General Assembly of CIRCEOS
Budva, Montenegro, 7-8 May, 2004
“Support to the Bologna Process”
by Ryszard J. Górecki
University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
I. Current situation in higher
education in Europe
Table 1. Number of students and teaching staff in countries of Central and Eastern
Europe (academic year 2001 - 2002)
Number of students
Country
Public*
%
Private
%
Total
Number of
teaching
staff
1
Albania
42,160
100.0
0,0
0.0
42,160
1,716
2
Belarus
259,993
86.0
41,760
14.0
301,753
21,684
3
Bulgaria
199,716
87.4
28,678
12.6
228,394
19,06
4
Croatia
109,928
97.7
2,591
2.3
112,519
5,643
5
Czech Republic
225,136
98.5
3,499
1.5
228,635
13,641
6
Estonia
47,200
78.0
13,200
22.0
60,400
3,800
7
Hungary
300,360
86.0
48,941
14.0
349,301
22,863
8
Latvia
89,724
81.2
20,776
18.8
110,500
5,372
9
Lithuania
114,429
97.6
2,861
2.4
117,290
9,679
10
The FYR of Macedonia
44,710
100.0
0,0
0.0
44,710
1,561
11
Republic of Moldavia
77,549
75.0
25,869
25.0
103,418
7,295
12
Poland
1,271,728
70.6
528,820
29.4
1,800,548
80,904
13
Romania
435,406
74.8
146,815
25.2
582,221
28,674
14
Russian Federation
4,797,400
85.5
811,056
14.5
5,608,456
272,700
15
Slovak Republic
136,761
99.3
1,067
0.7
137,828
13,270
16
Slovenia
97,658
98.4
1,556
1.6
99,214
4,159
17
Ukraine
2,031,667
89.5
238,100
10.5
2,269,767
130,700
Table 2. Number of higher education institutions in countries of Central
and Eastern Europe (academic year 2001-2002)
Country
Number of institutions
Public*
%
Private
%
Total
1 Universities and
colleges
1
Albania
11
100.0
0
0.0
11
2
Belarus
44
78.6
12
21.4
56
3
Bulgaria
39
78.0
11
22.0
501
4
Croatia
86
88.7
11
11.3
97
5
Czech Republic
28
62.2
17
37.8
45
6
Estonia
13
39.0
20
61.0
33
7
Hungary
30
46.0
352
54.0
65
4 The total number is
given; 1 is a higher
education institution,
29 are Faculties
8
Latvia
203
55.6
16
44.4
36
5 Only universities
9
Lithuania
22
62.9
13
37.1
35
10
The FYR of Macedonia
30
100.0
0
0.0
304
11
Republic of Moldavia
60
52.6
54
47.4
114
12
Poland
123
35.8
221
64.2
344
13
Romania
57
45.2
69
54.8
1265
14
Russian Federation
621
61.7
385
38.3
1006
15
Slovak Republic
21
91.3
2
8.7
23
16
Slovenia
57
82.6
12
17.4
69
17
Ukraine
822
82.4
175
17.6
997
2 Refers also to higher
education of
confessional affiliation
3 Government
dependent private
institutions
Table 3. Number of students per 100,000 inhabitants in countries of Central
and Eastern Europe (academic year 2001 - 2002)
Country
Number of students per
100,000 inhabitants
Albania
1,374
FYR of Macedonia
2,197
Czech Republic
2,240
Slovak Republic1
2,562
Romania1
2,598
Croatia
2,617
Republic of Moldova
2,850
Bulgaria
2,894
Belarus
3,017
Lithuania
3,375
Hungary
3,432
Russian Federation
3,846
Estonia
4,437
Poland
4,641
Ukraine
4,680
Latvia
4,711
Slovenia1
4,975
1 Without PhD students
(ISCED Level 6)
Rapid growth of HE sector in Poland after 1989
HEIs
students [in thousands]
public
private
1801
377
API = 46.2%
29.4%
252
70.6%
112
106
404
API = 12.9%
125
1990/91 2002/03
1990/91 2002/03
source: Central Statistical Office, 2003
Country
Number of BA and MSc students (‘000)
Former EU(15)
12 820,3
B
359,3
DK
190,8
D
2 083,9
EL
478,2
E
1 833,5
F
2 031,8
IRL
166,6
I
1 812,4
L
2,5
NL
504,1
A
264,6
P
387,7
FIN
279,6
S
358
UK
2 067,3
Selected CE
Countries
Number of BA and MSc students (‘000)
BG
247
12
260
57,7
330,6
136
102,8
7,4
1 775,0
533,2
91,5
143,9
CY
CZ
EE
HU
LT
LV
MT
PL
RO
SI
SK
Students (BA and MSc) studying in another Member
State/EEA as % of all national students
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
B DK D EL E F IRL I
L NL A P FIN S UK
IS NO
Source: EUROSTAT Education in Europe; Key statistics 2000/01
BG CY CZ EE HU LT LV MT PL RO SI SK
Percentage of BA and MSc students in all levels of
education in selected CE countries, 2000-2001
20
15
10
5
0
BG
CY
CZ
EE
HU
LV
LT
MT
Source: EUROSTAT; Statistical yearbook on candidate countries; Data 1997-2001
PL
RO
SK
SI
II. Major weaknesses of the European
higher education system
1. Disproportions in the number of university graduates in particular
countries
2. Discrepancy in the quality level of higher education in European
countries
3. Differences in curricula and organization of the teaching process
4. Different systems of university organization, administration and
management
