Chapter 2 Words and word classes What’s in this chapter? • Please look at the list of topics on page 12. How many topics are in this chapter? • Well, really just 2….the introduction introduces the 2 and then they are covered in detail. – 1. Lexical word classes – 2. Function word classes • Now, flip through the chapter to see the headings and to get a sense of how much space & time & information is associated with each of the major chunks. Section Reviews • Notice that reviews are given at the end of each chapter chunk. – Page 20 – Page 25-26 – Page 36 • I like to read those before reading the sections…to get a feel for what’s in the sections. Terminology • They pack a lot into the introduction. • Here are the most important things to understand right now before reading the rest of the chapter: – Morpheme and morphology – Syntax – Clause vs. Sentence Morphemes & Morphology • Morpheme is the technical name for the bits and pieces that make up words. – – – – Stems Prefixes Suffixes Not individual sounds or letters but the small meaningful pieces that are combined to make words • Morphology is the study of morphemes. Syntax • Syntax is the technical name for studying how words are combined into larger units. – Phrases – Clauses – Sentences • Semantics is the study of meaning. • Grammar is usually organized into morphology, syntax, and semantics. The layers of language • Look at the chart on page 13. They want us to understand that language can be studied in terms of various inter-related levels. • The top: discourse. Whole pieces of communication…a conversation, an email, a novel….. • At the bottom: sounds and spelling. • In the middle: – – – – Clauses Phrases Words Morphemes What you really need to understand about words right now • It’s easier to give an example of what we mean when we talk about words, than to give an abstract definition. • Words are often in related groups of words. These groups are called “lexemes”: write, wrote, written, writing, writer, writers CouldaType-Token you say that Ratio again in two English? • Type and What? token: It’s shame that these words sound so much alike…that makes it difficult for some to This measurement is aSure. useful Or way I can to analyze try. the of wayus that remember which what! But If it’sa worth vocabulary is used in ameans reading passage. passagelearning has 100 running because they give teachers important information. words Vocabulary and only in a 20 passage different can be words measured (wordsbylike dividing the are the repeated number many of – Athen sample athe language (written orwords. spoken) up of different times), words theof by type/token totalratio number is 20/100 of = .2 If xis100 amade reading = 20. has If words. a423 Some of the words are repeated; some are used just 1 time. passage total words has and 100 those running include words233 and 50 different words words (with (more some words We can count the words in a different text in 2 different ways. different repeated words or number more than times), the first the passage), type-token the ratio type-token is 233/423 ratiox is 100 • 2 The of types: only the single words without counting the= Ahas textanother will generally have many fewer types than 50/100 55. If the = .repetitions. 5same x 100 book = 50. reading with 423 words and 200 tokens. different The bigger words, thethe type-token type-token ratio ratio theismore 47. Which different passage wordswill in be a • The number of tokens: all of the words including the passage….and easier to read? theHey! moreThe challenging one with the more passage repetition a(and reader. the lower trepetitions…counting the individual runningfor words t ratio). In academic This ratio writing, is alsohistory sometimes textbooks calledhave “lexical higher density”….how type-token ratios with dense than words accounting is a passage? textbooks; How accounting many different re-cycles words vocabulary; will the history have reader keepstousing knownew to understand words for new a passage? events and Thepeople. more repetition, the easier the reading. Major word families • Ok. What are they? Try to say them before you click. The major families of words covered in this chapter are… – 1. Lexical Words – 2. Function Words – 3. Inserts • Ok. What does that mean? Lexical verb? • • On the bottom of page 15, they use the term lexical verb. What’s that? They want to make a couple of distinctions that we can see in these 2 examples: – – 1. I speak English. 