Public Accommodations, Schools, Housing, Marriage,
Workplace, and Politics were SEGREGATED
 The Civil Rights Act of 1875 outlawed segregation of
all public facilities stating that all people should be
considered equal, but in 1883 the Supreme Court (all
white) declared the act unconstitutional
 Plessy v Ferguson- 1896-SEPARATE BUT EQUAL was
 Plessy v Ferguson was in the midst of Jim Crow Laws
which were various laws separating the races and
limiting rights of African Americans.
 VIDEO Plessy V Ferguson
 De
facto segregation: practice and custom of
segregation Example: Restrictive covenantagreement among neighbors to not sell or
rent to African Americans
 De jure segregation: segregation by law
example: racial zoning- laws defining where
different neighbors could live
 Miscegenation
or interracial
marriage was illegal in ½ of the
states. Childbirth through racial
mixing “threatened the purity of
white races” Other ethnicities
were also included.
 Median income of a black mad was
½ that of a white man (often due
to poor education of blacks)
 African Americans were also
denied the right to vote in the
south, through white primaries,
and gerrymandering- redrawing
lines of voting districts.
 Jackie
Robinson was one of
the 1st African Americans to
cross the colorline when he
signed a contract with the
Brooklyn Dodgers in 1945.
 Football became integrated
in 1946 and basketball by
 Truman desegregated the
troops in 1948 with
Executive Order 9981.
Congress of Racial Equality- founded in 1942
by students in Chicago, committed to nonviolence as a direct action for a means of
 1943- CORE staged a sit-in in a Chicago coffee
shop. Spread desegregation throughout
northern cities, but trouble arose when they
started to focus on the south.
NAACP- fought for
desegregation and
equality of African
Americans- founded in
 Charles Hamilton,
Houston, legal counsel for
NAACP from 1934-1938
 Thurgood Marshall 1940
legal counsel for NAACP,
law student of Houston,
won 29 out of 32 cases
argued before the
Supreme Court.
Brown v Board of Education of Topeka- 1954 desegregation of
public schools (Marshall’s greatest victory)
 Georgia and Texas resisted
 Within a year 500 schools were desegregated
 In 1955 the Supreme Court handed down a second ruling called
Brown II to speed the process up
Shelly v Kraemer- desegregation in housing 1948
Morgan v Virginia- Supreme Court declared laws unconstitutional
that mandated segregated seating on integrated bussing
Sweatt v Painter- state law schools must accept black applicants
even if a black school exists
Video Brown v Board of Education
 Earl
Warren- Chief Justice of
the Supreme Court from
 Warren Court- Name given
to the Supreme Court
because they were known
for their activism on civil
rights and free speech.
December 1st 1955 Rosa Parks refused
to give her seat up on the bus and was
 Martin Luther King Jr. (26 yr old
Baptist Preacher) elected as leader of
the Montgomery Improvement
Association and chosen to lead the
 Montgomery Bus Boycott- African
Americans organized an elaborate
carpooling system as well as walked,
rode their bikes, hitchhiked and took
taxis for 381 days until Nov 1956 when
courts ruled segregation on bussing
Video Rosa Parks and Montgomery Bus Boycott
 Southern
Christian Leadership
Conference (SCLC)- ministers and Civil
Rights leaders (King) joined together to
carry on nonviolent crusades against
the evils of second-class citizenship.
SCLC was organized by Ella Baker.
 King and the SCLC used non-violent
resistance called “soul force.” King
refused to hate anyone but refused to
obey unjust laws aka Civil
 Little
Rock governor Orval
Faubus supported segregation
and the school board supported
 In Sept. 1957 the Governor
ordered the Arkansas National
Guard to turn away the “Little
Rock Nine” (9 black students).
 Eisenhower and the Supreme
Court backed the students and
the National Guard (under
federal control) escorted them
to school.
 1957 Civil Rights Act- Federal
Government took over the power
to desegregate public schools
 James
Meredith- Air Force
Veteran who won a federal
court case that allowed
him to enroll in the allwhite University of
Mississippi in Sept 1962.
But when he arrived on
campus Governor Ross
Barnett refused to let him
sign up for classes.
 -Sept 30th riots broke out
on campus resulting in 2
 -Meredith was
accompanied to class by
Federal Marshals following
the incident
Sit-in- Students sat down
in “whites only” public
places and refused to
 Student Nonviolent
coordinating Committee
(SNCC) –pronounced
“snick” Organized by
Ella Baker used civil
disobedience and fought
for equality through a
commitment of justice,
peace, and nonviolence.
 Direct
action- political
acts including protests
of all types
 Freedom
Riders- civil
rights activist who rode
buses through the south
in the early 1960s to
challenge segregation
 Riders brutally beaten
and buses bombed
 JFK sends 400 US
Marshals to protect
 Interstate Commerce
Commission Actbanned segregation in
all interstate travel
Martin Luther King Jr- MLK Jr flew to
Birmingham to hold a meeting on
April 3rd 1963, because Birmingham
was the most segregated city in
 -King was arrested on April 12th
“good Friday” and wrote an open
letter to a religious leader from jail.