5. Insufficient cooperation in education and research area
6. Differences in financial support provided to universities
III. Adoption of the common higher
education policy in Europe
1. Lisbon Convention
– 8 -11.04.1997
2. Magna Charta Universitatum
– 18.09.1988
3. Sorbonne Declaration
– 25.05.1998
4. Bologna Declaration
– 19.06.1999
5. Göteborg Student Convention
– 25.03.2001
6. Salamanca Message
– 29 -30. 03. 2001
7. Praque Communique
– 19.05.2001
8. Graz Declaration from the 2nd Convention of European Higher Education
Institutions – 28-30. 05. 2005, adopted by the council of the EUA in
Leuven -4.06.2003
9. Communique of the Conference of Ministers for Higher Education,
Berlin – 19. 09.2003.
Bologna Declaration 1999
•
Adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable
degrees
•
Adoption of a system essentially based on two main cycles
+ PhD education
•
Establishment of a system of credits
•
Promotion of mobility
•
Promotion of European co-operation in quality assurance
•
Promotion of the European dimensions
Prague Communique 2001
• Lifelong learning
• Involvement of students
• Enhancing the competitiveness of the European Higher
Education Area and its attractiveness to other parts of the world
(including the aspect of transnational education).
Berlin Communique 2003
• Doctoral level as the third cycle in the Bologna Process
• Support for joint degrees
• Introduction of a stocktaking process
IV. The Policy of Higher Education in
Europe to 2010 and Beyond
1. Universities as a public responsibility.
2. Research as an integral part of higher education.
3. Improving academic quality by building strong institutions.
4. Pushing forward the Bologna Process.
5. Mobility and the social dimension.
(approved by Ministers of Education during the meeting in Berlin on 18-19 of September 2003)
Current state of the art
Bologna Process
1998
Sorbonne Declaration
1999
Bologna Declaration
France
Germany
UK
Italy
29 countries
including Poland
2001
Bologna
Prague
Communique
33 countries
2003
Berlin Communique
40 countries
Process
including Russia
2005
Conference of Ministers in Bergen
2010: European Higher Education Area (EHEA)
Conference of Ministers signed a declaration to
implement to the end of 2005 key points of
Bologna Declaration:
- 2-cycle study system,
- ECTS,
- Diploma supplement,
- Quality assurance system.
The role of students in the Bologna Process
-
At 63% of universities in Bologna signatory countries, students have
been formally involved in the Bologna Process, through participation
in the senate or council or at faculty/departmental level. The same
trend is valid for the non-signatory countries in SEE.
-
Student express the highest hopes concerning the principles of
the Bologna reforms and the harshest criticism concerning their
implementation and frequently reductive interpretations. The students'
contribution to the deliberations on the Bologna reforms has been
particularly strong on issues of the social dimension of Higher
Education and the emphasis of HE as a public good, and in connection
with discussions of the possible consequences of GATS on Higher
Education Institutions.
Recognition
-
About two thirds of the Bologna signatory countries have so far
ratified the most important legal tool for recognition, the Lisbon
Recognition Convention. The European Higher Education Area
would benefit if this Convention were ratified by all Bologna signatory
states as soon as possible.
-
European HE Ministries, student associations, expect that the
Bologna Process will greatly facilitate academic recognition
procedures.
-
The Diploma Supplement is being introduced in a growing number of
countries, but the employers is still insufficiently aware of it. Awareness
of the potential benefits of the Diploma Supplement therefore also
needs to be raised. The introduction of a Diploma Supplement label
(like that of an ECTS label) would probably lead to a clear qualitative
improvement in the use of the Diploma Supplement.
Awareness and support of the Bologna Process
1. Awareness of the Bologna Process has increased considerably during
the last two years. The reforms have yet to reach the majority of the HE
grass-roots representatives who are supposed to implement them and give
them concrete meaning.
