The Eighteenth Century:
An Age of Enlightenment
AP European History
Chapter 17
10/3/2015
John 3:16
1
Overview



The Scientific
Revolution’s “natural
philosophers” effected
but a small elite
But a group of
intellectuals used the
discoveries to examine all
aspects of life
Voltaire
Voltaire
10/3/2015
John 3:16
2
Overview


Paris was the cultural
capital of Europe
Parisian women took a
lead in bringing together
thinkers of many
disciplines to cross-talk
discoveries and new
philosophies
10/3/2015
John 3:16
3
Overview

Marie-Therese de Geoffrin hosted distinguished
foreigners, philosophers, and artists
These gatherings stimulated wide-ranging
discussions and ideas
 Ideas generated were so significant that historians
refer to the 18th century as the Age of
Enlightenment

10/3/2015
John 3:16
4
Overview


“Enlightenment”
included a rejection of
traditional Christianity
Religious wars and
intolerance of 16th and
17th centuries alienated
intellectuals
10/3/2015
John 3:16
5
Overview


Intellectuals and scientists of the 17th century
were open to new ideas of science. Both saw
science as exalting God
The 18th century intellectuals saw it differently

10/3/2015
Rejected Christian orthodoxy and secularism
emerged as dominant mentality in Western mentality
ever since
John 3:16
6
Overview


Reason and materialism
were beginning to
replace faith and reason
Although, there was an
outburst of religious
sensibility manifested in
art and music

10/3/2015
Not all artistic and
intellectual hearts were
captured by secularism
Montesquieu
John 3:16
7
Focus Questions

Who were the leading
figures of the
Enlightenment, and what
were their main
contributions?
Diderot
10/3/2015
John 3:16
8
Focus Questions

In what type of social
environment did the
philosophes thrive, and
what role did women
play in that environment?
Rousseau
10/3/2015
John 3:16
9
Focus Question

What innovations in art,
music, and literature
occurred in the 18th
century?
Wollstonecraft
10/3/2015
John 3:16
10
Focus Question

How did popular culture differ form high
culture in the 18th century?
10/3/2015
John 3:16
11
Focus Question

How did popular religion differ from
institutional religion in the 18th century?
10/3/2015
John 3:16
12
Critical Thinking Question

What is the relationship
between the Scientific
Revolution and the
Enlightenment?
Locke
10/3/2015
John 3:16
13
The Enlightenment
Overview
10/3/2015
John 3:16
14
Overview


German philosopher
Emmanuel Kant defined
Enlightenment as “man’s
leaving his self-caused
immaturity”
Kant: “Dare to know!
Have the courage to use
your own intelligence.”
Emmanuel Kant
10/3/2015
John 3:16
15
Overview


As laws were discovered
regulating nature, then
laws could be found to
regulate human society
Buzz words: reason,
natural law, hope,
progress
10/3/2015
John 3:16
16
Overview

Philosophes and
scientists thought that if
only people could throw
off the shackles of old
beliefs, particularly
religious, the world be a
better place
10/3/2015
John 3:16
17
Overview

If Newton can discover
the natural laws of
science that govern the
universe, the laws of how
to govern a society could
be discovered as well
10/3/2015
John 3:16
18
The Paths to
Enlightenment
Influenced by 17th century thinkers, what
changes occurred with 18th century thinkers
that culminated in the Enlightenment?
10/3/2015
John 3:16
19
The Popularization of Science

Spread of scientific information was not direct
from scientist to people.
Books were tough to read—written by the best
brains of the time—and tough to get (no Borders)
 Much was done through education by
“popularizers” or philosophes themselves


The link to the people of the scientific
discoveries the philosophes
10/3/2015
John 3:16
20
The Popularization of Science


Bernard de Fontenelle,
Secretary of the French
Royal Academy from
1691 to 1741, wrote
books on discoveries
Fontenelle possessed
vast knowledge of
discoveries
Bernard de Fontenelle
10/3/2015
John 3:16
21
The Popularization of Science


Fontenelle was very witty
and scientifically wise
His book, Plurality of
Worlds, two people
discussing discoveries


10/3/2015
Conversation between
lady aristocrat and lover
“Tell me”, she exclaims,
“about these stars of
yours”
John 3:16
22
The Popularization of Science



