Public Accommodations, Schools, Housing, Marriage, Workplace, and Politics were SEGREGATED The Civil Rights Act of 1875 outlawed segregation of all public facilities stating that all people should be considered equal, but in 1883 the Supreme Court (all white) declared the act unconstitutional Plessy v Ferguson- 1896-SEPARATE BUT EQUAL was Constitutional Plessy v Ferguson was in the midst of Jim Crow Laws which were various laws separating the races and limiting rights of African Americans. VIDEO Plessy V Ferguson De facto segregation: practice and custom of segregation Example: Restrictive covenantagreement among neighbors to not sell or rent to African Americans De jure segregation: segregation by law example: racial zoning- laws defining where different neighbors could live Miscegenation or interracial marriage was illegal in ½ of the states. Childbirth through racial mixing “threatened the purity of white races” Other ethnicities were also included. Median income of a black mad was ½ that of a white man (often due to poor education of blacks) African Americans were also denied the right to vote in the south, through white primaries, and gerrymandering- redrawing lines of voting districts. Jackie Robinson was one of the 1st African Americans to cross the colorline when he signed a contract with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1945. Football became integrated in 1946 and basketball by 1950. Truman desegregated the troops in 1948 with Executive Order 9981. Congress of Racial Equality- founded in 1942 by students in Chicago, committed to nonviolence as a direct action for a means of change. 1943- CORE staged a sit-in in a Chicago coffee shop. Spread desegregation throughout northern cities, but trouble arose when they started to focus on the south. NAACP- fought for desegregation and equality of African Americans- founded in 1909 Charles Hamilton, Houston, legal counsel for NAACP from 1934-1938 Thurgood Marshall 1940 legal counsel for NAACP, law student of Houston, won 29 out of 32 cases argued before the Supreme Court. Brown v Board of Education of Topeka- 1954 desegregation of public schools (Marshall’s greatest victory) Georgia and Texas resisted Within a year 500 schools were desegregated In 1955 the Supreme Court handed down a second ruling called Brown II to speed the process up Shelly v Kraemer- desegregation in housing 1948 Morgan v Virginia- Supreme Court declared laws unconstitutional that mandated segregated seating on integrated bussing Sweatt v Painter- state law schools must accept black applicants even if a black school exists Video Brown v Board of Education Earl Warren- Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1953-1963 Warren Court- Name given to the Supreme Court because they were known for their activism on civil rights and free speech. December 1st 1955 Rosa Parks refused to give her seat up on the bus and was arrested Martin Luther King Jr. (26 yr old Baptist Preacher) elected as leader of the Montgomery Improvement Association and chosen to lead the boycott Montgomery Bus Boycott- African Americans organized an elaborate carpooling system as well as walked, rode their bikes, hitchhiked and took taxis for 381 days until Nov 1956 when courts ruled segregation on bussing unconstitutional Video Rosa Parks and Montgomery Bus Boycott Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)- ministers and Civil Rights leaders (King) joined together to carry on nonviolent crusades against the evils of second-class citizenship. SCLC was organized by Ella Baker. King and the SCLC used non-violent resistance called “soul force.” King refused to hate anyone but refused to obey unjust laws aka Civil Disobedience Little Rock governor Orval Faubus supported segregation and the school board supported desegregation. In Sept. 1957 the Governor ordered the Arkansas National Guard to turn away the “Little Rock Nine” (9 black students). Eisenhower and the Supreme Court backed the students and the National Guard (under federal control) escorted them to school. 1957 Civil Rights Act- Federal Government took over the power to desegregate public schools James Meredith- Air Force Veteran who won a federal court case that allowed him to enroll in the allwhite University of Mississippi in Sept 1962. But when he arrived on campus Governor Ross Barnett refused to let him sign up for classes. -Sept 30th riots broke out on campus resulting in 2 deaths -Meredith was accompanied to class by Federal Marshals following the incident Sit-in- Students sat down in “whites only” public places and refused to move Student Nonviolent coordinating Committee (SNCC) –pronounced “snick” Organized by Ella Baker used civil disobedience and fought for equality through a commitment of justice, peace, and nonviolence. Direct action- political acts including protests of all types Freedom Riders- civil rights activist who rode buses through the south in the early 1960s to challenge segregation Riders brutally beaten and buses bombed JFK sends 400 US Marshals to protect riders Interstate Commerce Commission Actbanned segregation in all interstate travel facilities Martin Luther King Jr- MLK Jr flew to Birmingham to hold a meeting on April 3rd 1963, because Birmingham was the most segregated city in America. -King was arrested on April 12th “good Friday” and wrote an open letter to a religious leader from jail. -April 20th King posted bail and began planning more demonstrations (protests and boycotts) The entire month of April riots and protests continued In May students left school and gathered at the 16th street Baptist church to plan a march to the City Center. When students tried to march Fire hoses and dog attacks were used by police to stop them. The public watched in terror. August 28th 1963- 250,000 people assembled on the lawn of the