General Assembly of CIRCEOS Budva, Montenegro, 7-8 May, 2004 “Support to the Bologna Process” by Ryszard J. Górecki University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland I. Current situation in higher education in Europe Table 1. Number of students and teaching staff in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (academic year 2001 - 2002) Number of students Country Public* % Private % Total Number of teaching staff 1 Albania 42,160 100.0 0,0 0.0 42,160 1,716 2 Belarus 259,993 86.0 41,760 14.0 301,753 21,684 3 Bulgaria 199,716 87.4 28,678 12.6 228,394 19,06 4 Croatia 109,928 97.7 2,591 2.3 112,519 5,643 5 Czech Republic 225,136 98.5 3,499 1.5 228,635 13,641 6 Estonia 47,200 78.0 13,200 22.0 60,400 3,800 7 Hungary 300,360 86.0 48,941 14.0 349,301 22,863 8 Latvia 89,724 81.2 20,776 18.8 110,500 5,372 9 Lithuania 114,429 97.6 2,861 2.4 117,290 9,679 10 The FYR of Macedonia 44,710 100.0 0,0 0.0 44,710 1,561 11 Republic of Moldavia 77,549 75.0 25,869 25.0 103,418 7,295 12 Poland 1,271,728 70.6 528,820 29.4 1,800,548 80,904 13 Romania 435,406 74.8 146,815 25.2 582,221 28,674 14 Russian Federation 4,797,400 85.5 811,056 14.5 5,608,456 272,700 15 Slovak Republic 136,761 99.3 1,067 0.7 137,828 13,270 16 Slovenia 97,658 98.4 1,556 1.6 99,214 4,159 17 Ukraine 2,031,667 89.5 238,100 10.5 2,269,767 130,700 Table 2. Number of higher education institutions in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (academic year 2001-2002) Country Number of institutions Public* % Private % Total 1 Universities and colleges 1 Albania 11 100.0 0 0.0 11 2 Belarus 44 78.6 12 21.4 56 3 Bulgaria 39 78.0 11 22.0 501 4 Croatia 86 88.7 11 11.3 97 5 Czech Republic 28 62.2 17 37.8 45 6 Estonia 13 39.0 20 61.0 33 7 Hungary 30 46.0 352 54.0 65 4 The total number is given; 1 is a higher education institution, 29 are Faculties 8 Latvia 203 55.6 16 44.4 36 5 Only universities 9 Lithuania 22 62.9 13 37.1 35 10 The FYR of Macedonia 30 100.0 0 0.0 304 11 Republic of Moldavia 60 52.6 54 47.4 114 12 Poland 123 35.8 221 64.2 344 13 Romania 57 45.2 69 54.8 1265 14 Russian Federation 621 61.7 385 38.3 1006 15 Slovak Republic 21 91.3 2 8.7 23 16 Slovenia 57 82.6 12 17.4 69 17 Ukraine 822 82.4 175 17.6 997 2 Refers also to higher education of confessional affiliation 3 Government dependent private institutions Table 3. Number of students per 100,000 inhabitants in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (academic year 2001 - 2002) Country Number of students per 100,000 inhabitants Albania 1,374 FYR of Macedonia 2,197 Czech Republic 2,240 Slovak Republic1 2,562 Romania1 2,598 Croatia 2,617 Republic of Moldova 2,850 Bulgaria 2,894 Belarus 3,017 Lithuania 3,375 Hungary 3,432 Russian Federation 3,846 Estonia 4,437 Poland 4,641 Ukraine 4,680 Latvia 4,711 Slovenia1 4,975 1 Without PhD students (ISCED Level 6) Rapid growth of HE sector in Poland after 1989 HEIs students [in thousands] public private 1801 377 API = 46.2% 29.4% 252 70.6% 112 106 404 API = 12.9% 125 1990/91 2002/03 1990/91 2002/03 source: Central Statistical Office, 2003 Country Number of BA and MSc students (‘000) Former EU(15) 12 820,3 B 359,3 DK 190,8 D 2 083,9 EL 478,2 E 1 833,5 F 2 031,8 IRL 166,6 I 1 812,4 L 2,5 NL 504,1 A 264,6 P 387,7 FIN 279,6 S 358 UK 2 067,3 Selected CE Countries Number of BA and MSc students (‘000) BG 247 12 260 57,7 330,6 136 102,8 7,4 1 775,0 533,2 91,5 143,9 CY CZ EE HU LT LV MT PL RO SI SK Students (BA and MSc) studying in another Member State/EEA as % of all national students 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 B DK D EL E F IRL I L NL A P FIN S UK IS NO Source: EUROSTAT Education in Europe; Key statistics 2000/01 BG CY CZ EE HU LT LV MT PL RO SI SK Percentage of BA and MSc students in all levels of education in selected CE countries, 2000-2001 20 15 10 5 0 BG CY CZ EE HU LV LT MT Source: EUROSTAT; Statistical yearbook on candidate countries; Data 1997-2001 PL RO SK SI II. Major weaknesses of the European higher education system 1. Disproportions in the number of university graduates in particular countries 2. Discrepancy in the quality level of higher education in European countries 3. Differences in curricula and organization of the teaching process 4. Different systems of university organization, administration and management 5. Insufficient cooperation in education and research area 6. Differences in financial support provided to universities III. Adoption of the common higher education policy in Europe 1. Lisbon Convention – 8 -11.04.1997 2. Magna Charta Universitatum – 18.09.1988 3. Sorbonne Declaration – 25.05.1998 4. Bologna Declaration – 19.06.1999 5. Göteborg Student Convention – 25.03.2001 6. Salamanca Message – 29 -30. 