC-xjtu   f) What
65
about the space between neighbor lines
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
? What on earth is TeX? What is the different of
TeX, LaTeX, LaTeX2ε and MiKTeX?
 TeX is a typesetting system developed by
Donald E. Knuth in 1978. It is “intended for
the creation of beautiful books — and
especially for books that contain a lot of
mathematics”. The name of TeX is derived from
a greek word root τεχ, which means
“technology” and “art”. τεχ also implies
that TeX is specially designed for beautiful
mathematics. To control TeX, some macro
commands are needed, LaTeX is the most popular
macro commands set, and LaTeX2 ε is the
latest
of LaTeX,
MiKTeX is a software 66
March,
2002version Shujun
Li, IPC-xjtu
system of LaTeX under Windows plaoform.
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
? How is LaTex named? How to pronounce TeX,
LaTeX and LaTeX2ε? Is TeX is difficult?
 The developer of LaTeX is Leslie Lamport, so
this macro commands set is named with the
first two characters of his name. TeX should
be pronounced as “tek”, not “teks”. LaTeX can
be pronounced as “lei’tek” or “la:’tek” and
LaTeX2ε can be pronounced as “LaTeX-two-ee”.
Generally speaking, you cannot master TeX in
only one afternoon and you have to study many
other new things, such as a the use of a lot
of additional macro packages, and background
knowledge about PDF, PostScript. You must be
very2002
patient inShujun
your Li,
road
to a TeXer.
March,
IPC-xjtu
67
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
? What are the merits of TeX / LaTeX?
 a) TeX can solve all problems of Word abovementioned. b) The source files (.tex) of LaTeX
are independent of the platform on which the
TeX system runs, i.e., you can bring your .tex
file from a PC to a Mactonish and compile to
the same output. c) TeX and all additional
macro packages to enhance it are FREE, just
like Linux. d) TeX is a open systems and can
be extended and re-configured (unfortunately,
such a task is not so easy compared with using
TeX); e) It is much easier to generate
beautiful .PDF and .PS files using TeX / LaTeX;
f) TeX
can be a Shujun
sourceLi,of
interests and
March,
2002
IPC-xjtu
68
happiness once you find its charm.
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
? What are the defects of TeX / LaTeX?
 Of course, there is no really perfect thing in
this world. a) Opening and re-configuration of
TeX make the whole system much more
complicated to master for a starter; b) It is
difficult to essentially avoid the
compatibility problem; almost all packages
cannot be used together with some other
specific packages; c) The debugging of .tex
file needs rich knowledge and experiences on
using TeX / LaTeX, so it is important for a
TeX-starter to seek helps from TeXGuru (=
TeXpert – TeX专家) and online TeX-resources. d)
The 2002
Chinese solutions
TeX / LaTeX are not 69
March,
Shujun Li,of
IPC-xjtu
very satisfactory up to now. e) TeX is not
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
? How about the Chinese solutions of TeX / LaTeX?
 Now, there are two Chinese solutions of TeX /
LaTeX: CCT and CJK. CCT is developed by 张林波
at Chinese Academy of Sciences, and CJK is
developed by Werner Lemberg at Germany. CCT is
somewhat old and CJK is a later solution. CCT
uses lattice fonts and CJK can use any fonts
available for TeX.
 Just before the New Year of 2001, CTeX2.0中文
套装, a incorporated Chinese LaTeX system
containing MiKTeX2.0 + CCT + CJK + WinEdt, was
released by aloft and eggs. Now CTeX has been
de facto standard Chinese solution of TeX /
March,
2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
LaTeX
and widely-accepted
by TeXers in Chinese70
scientific community.
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
? Which other softwares are required for CTeX?
 a) MiKTeX2.0 update 1 has been contained in
CTeX2.0, but MiKTeX 2.1 has released and many
packages have been updated (such as hyperref).
b) Ghostscript 6.5 and GSview 3.6 have been
contained in CTeX2.0, but the new versions
have been released (Ghostscript 7.04 and
GSview 4.2). c) PDF-supported softwares should
be installed, such as Acrobat, Jaws ToPDF
(original 5D PDF). d) EPS-supported or TeXbased drawing softwares should be installed,
such as Visio, SmartDraw and LaTeXCAD. e)
WinEdt 5.2 b20001213 has been in CTeX2.0, but
WinEdt
hasIPC-xjtu
been released.
