Lexical Borrowing
Lectures 4
(The Process & the Product)
“The Process & the Product”
Native creation
Haugen (1953)
What “Loanwords”
The morphemic composition of the loan
derives from the external source language
“Pure” loanwords:
Total morphemic
importation of single
or compound words;
Varying degrees of
phonemic substitution
Combination of native
and imported
Imported stem + native affix
Native stem + imported affix
Imported stem + native stem
What “Loanshifts”
the transfer of part of the foreign model and
the reproduction of the rest (importation of a
foreign morpheme combined with
Substitution of a native one).
“Semantic loans”:
Shifts in the semantics
of a native word under
influence from a
foreign word
“Loan Translation”:
Combination of native
morphemes in
imitation of foreign
What “Native Creations”
Innovations based on native patterns, or
creative extensions of a foreign pattern, which
have no counterparts in the source language
“Hybrid creations”:
Blends of native and
foreign morphemes to
express new concepts
The Integration of Loanwords
Lexical borrowings tend to be adapted in terms
of the phonology and morphology of' the
recipient language, and become essentially
indistinguishable from native items.
“Phonological Integration”
The pronunciation of source language is adapted
into the phonological system of recipient
For instance, English loanwords in Japanese
tend to be adapted to Japanese pronunciation as
well as its preferred CV syllable structure.
epenthesis (e.g., baseball > besuboru), cluster
simplification (sweater > seta), and syllabification
of glides (quiz > kuizu).
“Phonological Adaptation
in Bahasa”
(1) by adapting the spelling and the pronunciation;
e.g., kamera, mikrofon, sistem.
(2) by adapting the spelling and without adapting
the pronunciation; e.g., desain, fail, sains.
(3) without adapting the spelling but with adapting
the pronunciation; e.g., bias, nasal.
(4) without adapting the spelling and the
pronunciation; e.g., internet, orbit, status-quo.
“Morphological Adaptation”
The morpheme of the source language is
adapted into the recipient language or the
way round.
 Borrowed words are treated like native
stems of equivalent categorial status, and
take the bound morphology and other
properties appropriate to the class they are
assigned to.
French borrowings Into Dutch; French nouns
which refer to males (agent "agent," facteur
"postman," etc.) receive masculine gender, while
nouns referring to females (danseuse "female
dancer," madame "madam") are assigned
feminine gender (Treffers-Daller 1994: 130).
French nouns borrowed into Brussel Dutch,
which tend to keep their original gender (either
masculine or feminine).
Fauzi (2009) remarks the morphology
adaptation is in the form of suffix –nya such
as treatment-nya (its treatment), dress-nya (her
dress), whereas in verbs there are some varied
Bahasa bound morphemes such as di-,
me(m)(n)(ng)-, and ber, e.g., dicharge (be
charged), mem-backup (to back-up), mereset (to
re-set), menghighlight (to highlight), mendeliver
(to deliver), ber-track (to have track) etc.
“Creative process of adaptation”
The integration of loan items into the
morphological structure of the recipient
language can also involve creative
processes of adaptation.
 Borrowed items are manipulated so that
they conform to the structural and
semantic rules of the recipient language.
“Example: Japanese”
In Japanese, English loans are treated as uninflected
nouns or stems which can be converted to other classes
by the addition of suffixes or a helping verb (Loveday
1996: 118).
Borrowed nouns may be converted into adjectives (or
adjectival nouns) by attaching the suffix -na (e.g.,
romanchikku-na "romantic") or into adverbs via affixation
of -ni (e.g., romanchikku-ni "romantically").
Borrowed nouns may also be converted for use as verbs
by adding the dummy verb suru "do, make," for example
sain suru "sign," enjoi suru "enjoy," etc. These strategies
conform fully to Japanese patterns of derivation.
“Example: Bahasa”
English nouns or stems can be converted to
other classes by the addition of suffixes or a
helping verb (Fauzi, 2009; cf. Loveday 1996).
nouns may be converted into verbs by attaching
the suffix me(ng)- (e.g., meng-highlight “to
highlight“– meng-cover “to cover”), etc.
Adjectives may be converted into adverbs by
attaching the word sekali following the adjective
(e.g., tired sekali “very tired“ – cute sekali “very
cute” ), etc.
“Muysken’s term of adaptation”
Muysken (2000) termed this kind of
adaptation as ‘relexification’ where a
process of grammatical restructuring
between two languages including
affixes from one language and lexical
roots from the other language.
The model in Relexification
“Impact of lexical borrowing
on morphology”
The borrowings from French had some impact on
English morphology, particularly on derivational
For instance, the adjective-forming suffix -able,
introduced along with loans like equatable, legible, portable,
etc., was soon extended to native stems to yield words
like speakable, knowable, etc., and has become very
In Bahasa, suffix –isasi derived from Dutch –atie and
English –ation was extended to lexicalize papanisasi,
semenisasi, hutanisasi, etc.
Lexical borrowings lead to innovations in the
lexicon of the recipient language.
Lexical borrowings are integrated in varying
degrees into the phonology, morphology, and
syntax of the borrowing language.
Lexical borrowing must be seen as just one
aspect of a creative process. This process not
only adds to the lexicon, but also enriches its
potential for further expansion.
Thank you

Lexical Borrowing Lectures 3-4