Fontenelle showed that
science need not be the
monopoly of experts, but
part of literature
He downplayed the
religious side of scientists
He was a “skeptic” about
religion and portrayed
churches as enemies of
scientific progress
10/3/2015
John 3:16
23
A New Skepticism

As scientific discoveries
spread, more men and
women questioned longheld religious truths and
values
10/3/2015
John 3:16
24
A New Skepticism

Skepticism and
secularism was evident in
the works of Pierre Bayle
(1647-1706)


10/3/2015
Attacked religious
intolerance, superstition,
and dogmatism
Compelling people to
believe a certain set of
religious ideas was
wrong—as Louis XIV
was doing at that time
Pierre Bayle
John 3:16
25
A New Skepticism (cont)

Bayle believed



that individual conscious
should determine one’s
action
the existence of many
religions would benefit
rather than harm a state
the Bible should not be
exempt from criticism
Pierre Bayle
10/3/2015
John 3:16
26
A New Skepticism

In Bayle’s most famous work, Historical and Critical
Dictionary, he wrote of King David in a very different
way



David was portrayed as a sensual, cruel, treacherous, and evil
man
The “Dictionary” attacked traditional religious practices and
heroes
One critic of Dictionary called it the “Bible of the
eighteenth century”
10/3/2015
John 3:16
27
The Impact of Travel Literature

Skepticism about religion and European culture
was nourished by travel reports
Traders, missionaries, medical practitioner, and
explorers—all wrote travel books
 Geographical discoveries, e.g. Tahiti, New Zealand,
and Australia by James Cook
 Aroused much enthusiasm

10/3/2015
John 3:16
28
The Impact of Travel Literature


Exotic peoples, such as
natives from Tahiti,
presented an image of
“natural man”
The idea of the “noble
savage” would impact
the work of some
philosophes
10/3/2015
John 3:16
29
The Impact of Travel Literature

The literature also
demonstrated there were
highly developed cultures
in other parts of the
world


China and Confucian
morality were singled out
Europeans began to
evaluate their culture
compared to others
Confucius
10/3/2015
John 3:16
30
The Impact of Travel Literature

Certainties about European practices gave way
to “cultural relativism”
Accompanied by religious skepticism
 The Christian perception of God was one of many
 “…Every day they see a new religion, new customs,
and new rites

10/3/2015
John 3:16
31
The Legacy of Locke and Newton


The intellectual inspiration for the
Enlightenment were Locke and Newton
Intellectuals believed that by following
Newton’s laws of reasoning, they could discover
the natural laws that governed politics,
economics, justice, religion, and art
10/3/2015
John 3:16
32
The Legacy of Locke and Newton

Newton frequently singled out
“the greatest and rarest genius that ever rose for the
ornament and instruction of the species”
 “God said, ‘Let Newton be, and all is light’”


Philosophes enchanted by Newton’s world
machine
10/3/2015
John 3:16
33
The Legacy of Locke and Newton

John Locke’s theory of
knowledge especially
influenced the
philosophes


Wrote, Essay Concerning
Human Understanding
(1690)
Denied Descates belief in
innate ideas
John Locke
10/3/2015
John 3:16
34
The Legacy of Locke and Newton

Lock denied Descartes’
belief in innate ideas.
Locke argued that every
person was born with a
tabula rasa, a blank mind
10/3/2015
John 3:16
35
The Legacy of Locke and Newton


Our mind is developed
from our environment,
not from heredity; from
reason, not from faith
People molded through
experiences they received
through their senses
from their surrounding
world
10/3/2015
John 3:16
John Locke
36
The Legacy of Locke and Newton



By changing the environment, peoples and
societies can be changed
Reason enabled enlightened people to discover
natural laws to which all institutions should
conform
The philosophes were enamored with Locke and
Newton. Taken together, their ideas seem to
offer the hope of a “brave new world” built on
reason
10/3/2015
John 3:16
37
The Philosophes and Their Ideas

Philosophes were intellectuals and not all
philosophers
Literary people, professors, journalists, statesmen,
economists, political scientists, and social reformers
 Came from the nobility and middle class, some poor



International and cosmopolitan movement
Dominated by French culture and Paris
considered the capital of the Enlightenment
10/3/2015
John 3:16
38
The Philosophes and Their Ideas

Philosophes had different circumstances, but the
many common threads
The role of philosophy was the change the world,
not just discuss it
 Reason was scientific method, an appeal to facts and
experiences
 Rational criticism was to be applied to everything,
including religion and politics