March,
20025.3 b20020317
Shujun Li,
71
 Questions and Answers –
My Opinions
? How can I start to learn LaTeX?
 Two fundamental books: LaTeX2e使用手册 by
TeXGuru and LaTeX2e插图指南 by 王磊.
 Some useful online sites in China: CTeX,
TeXGuru, TeXHome, Matlab大观园, LaTeX Users,
CTAN mirror.
 Some TeXperts in China: 东北大学 – 薛定宇教授,
刘会立教授, 钟圣俊老师; Oxen, 何强(energy),
jinhetao. (Many TeXperts are aboard now –
aloft, eggs, 王磊)
 Some useful web sites abroad: CTAN – The
Comprehensive TeX Archive Network, The TeX
Catalogue Online,
TeX Users Group, LaTeX3
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
72
Project, MiKTeX Project, Ghostscript,
6. How to Avoid Ethical
Problems?
 What is professional ethics? In western
scientific community, there exists
strict (de facto) criteria in different
specific research areas. Almost all
universities and research organizations
have their own Codes of Ethics to
direct the behaviors of their members.
For example, IEEE has its committee on
ethics.
 Generally, there are three chief
ethical problems: frauds (欺诈),
plagiarism
(抄袭),
or
March,
2002
Shujun Li,duplicate
IPC-xjtu
73
simultaneous submissions (一稿多发, 一
How to Avoid Ethical
Problems?
 There are four basic considerations in
technical ethics: honesty, justice,
respect for others’ works and copyrights
held by others. Because of the lack of
clear awareness on ethics issues,
sometimes you may offend technical
ethics without knowing its importance.
But please keep in mind that only one
unintentional violation may smash your
previous efforts for many years. Of
course, any intentional unethical
conducts
are Shujun
real Li,
SINS
and should be 74
March,
2002
IPC-xjtu
criticized and punished.
 Chief References
[1] Harold S. Stone, “Copyrights and Author
Responsibilities,” (IEEE) Computer, vol. 25,
no. 12, pp. 46-51, Dec. 1992
[2] Herbert Michaelson, “How An Author Can Avoid
the Pitfalls of Practical Ethics,” IEEE Trans.
Professional Communication, vol. 33, no. 2, pp.
58-61 , June 1990
[3] Alan Jay Smith, “The Task of the Referee,”
(IEEE) Computer, vol. 23, no. 4, 1990
[4] Lori Allen and Dan Voss, “Ethics for editors
- an analytical decision-making process,” IEEE
Trans. Professional Communication, vol. 41, no.
1, pp. 58-65, 1998
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
75
 Frauds
 In fact, many unethical conducts can be
considered as frauds, such as
plagiarism. The word “fraud” indicates
one’s dishonesty in technical behaviors.
Some typical frauds in papers are: to
hide defects and limitations, to
withhold contradictory information, to
avoid commitments to accuracy or
reliability, faked data, to mislead
readers by specious evidences,
intentional ambiguity in context,
speculation
conducts
(such as citing a 76
March,
2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
reference unavailable to readers), etc.
 Frauds
 In other professional activities, many
other kinds of frauds exist. Here, we
only give three examples: a) 伪造学历-
新浪吴征杨澜事件; b) 学者涉及商业欺诈-
珍奥核酸营养品事件; c) “海归”假造学术经
历-陈晓宁“基因皇后” 、南开大学杨池明、
哈佛大学“教授”夏建统、北大周春生事件;
d) 不正常的学术“争议” (上海大学事件).
More reports about technical Ethics in
China can be found at New Thread (新语
丝). I think every honest researcher
will
be worried
about
such unethical 77
March,
2002
Shujun
Li, IPC-xjtu
conducts.
 Plagiarism
 What is plagiarism? Apparently, when
one copies others’ texts into his own
papers without explicit quotation marks
and indicating the references, he is a
plagiarist. There exists another one
type: self-plagiarism, which is often
neglected by many researchers. Here, we
quote Herbert Michaelson’s saying
[2]: ”It is legitimate, of course, to prepare
a second paper based on your first one if you
add significantly new data and modify the
conclusions. But simply regurgitating your old
March,
2002 in new Shujun
Li, IPC-xjtu
78
results
contexts
without proper
 Duplicate or
Simultaneous Submissions
 In China, the most serious problem on
technical ethics is the “prevalence” of
duplicate and simultaneous submissions.