 -April 20th King posted bail and began
planning more demonstrations
(protests and boycotts)
 The entire month of April riots and
protests continued
 In May students left school and
gathered at the 16th street Baptist
church to plan a march to the City
Center. When students tried to
march Fire hoses and dog attacks
were used by police to stop them.
 The public watched in terror.
August 28th 1963- 250,000 people assembled on the
lawn of the Washington Monument and Martin Luther
King Jr gave his “I have a Dream” speech.
 Civil rights Act of 1964- Prohibited discrimination
because of race, religion, natural origin, and gender.
It gave citizens the right to enter public libraries,
parks, washrooms, restaurants, theaters, and other
public accommodations.
Freedom Summer- project to
get African Americans the right
to vote in the South focusing
on Mississippi. SNCC and CORE
workers began registering
African American voters to get
the voting rights act passed.
 - Civil rights groups recruited
college students and trained
them in non-violent resistance
 Fannie Lou Hamer- daughter
of Mississippi sharecroppers
would be the voice for SNCC at
the Democratic National
 -she was jailed for registering
African American’s to vote and
police forced other prisoners
to beat her. Hamer spoke of
her experiences
Selma Campaign- King organized a march (50 miles) from
Selma to Montgomery the capital on march 7th 1965 as a
protest. That night mayhem broke out and ten days later
President Johnson presented congress with a voting rights
act of 1965 and asked for a swift passage.
 Voting Rights Act of 1965- this act eliminated the literacy
tests, and stated that federal examiners could enroll
voters who had been denied suffrage by local officials.
Urban Ghettos- part of a
city belonging to a single
ethnic group
 Watts Riots- August 1965- 6
days, 34 deaths, 900
injured, 4,000 arrested, and
$45 million in property
damage in Watts, LA.
 Newark, NJ and Detriot Mi
experienced many riots
resulting in deaths
 Kerner
Commission- an appointed group
which President Johnson had appointed to
study urban violence and the conclusion was
that our nation was moving toward two
Malcolm X- African
American leader who
urged their followers to
take complete control of
their communities,
livelihoods, and culture.
Malcolm X went to jail for
burglary at age 20 and
studied Elijah Muhammad.
Nation of Islam-a religious
group, popularly known as
the Black Muslims,
founded by Elijah
Muhammad to promote
the Islamic religion and
black nationalism- a
doctrine that called for
complete separation of
the races.
Malcolm broke with Elijah over differences of strategies
 Stokely Carmichael- Led SNCC and called for black
power with no white people allowed to work with them.
 Black Power- “a call for black people to begin to define
their own goals and lead their own organizations.”
 Black Panthers- political party which fought police
brutality in the ghetto. The party also wanted selfsufficiency for African-American communities, as well
as full employment and decent housing. Black leather
jackets, black berets, and sunglasses.
 Afrocentrism-
taking pride in their
African heritage
focusing on African
History, culture, and
achievements of
African people.
 Roots- 12 hour
television miniseries
of African American
life- enslaved black
 http://www.youtu
 http://www.youtu
 Kings
Death- King died on April 4, 1968 by
James Earl Ray on his hotel balcony in Memphis
 Riots broke out- due to Kings death. Over 100
cities exploded in flames.
 Civil
Rights Act of 1968- ended
discrimination in housing. This led to better
jobs and a more educated African American
 Alexander
v Holmes Country Board of
Education- schools taking a long time to
desegregate, court ruled “with deliberate
speed” should be done away with completely
 Swann v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of
Education- school districts were segregated
by housing and the judge ordered different
neighborhoods to be bussed to outside school
Affirmative Action- Employers were to
actively seek to increase the number of
minorities in their workforce
 Preferential treatment- giving preference
to a minority or female job applicant
because of that persons ethnicity or
gender. White males viewed this
treatment was unfair discrimination.
 Regents of the University of California v.
Bakke- Bakke sued the school for reverse
discrimination- he was refused admission
because he was white when minorities who
were admitted had lower test scores and
Betty Friedan- wrote “The Feminine
Mystique” discussing how women
want more in life. “the problem that
has no name” Women were
Feminism- belief that women should
have economic, social, and political
equality with men
1950- 1/3 women worked for wages.
Many jobs were considered “men’s
Women’s jobs included: clerical
work, domestic service, retail
service, social work, teaching, and
nursing. These jobs were all paid
National Organization for Women
(NOW)- an organization founded in
1966, by Betty Friedan, to pursue
feminist goals, such as better childcare
facilities, improved educational
opportunities, and an end to job
Equal Pay Act and Civil Rights Act both
banned sex discrimination
“Women’s Liberation Movement”emancipate women from customs and
laws that kept them subordinate to
Gloria Steinem- political advocate for
women and a journalist who coined Ms.
So women could have a status that was
not based on marriage. MS also became
a magazine and a voice for women.
VIDEO Betty Freidan and women's rights
Equal Rights Amendment- “Equality of Rights Under the law shall
not be denied on account of sex.”
1972- congress passed the ERA but the states did not ratify the amendment
fearing women would be fighting in the military and leave the home.
