CULTURE AND PERSONALITY: BASIC CONCEPTS: culture & cultural syndromes CULTURE & PERSONALITY: Benet-Martinez’s work 2 Approaches: Lexical / Taxonomic Socio-cognitive One of my favorite quotes …. Every person is in certain respects a) like all other people, b) like some other person, c) like no other person. (Kluckhohn & Murray, 1948) GENERAL QUESTIONS: As people of varying cultures and ethnicities, how are we different and how are we alike? How do culture and ethnicity shape our identities and personalities? CULTURE: Shared systems of meaning that provide the standards for perceiving, believing, evaluating, communicating, and acting among those who share a language, a historic period, and a geographic location. (Shweder & LeVine, 1984). Useful metaphor -> culture = game rules Culture Race or Ethnicity Question for the class: Who can explain the differences between these? Cultural Syndromes (TAXONOMY OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES) 2 basic dimensions of cultural difference: (Hofstede, 1983) • Individualism/Collectivism: extent to which the self is defined as a bound and separate (vs. fluid and interdependent). • Independent/Interdependent Selves (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) •Vertical/Horizontal Relationships: emphasis on hierarchy and status versus equality SELF INDEPENDENT SELF SELF INTER-DEPENDENT SELF VERTICAL USA India COLLECTIVISTIC INDIVIDUALISTIC Israel? Sweden HORIZONTAL Culture & Personality: Benet-Martinez’s studies Two different approaches: (1) LEXICAL/TAXONOMIC Basic dimensions of personality in Spanish? (2) SOCIO-COGNITIVE Modeling Biculturalism in the Laboratory CULTURE AND PERSONALITY: (1) PSYCHO-LEXICAL Key idea: Language as a window to the ‘personality’ of a particular culture My work: Exploration of basic dimensions of personality description in different languages Method: ‘Combined emic-etic’ approach; factor analysis (1) LEXICAL APPROACH Natural language as a window to study cultural universals/differences in personality FUNDAMENTAL LEXICAL HYPOTHESIS: Those psychological constructs that are the most salient and socially relevant in people’s lives will eventually become encoded into their language; the more important is such construct: (1) the more likely it is to be expressed as a single word and be overepresented in the language; and (2) the more languages and cultures will have a word for it. (Goldberg, 1982) Are the English Big Five (Seven) cross-culturally robust? Yes in Spanish (using translated American measures) (JPSP: Benet-Martinez & Waller, 1995; JPSP: Benet-Martinez & John, 1998) NEED FOR ANOTHER STUDY THAT: (1) Identifies the basic indigenous dimensions of personality description in Spanish (2) Assesses the overlap/specificity between these indigenous Spanish dimensions and the American Big 7. (1) LEXICAL APPROACH Exploring Indigenous Spanish Personality Constructs with a Combined Emic-Etic Approach (Benet-Martinez & Waller, 1997; Benet-Martinez, 2000) GOALS OF THE STUDIES: (1) To identify the basic indigenous dimensions of personality description in Spanish (2) To assess the overlap/specificity between these indigenous Spanish dimensions and the American Big 7 COMBINED ETIC/EMIC APPROACH (Yang & Bond, 1990) EMIC APPROACH: Reliance on indigenous measures or models --> in this study: self-reports on 299 indigenous Spanish personality adjectives from the dictionary PLUS ETIC APPROACH: Reliance on imported measures of models --> in this study: self-reports on Spanish-translated Big Seven and Big Five questionnaires Sample N = 894 college students from Spain who completed both emic and etic measures Results from factor analysis of emic measure: 7 INDIGENOUS SPANISH PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS Examples of marker items (translated from Spanish) P O S IT IV E V A L E N C E N E G A T IV E V A L E N C E A m a z in g S u p e r io r F o r m id a b le R e s p le n d e n t N o t s p e c ia l M e d io c r e 62 58 56 56 -35 -40 C O N S C IE N T IO U S N E S S W e ll- b a la n c e d M o d e r a te R e a s o n a b le H a s ty R e c k le s s C ra z y 64 54 53 -42 -43 -49 43 41 41 39 39 38 S ic k e n in g T e r r if y in g F ilth y G re a sy C ru e l W ic k e d AG REEABLENESS E a s y - g o in g G o o d - n a tu r e d D o c ile S to r m y U n r e c o n c ilin g U n y ie ld in g 54 49 46 -45 -47 -48 O PENNESS B o h e m ia n M y s tic a l Q u a in t G o s s ip in g D is c lo s in g N osy 38 40 42 -36 -34 -30 PLEASANTNESS H appy E n g e r g e tic R e la x e d S tr e s s e d D e p re sse d U nhappy 54 53 48 –53 –54 –56 ENGAGEM ENT A rd e n t S e e th in g I n te n s e C o ld I d le U n e m o tio n a l 43 36 35 -34 -30 -37 C IR C U M P L E X M O D E L O F A F F E C T A roused E n gagem en t F earful H i N egative A ffect H i P ositive E nthusiastic A ffect S a d U n p leasan tn ess P leasan tn ess H appy L o P ositive Sluggish A ffect L o N egative A ffect C alm D isen gagem en t Sleepy A d ap ted fro m L arsen & D ien er (1 9 9 2 ) PLEASANTNESS & ENGAGEMENT in Spain: Gran placer y poco duelo es el deseo de todo hombre. (Much pleasure and little pain is every man’s desire) --Spanish proverb Spaniards ..... passion is the seed that brings them forth, and passion is the flower they bear. --George Orwell (Homage to Catalonia) ALMODOVAR’S FILMS: A celebration of pleasure/pain and passion Kinder, M. (1987). Pleasure and the New Spanish Mentality: A Conversation With Pedro Almodovar. Film Quarterly, vol 41.1, 33 - 44. Pally, M. (1991). The Politics of Passion: Pedro Almodovar and the Camp Esthetic. Cineaste Magazine, vol 12 issue 3. OVERLAP BETWEEN THE INDIGENOUS (EMIC) SPANISH PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS AND IMPORTED (ETIC) BIG 7 INVENTORY IN D IG E N O U S S P A N IS H B IG 7 IM P O R T E D B IG 7 P os. Valen ce P ositive Valen ce N egative Valen ce Agreablen ess C on scien - O p en n ess P leasan t- En gagetiou sn ess n ess m en t 79 N eg. Valen ce 47 Agreeablen ess 71 C on scien tiou s. 60 O p en n ess 22 Extraversion 75 -4 3 N eu roticism A v erag e O ff-D iagon al C o rrelation s (1 9) (0 7) (1 0) (2 5) (1 1) (2 0) 45 40 (0 9) CONCLUSIONS FROM STUDIES: (1) There is considerable overlap between the Spanish Siete Grandes and the American Big 7 (1b) Exception: Pleasantness and Engagement (instead of E & N) (2) Positive and Negative Valence seem fairly robust across these two cultures.