10/3/2015
John 3:16
39
The Philosophes and Their Ideas



Philosophes worked in environment where they
were not free to write anything
State censors were ever present
Seizure of books and imprisonment of authors,
publishers and sellers was very possible
10/3/2015
John 3:16
40
The Philosophes and Their Ideas
(cont)

Philosophes found ways around censorship
Pseudonyms, anonymously, or abroad
 Double meanings, e.g., talk about Persians and mean
French
 Publish secretly or in manuscript form to avoid
censors
 Burned books often made them more popular

10/3/2015
John 3:16
41
The Philosophes and Their Ideas
(cont)

Although bound together by common bonds,
philosophes often disagreed
Each succeeding generation became more radical
 A few people tended to dominate the landscape
 Three French giants stood out


Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot
10/3/2015
John 3:16
42
Montesquieu and Political Thought

Charles de Secondat, the Baron de Montesquieu
From French nobility
 Received a classical education then studied law


His first book, “Persian Letters”
Two Persians traveling in Paris and criticizing
French institutions, especially Catholic Church and
French monarchy
 Much of French Enlightenment: attack on
traditional religion, advocating religious toleration,
denunciation of slavery, use of reason to liberate
humans beings

10/3/2015
John 3:16
43
Montesquieu and Political Thought
(cont)

Montesquieu’s most famous work, “The Spirit
of the Laws”
Published in 1748
 Comparative study of governments in which he
attempted to apply the scientific method to the
social and political arena to ascertain the “natural
laws” governing the social relationships of human
beings

10/3/2015
John 3:16
44
Montesquieu and Political Thought

“The Spirit of the Laws” distinguished three basic kinds
of governments



10/3/2015
Republics, suitable for small states and based on citizen
involvement
Monarchy, appropriate for the middle-size states and
grounded in the ruling class’s adherence to law
Despotism, apt for large empires and dependent on fear to
inspire obedience
John 3:16
45
Montesquieu and Political Thought
(cont)

Praised England’s constitution which led to his most
lasting contribution to political thought, the importance
of checks and balances created through the “separation
of Powers”




England had separate executive, legislative, and judicial
powers
Limited control of each other
Served as greatest freedom and security for a state
He wanted the nobility of France to play and active role
in the running of the French government
10/3/2015
John 3:16
46
Montesquieu and Political Thought
(cont)

Translation of Montesquieu’s work ensured it
was read by American philosophes who
incorporated much into the U.S. Constitution
Benjamin Franklin
 James Madison
 John Adams
 Alexander Hamilton
 Thomas Jefferson

10/3/2015
John 3:16
47
Voltaire and the Enlightenment





Francois-Marie Arouet known as Voltaire
Greatest figure of the Enlightenment
Classical education in Jesuit school
Hailed as successor to Racine for his tragedy
CEdipe and his epic on King IV
Well liked by Parisian intellectuals, a quarrel with
a nobleman forced him abroad to England for 2
years
10/3/2015
John 3:16
48
Voltaire and the Enlightenment


Very impressed with England
His “Philosophic Letters on the English” (1733)
Expressed deep admiration for English
 Liked freedom of press, political freedom, and
religious toleration….”there are thirty religions and
they live together peacefully and happily
 Indirectly, he criticized France, especially absolute
royalty, lack of religious toleration, and freedom of
thought

10/3/2015
John 3:16
49
Voltaire and the Enlightenment


Voltaire returned to France but, at this point,
had to live near the eastern border for security
Lived with his mistress the marquise de Chatelet
An early philosophe, she had published a translation
of Newton’s “Principia”
 The two collaborated about a book on the natural
philosophy of Newton

10/3/2015
John 3:16
50
Voltaire and the Enlightenment

Eventually settled on magnificent estate in
Ferney, in France near the Swiss border
Had become wealthy through writing, investments,
and inheritance
 Had the leisure time to write pamphlets, novels,
plays, letters, and histories


He was especially well known for his criticism of
traditional religion and strong support of
religious toleration
10/3/2015
John 3:16
51
Voltaire and the Enlightenment


Used prestige and skills as a polemicist to fight
cases of intolerance in France
Most famous case: Jean Calas
Accused of murdering his son to stop him from
becoming Catholic
 Tortured to confess, he soon died
 Voltaire, through his writings, forced a retrial in
which Calas was exonerated. His son had
committed suicide

10/3/2015
John 3:16
52
Voltaire and the Enlightenment


Calas’ family paid an indemnity and Voltaire’s
appeals for moderation seemed more reasonable
He wrote, “Treatise of Toleration”
Reminded people that religious toleration had
created no problems for England or Holland
 Reminded governments “all men are brothers under
God”


Voltaire, “Crush the infamous thing.”