Washington Monument and Martin Luther King Jr gave his “I have a Dream” speech. Civil rights Act of 1964- Prohibited discrimination because of race, religion, natural origin, and gender. It gave citizens the right to enter public libraries, parks, washrooms, restaurants, theaters, and other public accommodations. Freedom Summer- project to get African Americans the right to vote in the South focusing on Mississippi. SNCC and CORE workers began registering African American voters to get the voting rights act passed. - Civil rights groups recruited college students and trained them in non-violent resistance Fannie Lou Hamer- daughter of Mississippi sharecroppers would be the voice for SNCC at the Democratic National Convention. -she was jailed for registering African American’s to vote and police forced other prisoners to beat her. Hamer spoke of her experiences Selma Campaign- King organized a march (50 miles) from Selma to Montgomery the capital on march 7th 1965 as a protest. That night mayhem broke out and ten days later President Johnson presented congress with a voting rights act of 1965 and asked for a swift passage. Voting Rights Act of 1965- this act eliminated the literacy tests, and stated that federal examiners could enroll voters who had been denied suffrage by local officials. Urban Ghettos- part of a city belonging to a single ethnic group Watts Riots- August 1965- 6 days, 34 deaths, 900 injured, 4,000 arrested, and $45 million in property damage in Watts, LA. Newark, NJ and Detriot Mi experienced many riots resulting in deaths Kerner Commission- an appointed group which President Johnson had appointed to study urban violence and the conclusion was that our nation was moving toward two societies. Malcolm X- African American leader who urged their followers to take complete control of their communities, livelihoods, and culture. Malcolm X went to jail for burglary at age 20 and studied Elijah Muhammad. Nation of Islam-a religious group, popularly known as the Black Muslims, founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote the Islamic religion and black nationalism- a doctrine that called for complete separation of the races. Malcolm broke with Elijah over differences of strategies Stokely Carmichael- Led SNCC and called for black power with no white people allowed to work with them. Black Power- “a call for black people to begin to define their own goals and lead their own organizations.” Black Panthers- political party which fought police brutality in the ghetto. The party also wanted selfsufficiency for African-American communities, as well as full employment and decent housing. Black leather jackets, black berets, and sunglasses. Afrocentrism- taking pride in their African heritage focusing on African History, culture, and achievements of African people. Roots- 12 hour television miniseries of African American life- enslaved black families. http://www.youtu be.com/watch?v= MwKIUMbi9Jk&feat ure=related http://www.youtu be.com/watch?v=k ctEXjAeOKA Kings Death- King died on April 4, 1968 by James Earl Ray on his hotel balcony in Memphis Tennessee. Riots broke out- due to Kings death. Over 100 cities exploded in flames. Civil Rights Act of 1968- ended discrimination in housing. This led to better jobs and a more educated African American society Alexander v Holmes Country Board of Education- schools taking a long time to desegregate, court ruled “with deliberate speed” should be done away with completely Swann v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education- school districts were segregated by housing and the judge ordered different neighborhoods to be bussed to outside school districts. Affirmative Action- Employers were to actively seek to increase the number of minorities in their workforce Preferential treatment- giving preference to a minority or female job applicant because of that persons ethnicity or gender. White males viewed this treatment was unfair discrimination. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke- Bakke sued the school for reverse discrimination- he was refused admission because he was white when minorities who were admitted had lower test scores and GPA’s. Betty Friedan- wrote “The Feminine Mystique” discussing how women want more in life. “the problem that has no name” Women were dissatisfied Feminism- belief that women should have economic, social, and political equality with men 1950- 1/3 women worked for wages. Many jobs were considered “men’s work” Women’s jobs included: clerical work, domestic service, retail service, social work, teaching, and nursing. These jobs were all paid poorly National Organization for Women (NOW)- an organization founded in 1966, by Betty Friedan, to pursue feminist goals, such as better childcare facilities, improved educational opportunities, and an end to job discrimination. Equal Pay Act and Civil Rights Act both banned sex discrimination “Women’s Liberation Movement”emancipate women from customs and laws that kept them subordinate to men. Gloria Steinem- political advocate for women and a journalist who coined Ms. So women could have a status that was not based on marriage. MS also became a magazine and a voice for women. VIDEO Betty Freidan and women's rights Equal Rights Amendment- “Equality of Rights Under the law shall not be denied on account of sex.” 1972- congress passed the ERA but the states did not ratify the amendment fearing women would be fighting in the military and leave the home. Birth Control- 1960, FDA approves it and by 1965 millions of women were using it 1973- Roe v Wade- Women have the right to have an abortion, very controversial Opponents after that life begins at conception and abortion is murder Supporters saw women have the right to control their bodies Phyllis Schafly- conservative felt that ERA would “lead