03. 2001 7. Praque Communique – 19.05.2001 8. Graz Declaration from the 2nd Convention of European Higher Education Institutions – 28-30. 05. 2005, adopted by the council of the EUA in Leuven -4.06.2003 9. Communique of the Conference of Ministers for Higher Education, Berlin – 19. 09.2003. Bologna Declaration 1999 • Adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees • Adoption of a system essentially based on two main cycles + PhD education • Establishment of a system of credits • Promotion of mobility • Promotion of European co-operation in quality assurance • Promotion of the European dimensions Prague Communique 2001 • Lifelong learning • Involvement of students • Enhancing the competitiveness of the European Higher Education Area and its attractiveness to other parts of the world (including the aspect of transnational education). Berlin Communique 2003 • Doctoral level as the third cycle in the Bologna Process • Support for joint degrees • Introduction of a stocktaking process IV. The Policy of Higher Education in Europe to 2010 and Beyond 1. Universities as a public responsibility. 2. Research as an integral part of higher education. 3. Improving academic quality by building strong institutions. 4. Pushing forward the Bologna Process. 5. Mobility and the social dimension. (approved by Ministers of Education during the meeting in Berlin on 18-19 of September 2003) Current state of the art Bologna Process 1998 Sorbonne Declaration 1999 Bologna Declaration France Germany UK Italy 29 countries including Poland 2001 Bologna Prague Communique 33 countries 2003 Berlin Communique 40 countries Process including Russia 2005 Conference of Ministers in Bergen 2010: European Higher Education Area (EHEA) Conference of Ministers signed a declaration to implement to the end of 2005 key points of Bologna Declaration: - 2-cycle study system, - ECTS, - Diploma supplement, - Quality assurance system. The role of students in the Bologna Process - At 63% of universities in Bologna signatory countries, students have been formally involved in the Bologna Process, through participation in the senate or council or at faculty/departmental level. The same trend is valid for the non-signatory countries in SEE. - Student express the highest hopes concerning the principles of the Bologna reforms and the harshest criticism concerning their implementation and frequently reductive interpretations. The students' contribution to the deliberations on the Bologna reforms has been particularly strong on issues of the social dimension of Higher Education and the emphasis of HE as a public good, and in connection with discussions of the possible consequences of GATS on Higher Education Institutions. Recognition - About two thirds of the Bologna signatory countries have so far ratified the most important legal tool for recognition, the Lisbon Recognition Convention. The European Higher Education Area would benefit if this Convention were ratified by all Bologna signatory states as soon as possible. - European HE Ministries, student associations, expect that the Bologna Process will greatly facilitate academic recognition procedures. - The Diploma Supplement is being introduced in a growing number of countries, but the employers is still insufficiently aware of it. Awareness of the potential benefits of the Diploma Supplement therefore also needs to be raised. The introduction of a Diploma Supplement label (like that of an ECTS label) would probably lead to a clear qualitative improvement in the use of the Diploma Supplement. Awareness and support of the Bologna Process 1. Awareness of the Bologna Process has increased considerably during the last two years. The reforms have yet to reach the majority of the HE grass-roots representatives who are supposed to implement them and give them concrete meaning. 2. Generally, awareness is more developed at universities than at other higher education institutions (HEIs). 3. Only ca 50% of universities and ca 30% of other HEIs have created the position of a Bologna coordinator. 