10/3/2015
Religious intolerance, fanaticism, and superstition
John 3:16
53
Voltaire and the Enlightenment

Accepted Deism
Accepted by most philosophes
 Built on the Newtonian world machine theory
 The mechanic—God—created the universe
 God had no direct involvement in the world and let
it run according to its own natural laws
 God did not extend grace nor answer prayers
 Jesus might be a “good fellow,” as Voltaire called
Him but he was not divine as Christianity claimed

10/3/2015
John 3:16
54
Voltaire and the Enlightenment

Voltaire said, “In the
opinion that there is a
God, there are
difficulties, but in the
contrary opinion there
are absurdities.”
Voltaire
10/3/2015
John 3:16
55
Diderot and the Encyclopedia


Son of skilled craftsman
form eastern France
Freelance writer—many
languages and subjects

10/3/2015
John 3:16
Diderot
56
Diderot and the Encyclopedia

Condemned Christianity
as fanatical and
unreasonable—
considered it the worst
religion

“the most absurd
and…atrocious in its
dogma”
Diderot
10/3/2015
John 3:16
57
Diderot and the Encyclopedia

Most famous work was
his “Encyclopedia” or
“Classified Dictionary of
the Sciences, Arts, and
Trades.” Called it, “the
great work of his life”

Diderot
Diderot
10/3/2015
John 3:16
58
Diderot and the Encyclopedia (cont)

The purpose of the encyclopedia was to “change
the general way of thinking”
Became a weapon against the old French society
 Attacked religious superstition and promoted
toleration
 Sought social, legal, and political improvements
 Sought more cosmopolitan, tolerant, humane, and
reasonable society
 Ideas of the Enlightenment spread even further

10/3/2015
John 3:16
59
The New “Science of Man”




Newton’s scientific methods were thought to be
useful to address the natural laws of social man
Could the scientific process be used to solve the
inherent problems and challenges of society?
Eighteenth century movement called the
“science of man” or the “social sciences”
Philosophes arrived at natural laws they believed
to be universal
10/3/2015
John 3:16
60
The New “Science of Man” (cont)



Scottish philosopher David Hume thought that
a science of man was possible
“A Pioneering social scientist”
Wrote “Treatise on Human Nature”
Experimental method of reasoning with reference to
moral subjects
 Observation and reflection grounded in “systemized
common sense” made conceivable a science of man

10/3/2015
John 3:16
61
The New “Science of Man”

The Physiocrats and Adam Smith
 Founders of economics
 Physiocrat leader was Francois Quesnay, French court physician
 Claimed they could discover natural economic laws
 Land constituted only source of wealth, their first principle
 Agriculture was only means to increase wealth—all other
activities were sterile and unproductive
 Revenues should come from a single tax on the land
 Rejected mercantilism, their second principle, and the idea of
money—gold and silver
10/3/2015
John 3:16
62
The New “Science of Man”


The second principle of the physiocrats was the
rejection of mercantilism
Emphasized the natural economic forces of the
supply and demand
Individuals should pursue their own economic self
interests—all society will benefit
 Government should leave the system alone. Don’t
regulate
 Doctrine became known as laissez-faire
(noninterference—let people do as they choose)

10/3/2015
John 3:16
63
The New “Science of Man”

Scottish philosopher
Adam Smith


Best statement of laissezfaire
Made in 1776
Adam Smith
10/3/2015
John 3:16
64
The New “Science of Man”

Wrote The Wealth of Nations
Three basic principles of economics, including an
attack on mercantilism
 First principle--condemned the use of tariffs. Better
to purchase a product from another nation rather
than try to produce it if the other nation produces it
cheaper

10/3/2015
John 3:16
65
The New “Science of Man

Second principle, labor
theory of value


Gold and silver do not
constitute true wealth
Labor of individuals—
farmers, artisans,
merchants, etc., constitute
the true wealth of nations
Adam Smith
10/3/2015
John 3:16
66
The New “Science of Man”

