Deculturalization and the Struggle for
A Brief History of the Education of
Dominated Cultures in the United States
By: Joel Spring
Presented by: Heather Nast, Lauren Finelli
and Andrew Reder
Racial Violence
Throughout history...
In Education
US Civil War
Trail of Death
19th century Chinese
Enslaved Africans
Race riots in 19th and 20th centuries
Zoot Suit riots
Civil Rights Movement
Protestants and Catholics in
Punishment of enslaved
Racial clashes
School integration riots
Current debates
Globalization- begins when Columbus
arrives in the Americas in 1492 and links
the world trade routes
Civilized v. uncivilized- Christian v. Pagan
Religious Superiority
Religious heretics
Catholics schools
developed the private
school sect
The superior belief
 Referred to as “public”
 Mostly anti-Catholic
(obvious in government life)
*** Lead to the Catholic/Protestant school riots over religious doctrines
Race, Racism and Citizenship
Race- primarily a social construction
 Racism- prejudice plus power
Educational Methods for Global
Cultural Encounters
Cultural Genocide
 Deculturalization
 Assimilation
 Cultural Pluralism
 Denial of Education
 Hybridity
Educational and Cultural Differences
Native Americans
Child-rearing- discipline,
authority and
memorization (break the
will of the child)
School- formal setting
Work- activity provided
protection against sin
Political power- only
Child-rearing- quite
School- informal,
educated by stories told
by the elders
Work- only for what
they needed
Political power- held by
some women
Early Native American
Educational Programs
Failed establishment of Henrico College
 Praying towns
 Dartmouth College
 Moor’s Charity School
5 Civilized Tribes
Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek
and Seminole tribes
 Government wanted their land
 Felt like the nuclear family and the
establishment of a formal government
was leaked to the need for a nuclear
 Hoped for a cash economy to develop
Native Americans: Deculturalization,
Schooling, and Globalization
Native Americans as Indigenous people
 The Naturalization Act of 1790 excluded
them from citizenship of the U.S.
Thomas McKenney thought schooling
would socially control Native Americans
and improve their society
He introduced schools to Indian tribes as
◦ White Missionary teachers- American Board
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions
◦ 1819 Civilization Fund Act
Native American language and
Sequoyah created a written language to
preserve their history, religions, and
◦ Elias Boudinot created Cherokee Phoenix in
Indian Removal
Andrew Jackson worried that education was
giving Indians the power to resist the U.S.
 Indian Removal Act of 1830
◦ Trail of Tears
Once settled they began setting up
schools and governments
◦ The Spencer, Armstrong, & New Hope
Cherokees were almost 100% literate!
Reservations and Boarding Schools
Charles E. Mix said that the U.S. had made
great errors when dealing with the tribes
 1867 Indian Peace Commission
Boarding schools take children to strip
away their native culture
◦ Carlisle Indian School &Hampton- Richard
Poor conditions- how are they to learn?
Meriam Report in 1928
African Americans: Deculturalization,
Transformation, and Segregation
 British, Spanish, and Portuguese
imperialists moved enslaved Africans to
North American and other locations
North- societies with the slaves
 South- slave societies (plantation life)
 Two ways denial of education laws can be
Increase demand of slaves
◦ Devastating tolls on newly arrived slaves
◦ Free slaves still had restrictions
Petitions to gradually abolish slavery in
the North
Educational Segregation
Freedom vs. Equality
Segregated schools
◦ Reading and writing in English
◦ Unequal funding
Boston Fights for Equal Education
Massachusetts Education Act of 1789
◦ Funding
Benjamin Robert’s daughter- First
separate-but-equal ruling in judicial
 1855 Massachusetts governor signed a
law that said no child can be denied
admission based on race/religion
Slaves were not allowed to read
 Although many of them learned
◦ Helped the slaves learn about what was
happening in the Civil War
“Darky act” or “trickers”
African Americans had to obey the
government, but was not allowed to have
a say in it
The Fourteenth Amendment Section 1
◦ Homer Plessy
First Crusade
First: literacy
◦ Former slaves established schools
◦ Trying to improve political and economic
◦ Booker T. Washington
 “cast down its buckets and use black workers”
◦ W.E.B. Du Bois
◦ General Samuel Armstrong
 Hampton and segregated industrial education
Second Crusade
1910- 1930s, Expansion of segregated
schools paid by individual supporters and
The Anna T. Jeanes Fund & The Julius
Rosenwald Fund
Asians: Shifting Views
Generally speaking, White efforts at
deculturization focused on the denial of
education and separation of Asian
populations from White populations
 The nature of Asian immigration caused
treatment to shift much faster than any
other group
Coming to America
Chinese: Moving around since 15th century
◦ First major wave was Gold Rush
 1850s in California
◦ Paid their own way, not enough money to get back
◦ Ended up working on railroads or in agriculture
Japanese: Late start
◦ 1639 law forbade foreign travel
◦ Immigration started in 1868 to Hawaii and
Other Asian Populations
Small amounts (<10,000) from Korea and
 In 1907 a large Filipino migration began
 Other Asians not significant until
Immigration Act of 1965
White Views