to a parade of horribles” drafting women, ending laws protecting homemakers, end the husband providing for the family, and promote same sex marriages. Schafly felt that feminist hated Men, Marriage, and Children. New Right- Pro-family movement and pro-life coalition who focused on social cultural and moral problems strongly against the women’s movement Latinos- large diverse group of Latin American decent including countries of Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Central America, and South America (population grew from 3 mil to 9 mil in the 1960’s) La Raza Unida- Political Movement, fought for bilingual education. Bilingual education Act of 1968- government provided funds to develop cultural heritage programs Brown Berets- led by David Sanchez organized walkouts in schools and tried to develop programs to prevent Latino dropouts Cesar Chavez- Mexican farm worker who tried to organize a union for all California’s Spanish speaking farm workers United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC)- a labor union formed in 1966 to seek higher wages and better working conditions for MexicanAmerican farm workers in California Chavez organized a boycott of California grapes as a bargaining tactic. Chavez went on a three week fast and believed in nonviolence loosing 35 pounds. In 1970 a deal was settled with the grape growers and the union workers finally got better wages and other benefits. Native Americans are seen as a single homogenous group unlike Latinos Native Americans were among the poorest and highest unemployment rates as well as having the highest rate of tuberculosis and alcoholism American Indian Movement (AIM)- 1968militant Native American rights organization. were largely a self-defense group against police brutality and grew to protect NA rights. 1969- 89 American Indians occupied Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay and demanded ownership of the Island and funding for an Indian University and Cultural Center. The Occupation lasted for almost 2 years 1972- Russell Means AIM leader confronted the government and organized a march on DC called the “Trail of Broken Treaties.” Goal restore federal recognition of Indian tribes and control of reservations 1973- AIM led 200 Sioux to Wounded Knee in South Dakota, where US in 1890 had massacred the Sioux village; the Sioux took hostages and negotiated with FBI for the government to reexamine Native American treaty rights. A shoot out resulted with 2 Native American deaths. 1978- Longest Walk- 5 month walk from San Francisco to DC. 1972 Indian education Act 1975 Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance ActNative Americans had more control in their children’s education 1970- Regained possession of Blue Lake in New Mexico Model Minority- Asians are a diverse group including Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, and Koreans Yellow Power- Asian American Students fighting for equal rights in the 1960’s-70’s Students at University of California Berkley and San Francisco State University organized for more minority participation in University affairs and more academic programs focusing on ethnic and racial issues. They succeeded and the first school of ethic studies was created. Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)1978 began to pursue compensation for the suffering in internment camps during WWII. $20,000 was authorized for each survivor in 1988. Disability-impairment that limits daily activities Ed Roberts was reluctantly admitted to University of California at Berkeley as a disabled student in 1962 and graduated inspiring many disabled students to seek participation in life especially at the University level. 2000 a census was taken, 20% of all Americans have some type of disability and have been subject to discrimination. Deaf and Blind citizens were the first to fight for their rights, setting up organizations to provide services and languages in education Accessibility- making it easier for the physically disabled to enter facilities Roberts started a program to make it easier for physically disabled students to attend the University, Ramps and curb cuts, helped people in wheel chairs. Rehabilitation Act of 1973- no person shall be excluded from the participation in any activity based on their disability. Took four years to enforce the law after protesters in wheel chairs took over the Department of Health, Education and Welfare in DC. 1975- Education for All Handicapped Children Act- Children must be placed in the “least restrictive environment and mainstreamed into the classroom” 1990- ADA- Americans with Disabilities Act- called for better public access for people with disabilities, Braille signs on elevators and accessible public transportation. Many Gays and Lesbians felt they had to hide their sexual orientation to avoid discrimination Employees could be fired for being Gay or Lesbian Stonewall Riots- June 27th 1969, police raided a gay bar in Greenwich Village NY (NY outlawed homosexuality at the time). Customers fought back, riots broke out, and this event sparked the Gay rights movement. Harvey Milk was elected to the board of supervisors in San Francisco. He was the first openly gay candidate to win office in a major city. 11 months later, he was assassinated by a former colleague. Gray Panthers- 1972 Maggie Kuhn formed this group to speak out against unfair treatment of older Americans. Ageism- discrimination against people on the basis of age American Association of Retired Persons (AARP)1958- helps retirees get health insurance (too expensive and too risky for insurance companies) Medicare established in 1965- insurance for people over 65 and prescription drug cost. Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967illegal for employers to use age as a factor in hiring or promotion.