2. Generally, awareness is more developed at universities than at other
higher education institutions (HEIs).
3. Only ca 50% of universities and ca 30% of other HEIs have created the
position of a Bologna coordinator.
4. There is however widespread support for the Bologna Process among
heads of HEIs. However, some resistance to individual aspects and the
pace of the reforms obviously remains.
Degree structures, qualification frameworks
and curricula
-
80% of the Bologna countries either have the legal possibility to
offer two-tier structures or are introducing these. Many
governments have fixed deadlines for the transition from the traditional
to the new degree system. In the remaining 20% of countries, the
necessary legislative changes are being prepared. The latter holds
true also for SEE countries.
-
As for the HEIs, 53% have introduced or are introducing the two-tier
structure while 36% are planning it. In other words, almost 90% of
HEIs in the Bologna countries have or will have a two-tier
structure. Only 11% of HEIs see no need for curricular reform in this
process. About 55% of HEIs in SEE have not yet introduced the twotier structure.
Joint Curricula and Joint Degrees
Joint Curricula and Joint Degrees are intrinsically linked to all
the objectives of the Bologna Process and have the potential to
become an important element of a truly European Higher Education
Area. Nevertheless, and in spite of the appeal in the Prague
Communiqué, Joint Curricula and Joint Degrees still do not receive
sufficient attention, as is confirmed by the fact that most Ministries and
Rectors’ Conferences attach only medium or even low importance to
these.
V. Possible role of CIRCEOS
in supporting
the Bologna Process
A. Cooperation to reform the curricula
-
compiling lists of study courses offered by the CIRCEOS
Universities,
-
creating the educational offer databases,
-
drawing up plans and programs in the 3+2 system of
education,
-
preparing the educational offer in foreign languages.
B. Cooperation to implement
the quality assurance system
-
developing internal systems of education quality
management and monitoring,
-
developing comparable methods and criteria for education
quality assessment at the CIRCEOS Universities.
C. Exchange of experiences and opinions on
ECTS for transfer and accumulation
-
Exchange of experiences and opinions on ECTS to provide a
basis for drawing up plans and programs at the Network
Universities.
-
ECTS is clearly emerging as the European credit system. In many countries it
has become a legal requirement, while other countries with national credit
systems are ensuring their compatibility with ECTS.
-
Two thirds of HEIs today use ECTS for credit.
D. Creation of a student mobility system –
example of the MOST Program in Poland
-
The student mobility system, the MOST programme, presents the new
educational offer of Polish universities.
-
The MOST programme is addressed to Polish university students whose
scientific interests can be successfully developed outside their home
universities. A flexible program of studies allows for the inclusion of onesemester or one-year study periods at other universities.
-
Students accepted to the programme are entitled to apply to a selected
university and select courses based on an existing study curriculum at a
given university.
-
In general, the outline of the MOST programme refers to the European
education system within the SOCRATES programme.
E. Cooperation within the frame of Ph.D. studies
-
developing a Ph.D. students mobility system,
-
creating conditions for promoting doctors and conferring
academic degrees recognized in the EU member states.
F. Research cooperation
1.
Organizing scientific seminars devoted to the presentation of
research results at CIRCEOS Universities, e.g. seminars on plant
biotechnology, food processing, European law, environmental
protection, etc.
2.
Creation of databases of current research programs realised at
universities.
3.
Preparing joint research proposals.
4.
Exchange of scientific journals, books, etc. published by Network
Universities. (Relevant agreements should be made as soon as
possible).
5.
Initiatives for joint publication of scientific journals. (An example
may be IUS NOVUM published by the Universities in Bari and
Olsztyn).
G. Organisation of summer schools and
seminars. (Network Universities should put
forward proposals concerning this form of activity).
H. Exchange of experiences on the management
and administration of universities
Examples of seminars/meetings:
- Senior University Management Seminar
- Information Technology and its Applications at the
University
-The role of the University in the Development of
Regional Policy
VI. What can we do now?
1. To sign an agreements on:
- student and staff mobility
- exchange of scientific journals between CIRCEOS
universities.
2. Appointing persons responsible for developing data bases on
programs of studies, research programs and project leaders.
3. Appointing working groups responsible for:
- establishing principles of Ph.D. students mobility
- exchange the experience on implementation of the Bologna
Declaration.
Bologna Process – what we should be
aware?
• European higher education is leading to common
European Higher Education Area (EHEA)!
• Bologna Process can not be neglected!
• Concurence does not sleep!
• Abandonments in implementation of postulates of
the Bologna Process threat in finding our
universities on the distant outskirts of Europe!
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THE ROLE OF THE UNIVERSITIES TO 2010 AND BEYOND