Duplicate submissions can be considered as
a special case of self-plagiarism, and may
violate the copyrights held by previous
publishers and journals. Simultaneous
submissions are generally unethical
because of the following facts: a) related
journals’ office MUST be explicitly
informed the fact of simultaneous
submitting; b) the works of
reviewers/editors
be wasted; c) the 79
March,
2002
Shujunwill
Li, IPC-xjtu
prolonged list of publications can be used
 Simultaneous
Submissions
 There are many different unethical
conducts about simultaneous submissions:
a) submissions to two journals; b)
submissions to two conferences; c) one
submission to a journal and another to
a conference; d) submissions with
different languages. Please note that
simultaneous submissions may be ethical
if all related journals and conferences
all permit such a behavior and the
editors and conference organizers are
informed
openly
and
timely.
March,
2002
Shujun
Li, IPC-xjtu
80
 Duplicate Submissions
 There are many different unethical
conducts about duplicate submissions: a)
re-publishing journal papers; b) republishing conference papers; c) republishing of conference papers in
journals; d) re-publishing papers with
different language. Similarly, please
note that duplicate submissions may be
ethical if all related journals and
conferences permit such a behavior and
the editors and conference organizers
are2002
informed Shujun
openly.
(APS journals just81
March,
Li, IPC-xjtu
hold the right of first publication)
How to Submit Papers?
 Some useful suggestions: a) carefully
reading instructions for authors of
journals and the call-for-papers of
conference to confirm whether or not
simultaneous and/or duplicate
submissions are permitted; b) carefully
reading the copyright transfer forms
before your papers are published to
confirm the rights, responsibilities of
yours; c) contact the journal offices,
conference sponsors and/or publishers
for2002
more questions
March,
Shujun Li,about
IPC-xjtucopyrights and82
ethical problems.
How to Re-Submit
Conference Papers to
Journals?
most cases, submitting a conference
 In
paper to journal without any
modifications are unethical. Then how
to do so ethically? In Harold S. Stone’s
IEEE paper [1], a general procedure is
given: a) the conference paper should
be extended or enlarged in some fashion;
b) the journal paper should cite the
conference paper as the source of the
idea; c) the verbatim texts of the
conference paper should be delineated;
d) 2002
the journal
editor
should be noticed83
March,
Shujun
Li, IPC-xjtu
at the time of submission.
 Some Useful Information
 IEEE do not allow re-publication of
IEEE conference papers without
essential modifications. Electronic
fulltext is permitted in personal home
pages if IEEE copyright notice is
posted. Non-commercial use and
distribution is permitted.
 Proceedings of SPIE do not allow republication of SPIE conference papers
without essential modifications. Noncommercial use and distribution is
permitted.
Preprint
copy on internet
March,
2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
controlled by authors is acceptable.
84
 Some Useful Information
 Physics Letters A of Elsevier do not
allow re-publication anywhere. Preprint
copy on internet is permitted with
claiming the copyright held by Elsevier.
Non-commercial use and distribution is
acceptable.
 Lecture Notes in Computer Science of
Springer-Verlag do not allow republication anywhere. Non-commercial
use and distribution is acceptable.
Abstract on internet is available, but
fulltext
(even
preprint)
March,
2002
Shujun
Li, IPC-xjtushould be
85
posted one year later after the
 Cases Studies –
Plagiarism
按:除非特别声明,全部案例来自新语丝
合肥工业大学杨敬安事件:合肥工业大学教
授、博士生导师杨敬安多次抄袭(按新语丝上
被揭露的次数为五次)他人论文,已被IEEE和
国家自然科学基金委处理。
北航抄袭事件:北京航空航天大学斯德谊、
乐强、沈士团、李景文等人抄袭被香港中文
大学电子工程系助理教授黄启南发现,由于
沈士团是当时的北航校长,在全国引起轰动,
已被IEEE Signal Processing Society处理,
目前沈士团已被“低调”免职。
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
86
 Cases Studies –
Plagiarism
大连理工大学论文抄袭事件:博士导师唐立
民及其学生丁克伟发表的文章与送审的博士
论文遭审稿人与合肥工业大学范家让教授置
疑,校方一直采取庇护的态度,至今唐、丁
均未得到应有的处理,唐甚至还得到了大连
市委、市政府的“优秀专家”重奖。
北大王铭铭事件:近期最“火爆”的抄袭事
件,从众多国内学者与北大学生对王的“惋
惜”与辩护、北大校方过于迅速以至于“草
率”的处理,和新语丝上热烈的讨论,而逐
渐上升到对中国学界大制度的反思与争论。
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
87
 Cases Studies –
Plagiarism
A Withdrawn Notice from Molecules: It
has come to our attention that due to an error
in the submission of manuscripts, a paper by
Parish et al., (Molecules 2000, 5, 114-117)
had already appeared in print elsewhere (Org.
