Phonological Awareness
Kindergarten
Phonological Awareness
Phonological
awareness involves:
South Dakota
Standards

segmenting-
pulling apart spoken words
into sounds

blending-
putting sounds back together

manipulating-
adding, deleing, and
substituting these sounds
Phonological Awareness
South Dakota
Standards
Students are able to
relate letters and
sounds, and identify
patterns in word and
phases
Phonological
awareness involves:

segmenting-
pulling apart spoken words
into sounds

blending-
putting sounds back together

manipulating-
adding, deleing, and
substituting these sounds
Phonemes
Phonemic awareness specifically focuses on
individual sounds (known as phonemes) in
words
Phonemes are the smallest units of sound in
spoken words
/m/
1st phoneme
/a/
2nd phoneme
/t/
3rd phoneme
What We Know from Research
Phonological awareness instruction
improves children’s understanding of
how the words in spoken language are
represented in print.
 Phonemic awareness helps all children
learn to read

What We Know from Research
Phonemic awareness instruction is most
effective when children are taught to use
letters to represent phonemes
 Phonemic awareness also helps
preschoolers, kindergartners, and first
graders learn to spell

Page 4 from Put Reading First Booklet
Phonological Awareness Continuum
Types
Description
Examples
Phonemes
Blending phonemes into words,
segmenting words into individual
phonemes, and manipulating
phonemes in spoken words
/k/ /a/ /t/
/sh/ /i/ /p/
/s/ /t/ /o/ /p/
Onsets and
Rimes
Blending or segmenting the initial
consonant or consonant cluster (onset)
and he vowel and consonant sounds
spoken after it (rime)
/m/ /ice/
/sh/ /ake/
Syllables
Blending syllables to say words or
segmenting spoken words into syllables
/mag/ /net/
/pa/ /per/
Sentence
Segmentation
Segmenting sentences into spoken words
The dog ran away.
1 2 3
4
Alliteration
Rhyme
Producing groups of words that begin with
the same initial sound
Ten tiny tadpoles
Matching the ending sounds of words
cat, hat, bat, sat
Rhyme
Rhyme Match between ending sounds of words
Use Nursery Rhymes and Other
Rhymes
Ten Cats Have Hats by Jean Marzollo
One bear has a chair,
but I have a hat.
Activites focused on rhyme
Ten Cats Have Hats by Jean Marzollo
Two ducks have trucks,
but I have a hat.
Picture clue allows them to predict author’s rhyme.
Activities focused on rhyme
“The Ants Go Marching”
The ants go marching one by one,
Hurrah! Hurrah!
The ants go marching one by one,
Hurrah! Hurrah!
The ants go marching one by one,
The little one stops to have some fun,
And they all go down to the ground,
To get out of the sun.
Boom! Boom! Boom!
Activities focused on rhyme
“The Ants Go Marching”
The ants go marching two by two,
Hurrah! Hurrah!
The ants go marching two by two,
Hurrah! Hurrah!
The ants go marching two by two,
The little one stops to _____________,
And they all go down to the ground,
To get out of the sun.
Boom! Boom! Boom!
Activities focused on rhyme (oral)
“Down by the Bay”
“Did you ever see a whale with a polka dot tail?”
“The Corner Grocery Story”
“There were peas, peas walking on their knees at
the store, at the store”
“There was steak, steak, going shake shake at the
store, at the store”
Yopp & Yopp (1996). Oo-pples & boo-noo-noos: Songs & activities for phonemic
awareness. Harcourt Bace School Publishers
Alliteration
Alliteration
Focus on initial
phonemes
Steven Kellogg's alphabet book
Aster Aardvark’s
Alphabet Adventures
Alliteration-Big Books
Sentence Segmentation
Words in
Sentences
Have children count words
1
2
3
4
Say the parts of a sentence
Syllable Blending and Segmentation
Syllables
Blending syllables together to
form words
Segmenting words into syllables
Activities with syllables manipulation
“Clap, Clap, Clap Your Hands” (clues)
Clap, clap, clap your hands,
Clap your hands together.
Clap, clap, clap your hands,
Clap your hands together
Snap, Snap, Snap your hands,
Snap your hands together.
Snap, Snap, Snap your hands,
Snap your hands together
continue
Activities with syllables manipulation
“Clap, Clap, Clap Your Hands” (clues)
Say, say, say these parts.
Say these parts together.
Say, say, say these parts,
Say these parts together:
Teacher moun (pause) tain (children respond, “mountain!”)
Teacher love (pause) ly (children respond, “lovely!”)
Teacher un (pause) der (children respond, “under!”)
Teacher tea (pause) cher (children respond, “teacher!”)
Activities with syllables manipulation
How Many Syllables (clues)
Tikki Tikki Tembo by Arlene Mosel
Clap syllables in names
+ picture
Tingo Tango Mango Tree by Marcia Vaughan
Iguana’s name is Sombala Bombala Rombala Roh
Flamingo’s name is Kokio Lokio Molio Koh
Parrot’s name is Dillaby Dallaby Doh
Turtle’s name is Nanaba Panaba Tanaba Goh
Bat’s name is Bitteo Biteo
Activities with syllables manipulation
“Humpty Dumpty” (clues)
Recite “Humpty Dumpty” rhyme
Humpty Dumpty broke & I have some
broken words. Let’s help put the words
back together again.
pop – si - cle
Snap the cubes together to say the entire
word.
Activities with syllables manipulation
Teacher, May We? (clues)
Teacher: “You may jump the number of
times as there are syllables (some
teachers say “beats” or “chunks” for
syllables) in the bunny.”
Students: “Teacher, may we?”
Onset-Rime
Blending and Segmentation
Onset: initial consonant or
consonant cluster of the word
Onsets
and
Rimes
Rime: vowel and consonants
that follow the onset
In the word ca, the /k/ is the
onset and the –at is the rime
Activities with onset-rime manipulation
Going on a Word Hunt (clues)
Teacher: Going
on a
word
hunt!
(slap toes) (slap knees) (slap toes) (slap knees)
Students repeat
Teacher: What’s
this
word?
(slap toes) (slap knees) (slap toes) (slap knees)
Students repeat
Teacher: /m/ (pause) /ap/ pause
(slap toes)
(slap knees)
Students repeat
Together: mmmmmmmmmmmap
map!
(slide hands from toes to knee) (slap knees)
Activities with onset-rime manipulation
Make a Word (letters)
It’s a word.
It is not a word.
Phoneme Blending and
Segmentation
Phoneme
Blending
Listening to a sequence of
individual sounds and
combining them to pronounce
a word
Segmenting
Words into
Phonemes
Breaking a word into its
individual sounds
Activities with phoneme manipulation
Cock-a-doodle-moo! (oral)
Cock-a-doodle-moo! By Bernard Most
Activities with phoneme manipulation
Bag Game (cues)
Supporting phonemic awareness
development in the classroom
Hallie Kay Yopp
Ruth Helen Yopp
The Reading Teacher
Vol.54, No. 2 October 2000
Using Songs
Tune to London Bridge
/b/ is a sound that starts these words
Ball, bounce, bear, ball, bounce, bear
/b/ is a sound that starts these words
Ball, bounce, bear and b_________.
Using Songs
Tune to “Three Blind Mice”
Buh buh buh, Buh buh, buh;
Hear how it sounds, hear how it sounds.
It starts with /b/ and it sounds like this:
Buh buh buh, Buh buh, buh
Using Songs
Tune to London Bridge
/K/ is the letter that sounds like kuh,
Sounds like kuh, sounds like kuh,
/K/ is the letter that sounds like kuh,
In words like key, cat, and car!
Using Songs
Tune to “Jimmy Cracked Corn”
Who has a /d/ word to share with us?
Who has a /d/ word to share with us?
It must start with the /d/ sounds!
Dog is a word that starts with /d/
Dog is a word that starts with /d/
Dog is a word that starts with /d/
Dog stars with the /d/ sound.
Oo-pples and Boo-noo-noos;
Songs and Activties for phonemic
Awareness
Hallie Kay Yopp
Ruth Helen Yopp
Say It and Move It
Phoneme Manipulation
Working
Add /s/ to beginning of pin=spin
with
Delete /t/ at beginning of trap=rap
Phonemics Substitute /i/ in lip with /a/=lap
Grouping for
Instruction
Small
Groups
Teach phonological
awareness, especially
phonemic awareness,
in small groups
Explicit and Systematic
Phonological Awareness Instruction
Focus on types of phonological
awareness most closely associated with
beginning reading and spelling
achievement by linking phonemes to
print
 Teach phonological awareness explicitly
and regularly schedule instruction