4. There is however widespread support for the Bologna Process among heads of HEIs. However, some resistance to individual aspects and the pace of the reforms obviously remains. Degree structures, qualification frameworks and curricula - 80% of the Bologna countries either have the legal possibility to offer two-tier structures or are introducing these. Many governments have fixed deadlines for the transition from the traditional to the new degree system. In the remaining 20% of countries, the necessary legislative changes are being prepared. The latter holds true also for SEE countries. - As for the HEIs, 53% have introduced or are introducing the two-tier structure while 36% are planning it. In other words, almost 90% of HEIs in the Bologna countries have or will have a two-tier structure. Only 11% of HEIs see no need for curricular reform in this process. About 55% of HEIs in SEE have not yet introduced the twotier structure. Joint Curricula and Joint Degrees Joint Curricula and Joint Degrees are intrinsically linked to all the objectives of the Bologna Process and have the potential to become an important element of a truly European Higher Education Area. Nevertheless, and in spite of the appeal in the Prague Communiqué, Joint Curricula and Joint Degrees still do not receive sufficient attention, as is confirmed by the fact that most Ministries and Rectors’ Conferences attach only medium or even low importance to these. V. Possible role of CIRCEOS in supporting the Bologna Process A. Cooperation to reform the curricula - compiling lists of study courses offered by the CIRCEOS Universities, - creating the educational offer databases, - drawing up plans and programs in the 3+2 system of education, - preparing the educational offer in foreign languages. B. Cooperation to implement the quality assurance system - developing internal systems of education quality management and monitoring, - developing comparable methods and criteria for education quality assessment at the CIRCEOS Universities. C. Exchange of experiences and opinions on ECTS for transfer and accumulation - Exchange of experiences and opinions on ECTS to provide a basis for drawing up plans and programs at the Network Universities. - ECTS is clearly emerging as the European credit system. In many countries it has become a legal requirement, while other countries with national credit systems are ensuring their compatibility with ECTS. - Two thirds of HEIs today use ECTS for credit. D. Creation of a student mobility system – example of the MOST Program in Poland - The student mobility system, the MOST programme, presents the new educational offer of Polish universities. - The MOST programme is addressed to Polish university students whose scientific interests can be successfully developed outside their home universities. A flexible program of studies allows for the inclusion of onesemester or one-year study periods at other universities. - Students accepted to the programme are entitled to apply to a selected university and select courses based on an existing study curriculum at a given university. - In general, the outline of the MOST programme refers to the European education system within the SOCRATES programme. E. Cooperation within the frame of Ph.D. studies - developing a Ph.D. students mobility system, - creating conditions for promoting doctors and conferring academic degrees recognized in the EU member states. F. Research cooperation 1. Organizing scientific seminars devoted to the presentation of research results at CIRCEOS Universities, e.g. seminars on plant biotechnology, food processing, European law, environmental protection, etc. 2. Creation of databases of current research programs realised at universities. 3. Preparing joint research proposals. 4. Exchange of scientific journals, books, etc. published by Network Universities. (Relevant agreements should be made as soon as possible). 5. Initiatives for joint publication of scientific journals. (An example may be IUS NOVUM published by the Universities in Bari and Olsztyn). G. Organisation of summer schools and seminars. (Network Universities should put forward proposals concerning this form of activity). H. Exchange of experiences on the management and administration of universities Examples of seminars/meetings: - Senior University Management Seminar - Information Technology and its Applications at the University -The role of the University in the Development of Regional Policy VI. What can we do now? 1. To sign an agreements on: - student and staff mobility - exchange of scientific journals between CIRCEOS universities. 2. Appointing persons responsible for developing data bases on programs of studies, research programs and project leaders. 3. Appointing working groups responsible for: - establishing principles of Ph.D. students mobility - exchange the experience on implementation of the Bologna Declaration. Bologna Process – what we should be aware? • European higher education is leading to common European Higher Education Area (EHEA)! • Bologna Process can not be neglected! • Concurence does not sleep! • Abandonments in implementation of postulates of the Bologna Process threat in finding our universities on the distant outskirts of Europe!