Prep. Proced. Int. 1999, 31, 702-704) and thus
did not meet the conditions of not having been
published elsewhere and not having been
submitted for publication in other journals.
Consequently, the Editorial Team of Molecules
has decided to declare this paper "Withdrawn".
The authors and the editors wish to apologize
for any confusion this may have caused.
McPhee
Managing Editor,
March, 2002Dr. Derek
Shujun
Li, ,
IPC-xjtu
88
Molecules
 Cases Studies –
Plagiarism
A Case from Angewandte Chemie
International Edition: The Communication
by G. M. Whitesides and co-workers in Issue
12, 2001, pp. 2316 - 2320 should have
referenced a paper that was published at
approximately the same time and contained
some of the same experimental data: R. E.
Holmlin, R. Haag, M. L. Chabinyc, R. F.
Ismagilov, A. E. Cohen, A. Terfort, M. A.
Rampi, G. M. Whitesides, J. Am. Chem. Soc.
2001, 123, 5075 - 5085 (Electron Transport
through Thin Organic Films in MetalInsulator-Metal Junctions Based on SelfMarch, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
89
Assembled Monolayers).
(to be
 Cases Studies –
Plagiarism
 (continued) This full paper gives the
details of the largest part of the
experimental work communicated in
Angewandte Chemie. Omission of this
reference gave the impression of
"duplicate publication", for which the
authors apologize to both journals. The
acknowledgement should also have listed
the affiliation of Dr. Andreas Terfort as
the Institute for Inorganic and Applied
Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Germany.
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
90
 Cases Studies –
Plagiarism
Note: The following case is from
Harold S. Stone’s IEEE paper [1].
Prof. B. C. Dee, a former student of
Prof. P. S. Cript, submitted a paper
whose introduction was taken verbatim
from a conference paper published by
Dee and Cript without indication of the
material's source, and consequently, no
permission notice of the copyright
owner for such reproduction.
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
91
7. How to Understand
Review Procedure and
Results?
 There are three basic review methods:
peer-to-peer review, committee review,
and abstract review. Peer-to-peer
review is widely adopted by almost all
technical journals and many highquality conferences (such as most
conferences in cryptology).Committee
review is generally used by “big”
conferences to avoid heavy burden of
reviewing. Abstract review is used by
some conferences, such as SPIE
conferences
and
some
IEEE conferences
March,
2002
Shujun
Li, IPC-xjtu
to enable rapid publications of new
92
 Chief References
[1] Juan Miguel Campanario, “Consolation
for the Scientists: Sometimes it is
Hard to Publish Papers that are Later
Highly-Cited,” Social Studies of Science,
vol. 23, pp. 342-362, 1993
[2] Alan Jay Smith, “The Task of the
Referee,” (IEEE) Computer, vol. 23, no.
4, 1990
[3] Stephen Cole, Making Science –
Between Nature and Society, Harvard
University Press, 1995 (中文版: 科学的
March,
2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu 林建成, 王毅 93
制造-在自然界与社会之间,
 Positive Part of Review
Procedure
 Generally, review procedure is
necessary to avoid publishing garbage
and wasting papers and readers’ eyes. It
has been widely-acknowledged as a
useful tool for the editors and
conference chairs to decide whether or
not publish a manuscript. For more
positive discussions about review
procedure, please see Smith’s paper [2].
On the other hand, review procedure has
many serious defects and been
criticized
byShujun
manyLi,researchers,
March,
2002
IPC-xjtu
94
injustice hides in the kernel of the
 Negative Part of Review
Procedure
 Not everyone can be a qualified and
responsible referee. In today’s scientific
community, many referees do not satisfy
the basic requirements. In [2], Smith said
“a referee … must have a middle-of-theroad view—you must be able to distinguish
good from bad work, major from minor
research, and positive from negative
contributions to the literature. A referee
who always says ‘yes’ or always says ‘no’ is
not helpful.”