Explicit and Systematic
Phonological Awareness Instruction

During a lesson, target only one type of
phonological awareness, such as blending
phonemes or segmenting words into
phonemes
 Begin with easier activities and progress to
more difficult ones
 Model each activity
 As soon as possible, help children make the
connection between letters and sounds to read
and spell words
Ongoing Practice in
Phonological Awareness
Provide opportunities to practice
phonological awareness with teacher
support and guidance
 Integrate practice in phonological
awareness throughout the curriculum
and school day

Word Play
Enhances phonological awareness as children
practice activities using words an concepts in
stories and books that are read aloud
 Choose one of your children’s books
 Develop a word play activity for your assigned
part
 On an index card, write title of book and
activity
 Post on the wall
Phonological Awareness
and Phonics
Phonological
Awareness

Phonics
Phonological awareness instruction helps
children make the connection between letters
and sounds
 During reading and spelling activities, children
begin to combine their knowledge of
phonological awareness and phonics
Taking a Closer Look
Phonological awareness instruction is
addressed in different types of published
programs:
 Comprehensive core reading programs
 Supplementary phonological awareness
programs
Consider Diversity:
English Language Learners
Capitalize on native language ability
 Teach blending, segmenting, and
manipulating individual phonemes and
syllables
 Accept oral approximations
 Focus on words children already know

Progress Monitoring:
Phonological Awareness
Verify
Identify
Specify
Recognize
Results of individual administered
reading inventories can help you make
informed instructional decisions
Remember…
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Phonological Awareness - Dakota State University