2. He will learn Arabic. – Speak is the word with core meaning while will is the auxiliary verb that adds meaning to the core. We need to have a way to talk about the difference between speak and will. So, speak is a lexical verb and will is a function word and an verb auxiliary. • speak vs. will • To speak & to learn vs. speak & will learn: Unfortunately, English grammar is stuck with the term verb….which has 2 meanings. It can refer to the lexical verb and its family of related words (spoke, spoken, speaking, speakers). It can also refer to the use of the word in a sentence. So, generally, linguists talk about – – Verb: for the lexical word Verb phrase: for the use in a sentence Open class? Closed class? • Words come and go in all languages. • Words like nouns and verbs are huge categories that change constantly. These categories that change easily are class “open classes.” • Words like prepositions and auxiliary words are smaller in number and they tend to stay around a long time….although changes can occur over very long periods of time. These are called “closed classes.” Function words • Sometimes called “grammatical words.” • They tie things together. • They include – – – – Prepositions Coordinators: and, or but, nor Auxiliary verbs Pronouns Inserts • Those of you studying conversation need to pay special attention to this category…one that is seldom considered in ESL/EFL/ESOL materials or curricula. • Inserts….those words and sounds that we add to our speech for various conversational purposes – – – – Uhhhhh. Ummmmm Well…. You know…. Word formation • You need to be able to use these 3 terms: – Inflection: inflect, inflected – Derivation: derived, derive – Compounding: compound, compounds, compounded • The terms and the concepts they represent are important…they are ways of talking about the 2 major words that words are formed in English. Inflection vs. Derivation • Inflection – Suffixes added to a word to add grammatical information – Verb Tense – Noun plural – Adjective & adverb comparative & superlative • Derivation – Prefixes and suffixes added to the word stem – Changes of meaning to make new words: • Un-happy • Ex-president – Changes in word class • Happy => happiness Compounding & Grammatical Tests • Compounds are words formed by combining 2 words into a new unit. • They do something that we need to notice on page 18 when they talk about how to tell if a set of words is a compound or not. They say: “How are we to know whether two words are genuinely a compound and not simply a sequence of two words? Three tests help to show this:” – Then, they give 3 possible situations and relationships between 2 words. If a set of words involves all three of these, the combination is a compound. – This is what is called a “grammatical test.” The linguist uses a series of possibilities to “test” a word or phrase or clause or sentence to evaluate the grammar. – We’ll notice other grammatical tests as we go through the semester. Lexical & Function Words & Inserts in Context • Section 2.2.6 is valuable for two reasons: • Reason #1: The examples to show lexical and function words in context. • Reason #2: The discourse information on the bottom of page 19. Look at that really closely! Answer these questions: – 1. Which sample has more lexical words? Why? – 2. Which sample has more inserts? Why? – 3. How do conversation, news, academic writing, and fiction compare in the use of lexical words? – 4. Why does any of that matter to us as language teachers?! Survey of lexical words • Focus on the examples. • Don’t bog down on the explanations. • Just be aware as you read that they are going to talk about the big lexical classes: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs • Just be aware that they give information on morphology, syntax, meaning for each of those big classes. • Read through, but don’t bog down. If you find anything that really puzzles or frustrates you, get in touch with let and let’s talk about it. Figure 2.1 • Why are there more adverbs in conversation and fiction than in news and academic writing? “Adverbs…are linked to verbs. They typically Describe circumstances relating to actions, processes, and states that are denoted by verbs. So conversation and fiction writing, which have the highest density of Verbs, also have the highest density of adverbs.” p. 23 Function words • • Notice that they expand the list here to be more complete than in their first definition. Function words = – Determiners (a, an, the, each, this, that, etc.) – Pronouns – Auxiliary verbs (modals, be, have) – Prepositions Read all of the examples to give an idea of the kinds – Adverbial Of particles words they include in these categories. – Coordinators – Subordinators Email me if you get confused or puzzled by their explanations. – Numerals – And other special little groups • • • • Wh-words Existential there Not Infinitive marker I 2 kinds of auxiliary verbs • Primary – Be: in progressive & passive verb phrases • I am teaching grammar. • Grammar is studied around the world. – Have: in perfect verb phrases • I have studied grammar for many years. – Do: in questions and negatives in simple present tense and simple past tense • Do you love grammar? • She doesn’t seem to love grammar as much as I do. • Modal More in my lecture… • In the lecture, I have more information about – Collocations and lexical bundles – Figures 2.2 and 2.3 • Remember, I look forward to having questions from you about the grammar!