 Different opinions in a specific research
area2002
may lead Shujun
to entirely
distorted review95
March,
Li, IPC-xjtu
results (in [3], it is called “共识缺乏”).
 Negative Part of Review
Procedure
 Ethics problems existing in referees
and editors also make the review
procedure trend to less reliable and
unfair.
 Slow review procedure may impede the
timely publications of really good
ideas.
 High rejection ratio of for many
technical journals (theoretically means
high quality of manuscripts) is an
important issue that must be considered
March,
IPC-xjtu
96
by 2002
referees, Shujun
whichLi,will
make the
 Review = Tossing a Coin
or even Reversing the
Truth?
In Campanario’s paper [1], many
interesting opinions and facts about
peer review system are described.
 Jean Wilson found that 85% of papers
rejected by Journal of Clinical
Investigation (50th in JCR 2000) were
subsequently published elsewhere.
 For some psychological research papers,
Gottfredson found that only low to
moderate correlations exist between the
reviewers’ ratings and the number of
citations of there papers in the first 9
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
years after publications.
97
 Review = Tossing a Coin
or even Reversing the
Truth?
 “A study of the most cited manuscripts
in chemistry indicates that graded
referee judgments were negatively
correlated with later judgments of
merits, as measured by citations. Those
manuscripts that later received the
most citations also received more
critical reviews and required more
revision.”
 Singer analyzes flaws in the peer
review system as part of a general
crisis
academic world. 98
March,
2002 of criteria
Shujun Li,in
IPC-xjtu
 Review = Tossing a Coin
or even Reversing the
Truth?
 William Goffman, editor of The New England
Journal of Medicine (5th), found that “the
possibility of two different referees
agreeing was only slightly better than
chance.”
 Cicchetti has reviewed some studies on the
reliability of peer review of manuscripts
and found that there is much more
agreement on rejection than on acceptance.
 Medical editor David F. Horrobin also
accuses the peer review system of impeding
the publication of innovative ideas, and
March,
2002
Shujun
Li, IPC-xjtu
he illustrates
his accusations
with a set 99
 Review = Tossing a Coin
or even Reversing the
Truth?
 “Peters and Ceci resubmitted twelve
psychology articles to the journals
that has originally published them. The
original papers had been published by
prestigious authors from important
departments, but in this instance the
names and affiliations were altered.
Only three of the resubmissions were
detected, eight were rejected and one
was accepted.”
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
100
 Review = Tossing a Coin
or even Reversing the
Truth?
 The most serious against the peer
review system is made by Redner, “who
affirms that one of the roles of
journals almost appears to be to sift
out and reject really original
contributions. Stephen Lock, editor of
the British Medical Journal (196th),
also thinks that peer review ‘favors
unadventurous nibblings at the margin
of truth rather than quantum leaps’.”
However, the originality of papers and
validity
of claims
the alleged
March,
2002
Shujun Li,are
IPC-xjtu
101
criteria of accepted submissions.
 Some Cases of
Rejections of Good Papers
In [1], total 16 cases are given, we
select several most typical ones as
follows.
2. “A highly-cited paper by Raymond P. Ahlquist
on adrenotropic receptors (促肾上腺受体),
published in the American Journal of
Physiology, was originally rejected by the
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental
Therapeutics. As Ahlquist has recognized, his
paper was finally published in part due to his
friendship with the physiologist W. F.
Hamilton. Scientists ignored his paper for
five years. As of 1958 the citations began to
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
grow, and the paper
has continued to receive 102
 Some Cases of
Rejections of Good Papers
3. “Another surprising instance is a letter to
the editor by Sen-itiroh Hakomori which has
been cited more than 3200 times—one of the
most-cited papers of all times. The paper was
first submitted to the Journal of Biochemistry
(Toyko) but received strong criticism from a
pre-print reviewer. Hakomori withdraw it, but
a colleague advised him to resubmit the
manuscript; it was finally published as a
letter.”
7. One paper of Waterston on a new molecular
theory of gases is rejected by a Royal Society
referee who said “the paper is nothing but
nonsense”.
