Selected class notes
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Accommodation: learning languages,
conversation, controlled syncretism:
inculturation; acculturation
Chinese Rites Controversy
Propaganda Fide = Congregation for the
Propagation of the Faith (1622)
Reduction
Requirement
Encomiendo
Patronato
On Securing the Salvation of the Indies (1588)
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Galileo
Giovanni Botero, Reason of State
Machiavelli, The Prince
useful / good
immanent pragmatism
Providentialist
Monti di pieta…usury
Introduction to a Devout Life: Francis de Sales:
spiritual classic: Imitation of Christ, Spiritual
Exercises = Ignatius of Loyola THE Jesuit
Jansenism, Jansenist vs. Jesuits
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Council of Trent: responds to Protestantism:
defines beliefs, doctrines; responding to abuses,
problems in the Church hierarchy that need
correction
more universal: missionary work
Religious orders, confraternities:
Women: teaching (Ursulines), Daughters of
Charity
Political power: decline in power for Church;
conciliarism
Reformation
Papal power: bishops, missionary activity
Paulo Segneri, SJ
Paul Ragueneau, SJ
Edmund Campion, SJ
Robert Bellarmine, SJ
Louis Bourdaloue, SJ
Peter Canisius, SJ
Francis Xavier, SJ
Adam Contzen, SJ
Matteo Ricci, SJ
Friedrich von Spee, SJ
Robert de Nobili, SJ
José de Acosta, SJ
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The test consists of two parts. Both parts are worth 50%.
You are allowed the following aids: your copy of the
readings for Hist. 439 assigned for Week 1 to Week 6,
inclusive, along with one sheet of paper for references, an
outline, etc. to help you write the essay in response to the
questions in Part 2. You must submit the reference sheet
with your answer. If you do quote directly from the
readings, please supply page references.
You must submit the aids for the test to the supervisor
before the test begins. You may not have these aids with
you while you answer Part 1. You will complete Part 1 on
the test paper. When you have completed Parts 1, you will
submit your answers to the supervisor and then collect the
aids for the test and proceed to Part 2, which you will
answer in the examination booklet. Please note: All
submissions of answers to Part 1 will be considered final
without exception.
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Short answer: fill in the blank
Don’t show that you are not sure of your
answer by adding question marks.
Read the question carefully
 Was
the Council of Trent
the defining event of early
modern Catholicism?
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Answer this question in essay format based on
information acquired from the assigned readings between
Week 1 and Week 6, inclusive. Use the booklet provided.
Skip lines!
Superior answers will directly address the relevant
question and will be based on a clear, well-defined thesis
statement sustained with logical consistency and by
compelling evidence taken from the readings in the form
of quotations and/or specific references. If you quote from
or make a specific reference, please supply page numbers
in parentheses. Do not use footnotes or endnotes.
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Was the Council of Trent the defining event of
early modern Catholicism?
Review readings, i.e. gather sources
Find evidence: look at indices, chapter titles,
subtitles
Don’t worry about word count!
Make notes: categories: themes
Weigh evidence.
Establish the terms of reference: establishing
conceptual clarity.
Elaborate…say why…take a perspective
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Impact on various Catholic countries, who
received it, implemented it
Consistency between what Trent said and what
Catholics did.
What did Catholics do? Did Trent tell them to do
it? Did Trent have anything to do with early
modern Catholicism?
Take a longer view
Look for alternatives; compare with another event
Vantage points: secular, sacred, political,
economic, cultural (art history)
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Your essays are due on Monday, 25
June at 10:00 am in AQ 6230 (my
office). Please submit your essays
on time!
I hope to return the midterms to you
when you submit your essays.
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Focus on only one topic
Use only relevant sources.
Build on a firm foundation.
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439 sources
number of sources
Substantial sources
Use prescribed format for footnotes,
bibliography
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Elements of citation.
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Introduction: Be succinct. State your answer to
the question. Do not get bogged down in
reviewing the history of all the terms used to
name Catholicism.
Body: Be precise and persuasive. Employ
compelling evidence from your sources to
support your answer to the question = your
argument. You don’t need to repeat the obvious:
“this proves my thesis,” “this is an example of…”
Conclusion. Be decisive and imaginative. Do not
repeat your introduction. Show the significance
of your argument.
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History 439 - Simon Fraser University