Patient decision aids:
why, what, how, where?
Dawn Stacey RN, PhD
Research Chair in Knowledge Translation to Patients
Full Professor, School of Nursing
Director of the Patient Decision Aids Research Group
Scientist, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute
October, 2014
Think about a health
decision that you or
someone you know
will make over the
next year
Thinking about that health decision…
SURE Test ©2008 O’Connor & Legare
Evolution of health information
• < 1990:
– healthcare professionals were gate keepers to
information
• 1990: www
– passive viewing of information
• 2004: Web 2.0
– allows users to interact with each other and
contribute to website's content (e.g. social networking,
wikis, video-sharing, blogs)
• 2010: open access to publications of studies
receiving public funds
USA: R. 3590 The Patient Protection
and Affordable Care Act (March 2010)
Outline
• Shared decision making (SDM)
• Patient decision aids
– What are they?
– How do they work?
– What is a high quality one?
• Examples of patient decision aids
Shared decision making
A process by which a
healthcare choice is
made between the
patient and one or more
health professionals
The crux of patient
centred care
(Legare et al., 2010; Makoul et al. 2006; Stacey et al. 2011)
Shared decision making
A process by which a
healthcare choice is
made between the
patient and one or
more health
professionals
(Legare et al., 2010; Makoul et al. 2006)
Shared decision making
Deliberation
A process by which
a healthcare choice
is made between
the patient and one
or more health
professionals
Determination
(Legare et al., 2010; Makoul et al. 2006; Politi et al., 2013)
Patients involved in decision making…
 Improve
o quality of life
o sense of control over illness
o symptom relief
 Decrease
o fatigue
o depression
o illness concerns
However, most patients would prefer more
active involvement
(Kiesler
& Auerbach 2006; Hibbard & Greene 2013)
Shared decision making
A process by which
a healthcare choice
is made between the
patient and one or
more health
professionals
(Couet et al 2014)
Outline
• Shared decision making (SDM)
• Patient decision aids
– What are they?
– How do they work?
– What is a high quality one?
• Examples of patient decision aids
Patient Decision Aids
adjuncts to counseling
Inform
• Provide facts
Condition, options, benefits, harms
• Communicate probabilities
Clarify values
• Ask which benefits/harms matters most
• Share patient experiences
• Facilitate communication
Support
• Guide in steps in deliberation/communication
• Worksheets, list of questions
(Stacey et al., Cochrane Library, 2014)
Formats for patient decision aids
(used prior to or within consultations)
1. Print
2. DVD/Video
3. Online/computer-based
(Stacey et al., 2014)
•
Topics of Decision Aids (N=115)
Medication (n=36)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
•
10 hormone replacement therapy
3 atrial fibrillation anti-coagulants
3 cardiovascular
3 diabetes
2 osteoporosis
2 chemotherapy
2 breast cancer prevention
2 osteoarthritis knee
hypertension
multiple sclerosis
schizophrenia
depression
natural health products
ovarian risk management
acute respiratory infection
contraceptives
coronary angiogram access site
•
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
•
15 Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
7 BRCA1/2 genetic
11 colon cancer
6 prenatal
2 mammography
2 diabetes
Colon cancer genetic
Cervix cancer
Stress testing for chest pain
•
4 mastectomy +1 reconstruction
4 prostatectomy
4 hysterectomy
2 prophylactic BRCA1/2
2 coronary revascularization
dental
orchiectomy for advanced prostate ca
back
bariatric
vasectomy
long term feeding tube placement
Obstetrics (n=6)
–
–
–
–
–
Screening (n=46)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Surgery (n=23)
2 vaginal birth after cesarean
termination
breech
labour analgesia
embryo transplant
Other (n=4)
–
–
–
–
Hepatitis B vaccine
influenza vaccine
Autologous blood donation
Cystic Fibrosis Transplant Referral
(Stacey et al., 2014 Cochrane Review)
15
Patient education vs. decision support
(RNAO Best Practice Guideline: Decision Support for CKD, 2009)
16
Outline
• Shared decision making (SDM)
• Patient decision aids
– What are they?
– How do they work?
– What is a high quality one?
• Examples of patient decision aids
18
Cochrane Review of
Patient Decision Aids: updates
140
115
120
100
86
80
55
60
35
40
20
17
0
1999
2003
2009
(Stacey et al., 2014 Cochrane Review)
2011
2014
Compared to usual care, PtDAs…
Improve decision
quality with…
 6% reduced decisional conflict
 13% higher knowledge 

 82% more accurate
risk perception

 51% better match
between values &
choices

Helps undecided to decide (41%)
Patients 34% less passive in
decisions
Improved patient-practitioner
communication (8/9 trials)
Potential to reduce over-use
 -20% surgery
 -14% PSA – prostate screening
 -27% Hormone replacement tx
(Stacey et al., 2014 Cochrane Review)
Outline
• Shared decision making (SDM)
• Patient decision aids
– What are they?
– How do they work?
– What is a high quality one?
• Examples of patient decision aids
International Patient Decision
Aid Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration
since 2003
To enhance the quality and effectiveness of patient decision
aids by establishing a shared evidence-informed framework
for improving their content, development, implementation,
and evaluation.
IPDAS Steering Committee: Glyn Elwyn & Dawn Stacey (Co-Leads),
M Barry, N Col, A Coulter, K Eden, M Härter, M Holmes-Rovner,
H Llewellyn-Thomas, V Montori, N Moumjid, M Pignone,
R Thomson, L Trevena, R Volk, T van der Weijden
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 2013, 13 (Suppl 2).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcmedinformdecismak/supplements/13/S2
Outline
• Shared decision making (SDM)
• Patient decision aids
– What are they?
– How do they work?
– What is a high quality one?
• Examples of patient decision aids
To find decision aids go to…
http://www.med-decs.org/nl
To find decision aids
Google: ‘decision aid’
Prostate Cancer
Knowing Your Options: A Decision Aid for Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
Localised prostate cancer - low risk
Option Grid Collaborative
Compared to controls (n=59),
those exposed to the decision aid (n=48) had:
-higher confidence in their immunization decision
-higher intent to be immunized
Key Messages
• Shared decision making is important for patient
centred care
• Patient decision aids prepare patients by:
– Making explicit the decision
– Providing balanced evidence on options
– Asking patients what matters most
• Evidence supports their effectiveness & quality
http://decisionaid.ohri.ca
Descargar

Cochrane Translation to Decision Aid Workshop