Third Principle,
Government should not
interfere with economic
management
Adam Smith
10/3/2015
John 3:16
67
The New “Science of Man”


Adam Smith
Principle three (cont)—government only has
three jobs
To protect society from invasion
 To defend individuals from injustice and oppression
 To keep up certain public works, such as roads and
canals, that private individuals could not afford

10/3/2015
John 3:16
68
The New “Science of Man”

Between the Physiocrats
and Adam Smith, they
laid the foundation of
19th century economic
liberalism


Government: stay out
Economic liberty
Adam Smith
10/3/2015
John 3:16
69
The Later Enlightenment

By the 1760s, new group
of philisophes emerged


10/3/2015
Grew up in the
Enlightenment
Went beyond the original
group
John 3:16
70
The Later Enlightenment


Movement beyond the beliefs of predecessors
Baron Paul d’ Holback, German aristocrat who
settled in Paris
Doctrine of strict atheism and materialism
 Wrote System of Nature

Everything in universe is matter and motion
 Humans are machines and God is only in the mind
 People need only reason to live in the world
 Please ourselves because we must live with each other

10/3/2015
John 3:16
71
The Later Enlightenment

Baron Paul d’Holback…


“Let us persuade men to be just, beneficent,
moderate, sociable; not because the gods demand it,
but because they must please men”
Most intellectuals remained deists, as they the
effect of atheism on society
10/3/2015
John 3:16
72
The Later Enlightenment

Marie-Jean de
Condorcet, French
philosophe


10/3/2015
Victim of turmoil of
French Revolution
Wrote his chief work
while in hiding during the
Reign of Terror
John 3:16
73
The later Enlightenment

Marie-Jean de Condorcet wrote The Progress of the
Human Mind
Humans had progressed through 9 historical stages
 With science and reason, humans will enter tenth
 Tenth stage would be one of perfection. “There is
no limit to the perfecting of the powers of man”
 Shortly after composing his work, he died in a
French revolutionary prison

10/3/2015
John 3:16
74
Rousseau and the Social Contract


Jean-Jacques Rousseau,
born in Geneva
As youth, wandered
France and Italy doing
jobs
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
10/3/2015
John 3:16
75
Rousseau and the Social Contract

Later, studied classics
and music



A paid lover of an older
woman
Eventually made his way
to Paris
Introduced to
philosophes in Paris
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
10/3/2015
John 3:16
76
Rousseau and the Social Contract

Rousseau’s political
beliefs in two major
works, Discourse on
the Origins of the
Inequality of Mankind
and The Social
Contract
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
10/3/2015
John 3:16
77
Rousseau and the Social Contract

Discourse…
Humans were happy in their primitive state—no
laws, judges, equality--but then they made changes
 To preserve private property, people adopted laws
and governments
 “…rushed headlong not to liberty but into chains”
 Government is an evil, but a necessary one

10/3/2015
John 3:16
78
Rousseau and the Social Contract

He wrote, The Social Contract
Tried to harmonize individual liberty with
government authority
 Society agrees to be governed by their general will
 Individuals compelled to abide by the general will

People should be forced to be free
 General will is community’s highest aspirations
 What is good for all is good for each individual

10/3/2015
John 3:16
79
Rousseau and the Social Contract

“This means nothing less than that he will be
forced to be free”
What was best for all was best for the individual
 True freedom is adherence to laws that one has
imposed on oneself

10/3/2015
John 3:16
80
Rousseau and the Social Contract




The creation of laws could never be delegated to
a parliamentary institution—or legislature
“Any law which the people has not ratified in
person is void; it is not law at all”
“…as soon as Members are elected, the people
is enslaved; it is nothing.”
The ultimate statement of participatory
democracy
10/3/2015
John 3:16
81
Rousseau and the Social Contract

He wrote, Emile
Important work on education
 Education should foster children’s natural instincts
 Saw a necessary balance between feelings and reason
 Importance of promptings of the heart
 Precursor of the intellectual movement called
Romanticism—emphasis on the heart, that
dominated Europe at the beginning of the
nineteenth century

10/3/2015
John 3:16
82
Rousseau and the Social Contract

Rousseau: did he practice
what he preaches?


