Pre-Class –Read Page 79-80 • What good was the backbone of the Trans-Saharan Trade? • What were the effects of this trade? Trans-SaharaN Trade Salt for Gold Trans-Saharan Trade on sheet • Trade across the Sahara • Salt for Gold • Effect Rise of West African Kingdoms and Diffusion 10,000 years ago the Sahara was fertile grassland. The desert formed slowly over thousands of years. Desertification: Land is turned to desert. The Sahara is still growing. on sheet Most people migrated out to sources of water. The Nile River The Nile’s regular flooding produced fertile land. This led to farming. Some adapted to the desert: Pastoralists (nomadic herders) learned to domesticate animals, but did not settle in villages. on sheet The Sahara separated the north from the south and two cultures developed. Trade was limited to the Nile Region. Introduction of the camel from India began a new age of trade. • The introduction of the camel to the WestAfricans around 750 AD. They were practically built for Saharan trade and travel, and were vastly superior to the horse. They could carry heavy loads for seemingly endless distances, were able to keep their footing on sandy terrain and also could go for long periods of time without water. Caravan: group of desert merchants, especially in northern Africa and Asia, crossing the desert together for safety, usually with a train of camels on sheet Three trade zones developed on sheet 1. Mediterranean -maintained contact with Middle East and Europe Traded: Mediterranean food manufactured products and iron 2. Sahara: Pastoralist culture – Traded salt for gold to the north and south Salt Reading Taoudenni Saharan salt is either mined as at Taoudenni or evaporated from salt pans as at Taggiddan n' Tessoumt. The reddish earth containing salt is stirred up with water in large pans. As the earth settles the water is scooped off into smaller pans where it is evaporated leaving salt. Salt Mines of Mali Video 3. Sahel- Traded gold, ivory, and animal skins from the south Rise of West African Kingdoms (chart): •Ghana •Mali •Songhai 5:00 Ghana • West Africa – 500AD • Founded by Soninke • Ruler: King of the Gold – Title: ghana meaning War Chief – Governed through princes and officials • Powerful army- iron tipped spears – paid a tax for safety • Gold for Salt trade (Bebers) • Decline: Almoravids attacked and broke into smaller states (1076-1235) • At around 1075, the kingdom of Ghana met its end. Muslim Berbers, calling themselves Almoravids, were unhappy with the ways of the Ghanaians. Therefore they declared a holy war upon them, or jihad with ultimately lead to the destruction of the kingdom. 5:00 Mali • West Africa • Established by Mandingos (Malinke) and founded by Sundiata • Controlled trade • Mansa Musa (1312-1337):strong army; Islam page 80 quotes – Justice based on Quran – Pilgrimage to Mecca = world wide recognition – Timbuktu: city –Decline: weakening of central power (1400’s) – Crash Course Video Mansa Musa 12:00 Between the 13th and 14th century, the kingdom of Mali emerged. According to African oral histories it was founded by Sundiata who lived ruled Mali from 12301255. Video – Coolest Stuff on the Planet – 5:00 Storm Proofing Mosque – Video – 4:00 Songhai • West Africa • Trade • Sunni Ali (1464) – Gao and strong military • Askia Muhammad – peak • Timbuktu – center of learning • Decline: ethnic conflicts • 1591: Moroccan army – advanced military Sunni Ali Tomb of Askia Manuscripts of mathematics and astronomy found in Timbuktu. Ghana 100 AD Shona people leave Nigeria because of a population explosion. 200 AD Ghana founded 350 AD Ghana learns to smelt iron. 400 AD Trading centers arise in West Africa 700 AD Ghana was the first trading kingdom. 800-1000 AD 1042 AD "Golden Age" of Ghana. Arabs from North Africa start war with Ghana Mali 1240 AD 1324-1325 Ghana part of Mali Mansa Musa pilgrimage to Arabia. Songhai 1400's Songhai controlled land that had been part of Mali. 1464 AD Sultan Sunni Ali rules Songhai from city of Gao. 1493 AD King Askia Muhammad, who succeeded Sunni Ali 1591 AD 1591 Morocco seizes Songhai's gold mines. 1700 AD Shona people settle in Zimbabwe Closure: How did trade contribute to the rise of strong African Kingdoms? Trade = wealth = strong armies = expand empire = maintain trade routes and benefit from diffusion The Bantu Migration •People from Northwest Africa called Bantu began moving southward around 1000BC - 1100 Bantu Migration Map *Bantu is a language type and ethnic group on sheet *They arrive in Southern Africa where they were known as the Xhosa and the Zulu. East African city-states • East Coast Africa below Equator – Malindi, Mombasa, Zanzibar • Monsoons (Crash Course Video) Crash Course Video Monsoons 10:00 • trade with Islamic kingdoms and India • Swahili: a mixture of the local Bantu languages and Arabic. on sheet • Agriculture • Zimbabwe gold • Decline: Portuguese 1500’s African Trade Routes 5:00 Zimbabwe • Southern Africa between Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers • Means: Great Stone House • Shona: probably unified diverse group of people • Gold trade • Decline: 1400’s ? Great Zimbabwe [1200-1450] “Zimbabwe” = “stone enclosure” Great Enclosure, Zimbabwe Trade, (controlled by the Muslims of North Africa) found its way to Europe. This got Europe’s attention. Europe began looking for the source of gold and a route around Muslim control of trade.