Textbook for Nursing Assistants
Chapter 5: Communication Skills
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
What Is Communication?
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
What Is Communication?
• Communication is the process of exchanging information
that involves at least two persons
A Sender
A Receiver
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Major Forms of Communication
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Forms of Communication
• Verbal Communication
– Verbal communication tends to be deliberate—used
to express a thought, with the intent of giving
specific information to another person
– Involves use of spoken and written language or sign
language used by the deaf
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Forms of Communication
• Nonverbal Communication
– Nonverbal communication tends to be more subtle
– Involves giving information through the use of facial
expressions, gestures, and body language
– Tone of voice can be considered a form of nonverbal
communication
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Communicating Effectively
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Process of Communication
• The sender creates a message
• The sender delivers the message
• The receiver receives the message
• The receiver provides the feedback
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Process of Communication
• The sender creates a message
– Use language that the receiver understands
– Use an interpreter wherever required
– Use simple words
– Speak clearly and loudly enough to be heard
– Organize written matter legibly
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Process of Communication
• The sender delivers a message
– Speak face to face
– Send letters, memos, and e-mails
– Use telephone calls, intercom
– Use legible hand writing and accurate language
– Message should be delivered to the receiver in a mode
that is understood (for example, written matter is not
suitable for a blind person)
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Process of Communication
• The receiver receives the message
– Be an attentive listener
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Process of Communication
• The receiver provides feedback
– Feedback is an indication that the message sent by the
sender was received and understood by the receiver
– The sender looks for feedback from the receiver
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tactics That Enhance Communication
• When you are the receiver, be a good listener
• When you are the sender make sure that the message is clear
• Rephrase or use open-ended questions to encourage the other
person to talk
• Provide and seek feedback
• Use positive body language and pleasant tone of voice
• Value silence and provide a comforting touch
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tactics That Enhance Communication
• When you are the receiver, be a good listener
– Active listening requires focusing your attention on
the speaker
– Avoid interrupting the speaker
– Sit down or assume a relaxed posture so you do not
appear rushed or in a hurry to move on
– Make eye contact with the speaker
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tactics That Enhance Communication
• When you are the sender make sure that the message
is clear
– Speak clearly and use words that the person you are
speaking to understands
– A person cannot give informed consent unless he
understands what he is consenting to—encourage
feedback
– Consider a person’s language understanding skills as well
as any physical disability that could impair receipt of your
message
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tactics That Enhance Communication
• Rephrase or use open-ended questions to
encourage the other person to talk
– Open-ended questions invite the person to say more
– It also shows the person that you are, in fact,
actively listening to what the other person is saying
to you
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tactics That Enhance Communication
• Provide and seek feedback
– Use a gracious way to convey feedback so that it
does not appear intimidating to the other person
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tactics That Enhance Communication
• Be mindful of your body language
–
Negative body language
• Crossing your arms across your chest
• Tapping your feet or fingers
• Constantly looking at your watch or toward the door
–
Positive body language
• Facing the person
• Nodding as he or she speaks
• Smiling or looking serious as appropriate
• Making vocal sounds to indicate your interest
• Positioning yourself at eye level with the speaker
• Provide a comforting touch
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tactics That Enhance Communication
• Value of silence and a comforting touch
– Touch is perhaps the most universal of all languages
– Silence and a comforting touch will say more than
words can
– When words are not enough, touch is comforting and
establishes a bond
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Blocks to Effective
Communication
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Blocks to Effective Communication
• Not listening carefully to what another person is saying
• Interrupting the other person
• Being judgmental
• The assumption that other people know what you know,
think the way you think, and feel the way you feel
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Conflict Resolution
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Conflict
• Conflict, resulting from differences
between people, occurs when
– One person is unable to understand or accept another’s
ideas or beliefs
– One person’s expectations for another differ from that
person’s expectations for himself
– One person misunderstands another person’s words or
intentions
– One person’s needs or wants conflict with our own needs
and wants
• Conflict makes the people directly involved, as well as those
around them, uncomfortable
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Conflict Resolution
• Ask to speak privately with the person
• During your conversation, focus on the specific area of conflict
• Focus on “I” rather than the more accusatory “you”
• Be prepared to hear how the other person may feel toward you or the
problem, even if it is not pleasant
• Be gracious enough to apologize for misunderstanding the other
person, or for being the one who was misunderstood
• Ask the other person for insight into solutions for resolving the conflict
• Sometimes it is necessary to “agree to disagree”
• If you are unable to resolve a conflict on your own, seek the advice of
your supervisor
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Telephone Communication
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Using Telephone Communication
• Today, the telephone remains a primary tool of
communication in the health care field
• When using this mode of communication
– Remember telephone etiquette
– Respect patient and resident confidentiality
– Know your facility’s policies
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Reporting and Recording Information
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Observation
• Subjective data
– Subjective data is information that cannot be objectively
measured or assessed
• Examples: Usually a person’s complaint, or symptom
• Objective data
– Objective data is information that you obtain directly,
through measurements or by using one of your five senses
• Examples: Temperature, pulse, respiratory rate, and
blood pressure of a patient or resident
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Recording
• Recording or “charting,” is communicating information
about a patient or resident to other health care team
members in written form
• Tools associated with recording include the
– Medical record (chart)
– Kardex
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Reporting
• Nursing assistants use reporting to communicate the following
information to the nurse:
– Observations that suggest a change in the patient’s or
resident’s condition
– Observations regarding the patient’s or resident’s
response to a new treatment or therapy
– A patient’s or resident’s complaints of pain or discomfort
– A patient’s or resident’s refusal of treatment
– A patient’s or resident’s request for clergy
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Communication Among Members of
the Health Care Team
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Medical Record (Chart)
• It is a legal document that contains
– The person’s current condition
– The measures that have been taken by the medical
and nursing staff to diagnose and treat the condition
– The person’s response to the treatment and care
provided
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
A Typical Medical Record Contains…
• Admission sheet
• Medical history
• Nursing history
• Physician’s order sheet
• Medication sheet
• Physician’s progress notes
• Narrative nurse’s notes
• Graphic sheet
• Miscellaneous documents
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Kardex
• The Kardex is a card file, containing condensed versions
of each patient’s or resident’s medical record. It
contains:
– A summary of the person’s current diagnosis
– The diagnostic tests and treatments ordered by the
doctor
– Information about routine care measures, such as
the person’s diet, level of ambulation, and bathing
schedule
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Communication Technologies
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Computer
• A person’s medical record can be maintained by:
– entering data into a computer in response to the
computer’s prompts
–
this is preferable to filling out a paper form.
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Vital Link in the Chain
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Nursing Assistant’s Role
• A nursing assistant should be well aware of his or her job
description and should work within the parameters
defined by facility policy to ensure effective
communication
– Ensuring effective communication also helps avoid
legal complications.
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Nursing Process
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
The Nursing Process
• In order to achieve its goals, the nursing team develops
a specific plan of care, called the nursing care plan, for
each patient or resident
• The communication method that is used to develop the
nursing care plan is called the nursing process
• Nursing assistants play a key role in implementing and
evaluating the nursing care plan
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Steps of the Nursing Process
• Assessment
• Diagnosis
• Planning
• Implementation
• Evaluation
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Quality Health Care
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Quality Health Care
• Effective communication, both written and oral, allows all
team members to stay informed about a patient’s or
resident’s medical condition and response to treatment
• When there are communication breakdowns among the
health care team, this can adversely affect a patient’s or
resident’s care and safety
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
End of Presentation
Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Descargar

Airgas template