Birth Control- 1960, FDA approves it and by 1965 millions of women
were using it
1973- Roe v Wade- Women have the right to have an abortion, very
 Opponents after that life begins at conception and abortion is
 Supporters saw women have the right to control their bodies
Phyllis Schafly- conservative
felt that ERA would “lead to a
parade of horribles” drafting
women, ending laws
protecting homemakers, end
the husband providing for the
family, and promote same sex
marriages. Schafly felt that
feminist hated Men, Marriage,
and Children.
 New Right- Pro-family
movement and pro-life
coalition who focused on
social cultural and moral
problems strongly against the
women’s movement
Latinos- large diverse group of Latin
American decent including countries of
Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Dominican
Republic, Central America, and South
America (population grew from 3 mil to 9
mil in the 1960’s)
 La Raza Unida- Political Movement,
fought for bilingual education. Bilingual
education Act of 1968- government
provided funds to develop cultural
heritage programs
 Brown Berets- led by David Sanchez
organized walkouts in schools and tried
to develop programs to prevent Latino
Cesar Chavez- Mexican farm worker who
tried to organize a union for all
California’s Spanish speaking farm
United Farm Workers Organizing
Committee (UFWOC)- a labor union
formed in 1966 to seek higher wages and
better working conditions for MexicanAmerican farm workers in California
Chavez organized a boycott of California
grapes as a bargaining tactic.
Chavez went on a three week fast and
believed in nonviolence loosing 35
In 1970 a deal was settled with the grape
growers and the union workers finally
got better wages and other benefits.
 Native
Americans are seen as a single
homogenous group unlike Latinos
 Native Americans were among the poorest
and highest unemployment rates as well as
having the highest rate of tuberculosis and
 American Indian Movement (AIM)- 1968militant Native American rights organization.
were largely a self-defense group against
police brutality and grew to protect NA
1969- 89 American Indians occupied Alcatraz Island in
San Francisco Bay and demanded ownership of the
Island and funding for an Indian University and Cultural
Center. The Occupation lasted for almost 2 years
 1972- Russell Means AIM leader confronted the
government and organized a march on DC called the
“Trail of Broken Treaties.” Goal restore federal
recognition of Indian tribes and control of reservations
 1973- AIM led 200 Sioux to Wounded Knee in South
Dakota, where US in 1890 had massacred the Sioux
village; the Sioux took hostages and negotiated with FBI
for the government to reexamine Native American
treaty rights. A shoot out resulted with 2 Native
American deaths.
 1978- Longest Walk- 5 month walk from San Francisco
to DC.
1972 Indian education Act
1975 Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance ActNative Americans had more control in their children’s
1970- Regained possession of Blue Lake in New Mexico
Model Minority- Asians are a diverse group
including Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, and
 Yellow Power- Asian American Students fighting
for equal rights in the 1960’s-70’s
 Students at University of California Berkley and
San Francisco State University organized for
more minority participation in University affairs
and more academic programs focusing on ethnic
and racial issues. They succeeded and the first
school of ethic studies was created.
 Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)1978 began to pursue compensation for the
suffering in internment camps during WWII.
$20,000 was authorized for each survivor in 1988.
 Disability-impairment
that limits
daily activities
Ed Roberts was reluctantly admitted
to University of California at Berkeley
as a disabled student in 1962 and
graduated inspiring many disabled
students to seek participation in life
especially at the University level.
2000 a census was taken, 20% of all
Americans have some type of
disability and have been subject to
discrimination. Deaf and Blind
citizens were the first to fight for
their rights, setting up organizations
to provide services and languages in
Accessibility- making it easier for the physically disabled to
enter facilities
 Roberts started a program to make it easier for physically
disabled students to attend the University, Ramps and curb
cuts, helped people in wheel chairs.
 Rehabilitation Act of 1973- no person shall be excluded from
the participation in any activity based on their disability.
 Took four years to enforce the law after protesters in
wheel chairs took over the Department of Health,
Education and Welfare in DC.
 1975- Education for All Handicapped Children Act- Children
must be placed in the “least restrictive environment and
mainstreamed into the classroom”
1990- ADA- Americans with Disabilities Act- called for better
public access for people with disabilities, Braille signs on
elevators and accessible public transportation.
Many Gays and Lesbians felt they had to
hide their sexual orientation to avoid
 Employees could be fired for being Gay
or Lesbian
 Stonewall Riots- June 27th 1969, police
raided a gay bar in Greenwich Village NY
(NY outlawed homosexuality at the
time). Customers fought back, riots
broke out, and this event sparked the
Gay rights movement.
 Harvey Milk was elected to the board of
supervisors in San Francisco. He was the
first openly gay candidate to win office
in a major city. 11 months later, he was
assassinated by a former colleague.
 Gray
Panthers- 1972 Maggie Kuhn formed this
group to speak out against unfair treatment of
older Americans.
Ageism- discrimination against people on the basis of
American Association of Retired Persons (AARP)1958- helps retirees get health insurance (too
expensive and too risky for insurance companies)
Medicare established in 1965- insurance for people
over 65 and prescription drug cost.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967illegal for employers to use age as a factor in hiring or

CIVIL RIGHTS - Aurora High School