ThenShujun
Waterston’s
work lay in utter 103
March,
2002
Li, IPC-xjtu
oblivion until Lord Rayleigh rescued it 45
 Some Cases of
Rejections of Good Papers
10. “In 1943, David Nachmansohn and A. L. Machado
were the first researchers to observe the
enzymic acetylation (酶的乙酰化) … However,
Science, Journal of Biological Chemistry and
Proceedings of the Society of Experimental and
Biological Medicine all refused to publish a
paper reporting this crucial finding.”
11. One paper of Peters & Ceci was rejected by
Science, then by American Psychologist , after
a long delay. Submission was encouraged by the
editor of Behavioral and Brain Sciences and,
after major revisions, was accepted for
publication. This paper has been cited over
110 2002
times.
March,
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
104
 Some Cases of
Rejections of Good Papers
13. “W. Neal Burnette discovered a method whereby
specific antigens (抗原) can be distinguished
in a complex protein mixture. He submitted a
manuscript to Analytical Biochemistry, but
reviewers rejected the paper. As Burnette
tells us, ‘the few pre-prints sent to
colleagues seemed to have undergone
logarithmic Xerox multiplication’. He began
receiving phone calls from researchers unable
to read the umpteenth photocopied generation
of the pre-print. Finally, Analytical
Biochemistry agreed to publish the paper; it
appeared in 1981, and has been cited in more
than2002
3810 publications.”
March,
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
105
 Some Cases of
Rejections of Good Papers
14. “The law of the conservation of energy (the
first law of thermodynamics) was reported by J.
R. Mayer in 1842. Mayer’s paper was rejected by
the leading physics journal Annalen der Physik,
and was eventually published in a relatively
obscure chemical journal. According to Ziman,
the paper was almost entirely ignored by
physicists and, possibly as a result of this,
Mayer suffered a mental breakdown from which
he never recovered.”
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
106
 Some Cases of
Rejections of Good Papers
16. The most cited paper in the story of science
is that by Oliver H. Lowry, … and R. J.
Randall on protein measurement with the Folin
phenol reagent (福林苯酚试剂). This paper has
been cited more than 187,000 times(!); the
next one only scores 59,000. “Lowry’s paper was
not rejected but, in an autobiographical
account, Lowry recalls that, after its first
submission to the Journal of Biological
Chemistry, it was returned by the editors for
drastic shortening. According to Lowry, ‘this
shortening may have improved the paper, but
forced us to omit some details that perhaps
would
have lessened
plethora of papers by107
March,
2002
Shujunthe
Li, IPC-xjtu
others describing improvements and
 How should we do?
 If your papers are rejected by journals, do
not discouraged, carefully read the comments
from reviewers and improve your papers. If you
think the comments are unreasonable, just
resubmit them to other journals!! If your
papers are again rejected by sequent journals,
you should check you papers more carefully and
determine whether or not you should submit
your papers for more times. If you still think
you are right, just re-resubmit them!!!
(consider D. Nachmansohn & A. L. Machado’s
paper!) Of course, it will be helpful to
discuss with more other researchers and
struggle
supporting
(consider the final108
March,
2002 their Shujun
Li, IPC-xjtu
success of W. N. Burnette!)
 My Research Mottos
 Honesty: 1st property of a person!
 Enthusiasm: Love what you are doing!
 Diligence: No pains, no gains! Accumulation of
rich knowledge and experience is the only base of
success!
 Modesty: Everybody is your teacher, just thinking
and asking, and then again!
 Squareness: Mistakes always follow you! Try to
criticize your ideas and find the solutions! Check
your manuscripts again and again!
 Self-Confidence: You MAY succeed finally!
 Patience: No real success comes so quickly except
that you are a REAL genius!
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
109
 My Research Mottos
 Realism: You cannot solve everything! You should
do anything on the ground, not in the sky!
 Skepticism: DO not just echo others’ words! Even
the great scientist may make mistakes!
 Righteousness: Just do the right and hate evil!
 Dabbling: Absorb more knowledge about science
(physics, cosmology, mathematics, biology,
medicine, zoology & botany, etc.) and social
science (history, religion research, archeology,
arts, and so on). To do so, reading MyScience
frequently and more really good popular science
books may be helpful. The story about the
discovery of DNS’ structure is a good example of
the benefit from rich knowledge and interests in
March,
Shujun Li,areas.
IPC-xjtu
110
many2002
different research
Thanks for
Your
Listening!
March, 2002
Shujun Li, IPC-xjtu
111
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On the Road to the Naissance of a Good Technical Papers