10/3/2015
His children sent to
foundling homes
Viewed women as
naturally different
John 3:16
83
Rousseau and the Social Contract

Rousseau…
“…She needs a soft sedentary life to suckle her
babies.”
 In Emile, Sophie, Emile’s intended wife was educated
to be a wife and mother by learning obedience and
nurturing skills to provide loving care to her
husband and children


Made ideas of gender an important issue
10/3/2015
John 3:16
84
Rousseau and the Social Contract

Rousseau was described in three ways:
The father of romanticism
 A prophet of democracy
 An apologist for totalitarianism


Which was he?
10/3/2015
John 3:16
85
The “Woman’s Question” in the
Enlightenment


Men framed debate of value and nature of
women
Many male intellectuals argued the nature of
women made them inferior to men


Based on “natural” biological differences
Some male writers critical of women’s intellect
10/3/2015
John 3:16
86
The “Woman’s Question” in the
Enlightenment

Two intellectual men
asserted women were
“not all that different”
(Diderot), and “capable
of all men are”
intellectually (Voltaire)
Denis Diderot
10/3/2015
John 3:16
87
The “Woman’s Question” in the
Enlightenment


Some women writers made suggestions
Mary Astell, daughter of wealthy English coal
merchant, wrote, A Serious Proposal to the
Ladies
Women needed to become better educated
 (of critical men) “…excuse me, if I be as partial to
my own sex as they are to theirs….”

10/3/2015
John 3:16
88
The “Woman’s Question” in the
Enlightenment


Mary Astell
She wrote, Some Reflections upon Marriage
Argued for the equality of the sexes in marriage
 “If absolute sovereignty be not necessary in a state,
how comes it to be so in a family”

10/3/2015
John 3:16
89
The “Woman’s Question” in the
Enlightenment

Mary Astell: Some Reflections Upon
Marriage
“…if arbitrary power is evil…it ought not be
practiced anywhere”
 …if all men are born free, how is it that all women
are born slaves?”

10/3/2015
John 3:16
90
The “Woman’s Question” in the
Enlightenment

Mary Wollstonecraft, an
English writer

Viewed by many as the
founder of modern
European feminism
Mary Wollstonecraft
10/3/2015
John 3:16
91
The Woman’s Question in the
Enlightenment

Mary Wollstonecraft
 Wrote,Vindication of the Rights of Woman
 Subjection of women to men is as wrong as the
arbitrary power of monarchs over people
 Writers like Rousseau seen to contradict their
own statements about the power on monarchs
over people or slave owners over people
10/3/2015
John 3:16
92
The “Woman’s Question” in the
Enlightenment

Mary Wollstonecraft: Vindication of the Rights of
Women
The Enlightenment appealed to reason. If women
have reason, then they are entitled to the same rights
as men
 Women should have the same education, economic,
and political rights

10/3/2015
John 3:16
93
The Social Environment of the
Philosophes

Social background of
philosophes varied



Aristocratic to lower
middle class
Appeal of the
Enlightenment mostly
aristocracy
Common people not
effected much
10/3/2015
John 3:16
94
The Social Environment of the
Philosophes

Spread of ideas to literate
elite in European society


The publication of books
and treatise
Salons, elegant drawing
rooms of the wealthy,
brought philosophes and
other guests for witty and
enlightened conversations
Aristocratic woman
18th century
10/3/2015
John 3:16
95
The Social Environment of the
Philosophes

Hostesses of salons,
women found
themselves in a position
to sway political and
effect the decisions of
kings
Salon hostess, 18th century
10/3/2015
John 3:16
96
The Social Environment of the
Philosophes


The reputation of a salon was based on the
stature of the males attracted
Some complaints occurred that females exerted
undue influence on political affairs

10/3/2015
Exaggerated, but Salons declined during the French
Revolution
John 3:16
97
The Social Environment of the
Philosophes

The salons were
important in promoting
conversation and
Enlightenment thought
10/3/2015
John 3:16
98
The Social Environment of the
Philosophes


Coffeehouses, cafes, reading clubs, and public
lending libraries important in spreading ideas
Learned societies formed in Europe and
America
Select Society of Edinburgh, Scotland, and the
American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia
 Secret societies developed like the Freemasons
established in London in 1717

10/3/2015
John 3:16
99
Culture and Society in
the Enlightenment
The intellectual adventure fostered by the
philosophes was accompanied by both
traditional practices and important changes
in 18th century culture and society
10/3/2015
John 3:16
100
Innovations in Art, Music, and
Literature

