Rhythm and Movement
Objective – Without looking at a watch, try to determine
which piece is longer
 (1) Adagio for Strings by Samuel Barber
 (2) “Bandinerie” from Orchestral Suite No. 2 by J.S. Bach
 Decide which words below describe the music and list
them in your notebook
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Slow
Calm
Spirited
Questions
hurried
detached
short sounds
strong pulse
tension
repose (rest)
fast
weak pulse
smooth sounds
 1. Which of these words or “descriptors” characterize both
selections?
 2. Which piece seems longer?
 3. Discuss how your choice of words reflect the sense of “felt”
time embodied by the music.
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“Felt” time – the space music appears to carve out for
itself
Rhythm – the way music paces itself and moves
through time
Music exits in time, unlike other art forms
How long can you stare at a painting, sculpture or
building?
How long can you listen to a piece of music? Can you
add or subtract notes as the listener?
Music exists in time, and the way we organize that
time is called rhythm
Do any other art forms exist in time (that is, have a
beginning, a middle and an end)?
Tempo – the speed of the music
In music, tempo terms are in Italian, because Italian
composers were the first to use them
 Terms –
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Largo – very slow
Adagio – slow
Andante – moderately slow
Allegretto - moderately fast
Allegro – fast
Presto – very fast
Accelerando – gradually getting faster
Ritardando – gradually getting slower
A tempo – returning to the previous rate of speed
Listen to the five situations read by Mr. Scollick
Select what you think would be an appropriate
tempo marking to describe the pace of each
situation
 Use the Italian term!
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Number your notebook from 1 – 6
Listen to the musical selection and assign an appropriate tempo
term in Italian.
 Listen again and match the title with the music.
 Consider (1) the title (verbal clue) (2) tempo (3) style of the music
(4) possible uses of the music
 Choose from the titles below
 “Trio” from Pomp and Circumstance No. 1 by Elgar
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“Little Train of the Caipira” from Bachianas Brasileiras by Hietor Villa-Lobos
“Cripple Creek” (American Folk Dance)
“Ase’s Death” from Peer Gynt Suite No. 1 by Grieg
“Flight of the Bumblebee” from Tsar Sultan by Rimsky-Korsakov
“The String’s of God’s Lute Are in My Body” (Islamic Music from Pakistan)
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You may choose to do either
 1. Create a title and one-page story line for an imaginary film that
would use either the Adagio for Strings or “Bandinerie” as the musical
soundtrack. It should be like a minute-long radio advertisement for
the film. Be ready to share with the class
 2. Create a film soundtrack by selecting music that would express two
of the five situations we did in class. Decide how music can best
express the pace of each situation. Include dynamics (loud/soft) to
reinforce the expression. You may choose any style of music. Record
the music and bring to class. Be ready to share with the class.
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1. Track Competition (Presto)
2. Principal’s Office (Largo)
3. Graduation Practice (Andante)
4. Speed down hall, stop, speed down again (a tempo)
5. Driver’s test (Accelerando/Ritardando)
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While listening to the musical selection, count
out loud from one to eight
Next, while counting out loud, perform the
following
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First 8 beats: Snap fingers on each beat
Second 8 beats: Snap 7 beats, clap 1 beat
Third 8 beats: Snap 6 beats, clap 2 beats
Fourth 8 beats: Snap 5 beats, clap 3 beats
Continue until you clap on all 8 beats
Now repeat the sequence without counting out loud
and only performing the claps!
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Accent- emphasis placed on a beat
Count 8 beats evenly and perform the
following patterns by clapping on the “X” and
snapping on the “o”
accents.xlsx
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Meter- beats organized into a regular group
Two kinds of meter
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Duple meter – organizes two beats
DupleMeter.xlsx
Triple meter – organizes three beats
Triple Meter.xlsx
As you listen to “Procession of the Nobles” by
Rimsky-Korsakov, try to clap the meter as it
changes between two and three. What is the
order of the meters in this music?
Musicians have to learn to keep more than one rhythm going at a
time
 Try patting your head and rubbing your stomach at the same time
 Try to imitate the skills of a fine drum set player
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 1. Listen to the recording and establish the accent on beat 1.Tap this
accent with your left foot every time you hear it
 2. While tapping with your left foot, use your left hand to tap regular
pulses of four. Tap these four even beats on your desk. Emphasize the
first beat.
 3. While you continue to tap your foot on beat 1 and use your left hand
for pulses, use your right hand to double the speed of your left hand so
you are playing eight even beats. Use your pen/pencil as a drumstick,
holding it lightly as you tap these beats on your desk. Do not speed
up!
 Drum set pattern.mscz.pdf
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India is the world’s largest democracy (over 1
billion in population)
Host to 14 languages and five religions
Music is as varied as the people
Typical Indian instruments
 Strings such as sitar, sarangi, vina and tambura
 Pair of drums called tabla
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Indian music is not organized into patterns of
two, three or four as in Western music
Instead, Indian musicians use a rhythm cycle
Rhythm cycle is a fixed number of beats in a
series that repeats itself over and over
Cycles can be anywhere from 7 to 104 beats!
Tintal – a 16 beat cycle
 From Hindi – “tin” – three and “tal” - clap
As you count beats 1 through 16, mark the groups of
beats with the following movements of your hands
and fingers
1. Clap beat one bringing your right hand down onto
your up-turned left palm
2. Mark beats 2, 3 and 4 by bringing the fifth, fourth and
third fingers of your right hand , one after another
onto your left palm
3. Repeats steps 1 and 2 for beats 5 through 8
4. Use a small hand wave rather than a clap on beat 9
and continue with fingers on beats 10, 11, and 12
5. Repeat clap and fingers for beats 13, 14, 15, and 15
6. Begin the pattern all over again
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Practice the Adi tal cycle of eight beats
Adi tal.xlsx
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If music were a steady progression of beats
and regular accents, it would be boring
Syncopation – Accents placed on beats not
normally accented in a meter
Regular Accents.xlsx
Syncopation.xlsx
Listen to Scott Joplin’s “Maple Leaf Rag”
Maple Leaf Rag.pdf
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Polyrhythms are two or more independent
rhythms sounding togther
Unlike syncopation, the rhythms appear to
have different meters such as one duple and
another triple
Polyrhythm.xlsx
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Many musicians can listen to a rhythm and
write it down
This is a skill that can be learned
Using the 8-beat measure, first practice the
rhythm you hear by clapping it back
Circle the numbers on your worksheet (1-8)
on which a sound is heard
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