Until 1960s, major views were:
◦ “Coolie”
 low cost, servile labor
 Born from railroad workers/farmhands
◦ “Deviant”
 Immoral, sexually permissive
 Born from opium dens and prostitution
◦ Combined as “Yellow Peril”
Push and Pull
Asian immigration started relatively late,
when big pushes for more equal rights
were starting
 “Coolie” legislation often clashed with
“Deviant” legislation
 Many of most repressive laws were
reversed soon after being enacted
Example: San Fransisco
1872: All White students to be educated
 1884: Imperial Chinese Consulate
◦ SF School board specifically bars “Mongolians”
1885: Superior Court overrules SF
 1885: Segregated schools implemented
 1906: Forced integration to avoid
international incident
A New Image
◦ Japanese Internment
◦ Asians differentiated
1950s, the Model Minority
Latinos: Location, Location
Biggest Latino influxes came from
◦ 1848: End of Mexican-American War
 US gained California, Colorado, New Mexico,
Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Texas
◦ 1898: End of Spanish-American War
 US gained Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam and
naval base in Cuba
Similar View, Different Treatment
Latinos: mix of Indian (not white) and
Spanish (white on a technicality)
◦ Generally regarded as Indians or worse
Mexicans valued as cheap labor
◦ Education was denied/neglected/segregated
Puerto Ricans feared as too independent
◦ Education was forced in order to
Puerto Rico: A dream snatched away
Strong independence movement since
 Made “autonomous state” in 1897
◦ Constitutional Republic with Spanish
Conquered in 1898
Puerto Rico: Winning Hearts and
“Put an American schoolhouse in every
valley and upon every hilltop”
 Education used as a weapon to inspire
◦ English-only past first grade
◦ American History over Puerto Rican History
◦ Celebration of American holidays
Biggest tension was over English Language
 Starting in 1912, calls for Bilingual education
Mexicans: Kept poor and dumb
Similar Policies to Puerto Rico to inspire
 Almost never enforced
◦ “Educating the Mexican is educating them
away from the job, away from the dirt”
Those that did go to school were
Globalization: The Great Civil Rights
Movement and Wars of Liberation
 Declaration on the
Granting of
Independence to
Colonial Countries and
 Discrimination
 Deculturalization and
school segregation was
part of a general global
School Desegregation
NAACP- desegregation and opportunity to
participate in economic system
 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education Topeka
 Public demonstrations to take action
 Lack of supervision to make sure segregation
Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.
King was born in 1929 into a family of
Baptist Ministers
 Introduction of nonviolent confrontation
 1957 Southern Christian Leadership
Conference (SCLC)
Martin Luther King, Jr. Continued…
Rosa Parks
 1957 “Give us the Ballot…” speech to
Washington, DC
 Civil Rights Act of 1964
◦ Titles 4 & 6
Contrast: Asian Experience
During this time, “Model Minority” view
became popular
 Contrasted to Black experience
 Obscured reality of Asian Experience
In 1961, 450 Indians attended the
American Indian Chicago Conference
◦ End to termination policies
John F. Kennedy
◦ More Indian participation in decisions
involving federal policies
Struggle for self-determination
◦ Pan-Indian Movement
Indian Education: A National Tragedy
Bilingual Education Act of 1968
 Indian Self-Determination and Education
Assistance Act of 1975
 Tribally Controlled Schools Act
 Native American Languages Act of 1990
Bilingual Education
1951: Puerto Rico becomes
 Spanish restored
1968 Boycotts in LA
 Bilingual Education Act of 1968
 Official language disputes
Multicultural Education, Immigration
and the Cultural Wars
1965 Immigration Act that abolished
the 1924 Immigration Act (and the
quota system)
 Multicultural education rose
 Ethnocentric schools (go back to
Cultural Wars cont. and NCLB
Mandatory standardized tests only
measure one culture
 Bilingual education be used as a
vehicle for learning English
21ST Century: Post- Racial Society
Post-racial- a society where race is no
longer important in determining social
status and income
◦ However, government agencies state that the
concept of race has no scientific or
anthropological meaning but persist in using
racial categories in their reports
◦ Socially constructed in contrast to legal or
administrative definitions of race
In Comparison
Race and income
◦ 1- all white
◦ 2- white (Hispanic or
◦ Least- Black or African
Drop out rates
◦ 1- Hispanic
◦ 2- Black
◦ 3- Whites
Is the US a Post-Racial Society
◦ Racial categories are no
longer recognized, by
government agencies, as
having scientific or
anthropological meaning
◦ Because race is a
confusing term taking on
many different meanings
among post-1965
◦ Since post-1965
immigrants are not facing
any overt attempts as
Deculturalization and
◦ Many native-born whites and blacks
still think in the racial categories
created by law and judicial decisions
from the 18th century to the Civil
Rights Movements
◦ Since government agencies require
the use of racial categories
◦ The legacy of race-based laws and
Deculturalization still contribute to
educational and economic inequality
◦ Since many immigrants from Mexico
and Central America as assimilation
into native-born Hispanic
communities suffering from the
legacy of the past

Native Americans: Deculturalization, Schooling …