Baroque and
Neoclassical styles gave
way to Rococo


Baroque and Neoclassical
emphasized majesty,
power, and movement
Rococo brought change
Rococo
10/3/2015
John 3:16
101
Innovations in Art, Music, and
Literature

Rococo, new style of
decoration and
architecture, entered
1730s


Emphasized grace and
gentle action
Followed wandering lines
of natural objects
(seashells and flowers)
Rococo
10/3/2015
John 3:16
102
Innovations in Art, Music, and
Literature

Rococo…




10/3/2015
Charm speaks to pleasure,
love, and life (secular)
Could be used with
Baroque
Baroque-Rococo
architecture was popular
style of 18th century
Gold, delicate contours,
graceful curves
John 3:16
103
Innovations in Art, Music, and
Literature

Balthasar Neumann, one of greatest architects of
the 18th century. Known for two masterpieces
Pilgrimmage church of the Viezehnheiligen,
Germany (see text)
 Bishop’s palace, known as the Residenz of
Wurzburg
 Light, bright colors; elaborate and rich detail
 Mix of secular and spiritual

10/3/2015
John 3:16
104
Innovations in Art, Music, and
Literature (cont)


Neoclassicism continued to make strong appeal
in 18th century France
Simplicity, dignity, and classical style of ancient
Greece
10/3/2015
John 3:16
105
Innovations in Art, Music, and
Literature

Jacques-Louis David, re-created a scene from
Roman history

Oath of the Horatii

Horatius brothers swore an oath before their father,
proclaiming their willingness to sacrifice their lives
for their country (see text)
10/3/2015
John 3:16
106
The Development of Music


The 17th and 18th centuries saw the rise of the
opera, oratorio, sonata, concerto, and symphony
Italians were the first to develop above formats


Germans, Austrians, and English followed
Most musicians depended on a patron—perhaps
a prince who would offer a court and financial
support

10/3/2015
Helped make Italy and Germany music leaders
John 3:16
107
The Development of Music

Bach and Handel—1600-1750 timeframe
Composers, seen as geniuses
 Baroque music style


Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
Came from family of musicians
 Became director of church music at the Church of
Saint Thomas in Leipzig
 Composed his Mass in B Minor

10/3/2015
John 3:16
108
The Development of Music

Bach
One of the greatest composers of all time
 Music was a worship of God



“…well ordered music in the honor of God”
George Frederick Handel (1685-1759)
Born in Germany the same year as Bach
 Stormy international life and secular in temperament
 Moved to England attempting most of his life to run
an opera company

10/3/2015
John 3:16
109
The Development of Music

Handel

Wrote for large audiences, writing some huge,
unusual sounding pieces
Band for his fireworks music was to be accompanied by
101 canon
 Wrote 40 operas, and more


Best known for his religious music

Messiah called “one of those rare works that appealed
immediately to everyone, and yet…a masterpiece of the
highest order”
10/3/2015
John 3:16
110
The Development of Music

Orchestra music not until second half of 18th
century
New instruments like the piano appeared
 Classical Era, new musical period, (1750-1830)
 Representing this new the orchestra music era are
Haydn and Mozart


10/3/2015
Their renown caused the musical center of Europe to
shift from Italy and Germany to the Austrian Empire
John 3:16
111
The Development of Music

Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
Spent most of adult life as musical director for
wealthy Hungarian princes, the Esterhazy brothers
 Composed 104 symphonies, plus numerous string
quartets, concerti, songs, oratorios, and Masses
 Trip to England introduced him to writing for public
concerts rather than princes


10/3/2015
Wrote two oratorios, The Creation and The Seasons,
both dedicated to the common people
John 3:16
112
The Development of Music

Wolfgang Amadeus
Mozart (1756-1791)


Child prodigy, started in
Salzburg
Gave first concert at age
6, wrote first opera at 12
Mozart, age 6
10/3/2015
John 3:16
113
The Development of Music

Mozart…


Moved to Vienna, unable
to find a permanent
patron which made his
life miserable
Wrote music prolifically
and passionately, but died
a debt-ridden pauper at
35
Mozart
10/3/2015
John 3:16
114
The Development of Music

Mozart

Carried tradition of Italian
comic opera to new
heights. Three of world’s
greatest operas




10/3/2015
The Marriage of Figaro
The Magic Flute
Don Giovanni
Blended grace, precision,
and emotion, arguably, no
one has excelled
John 3:16
Mozart
115
The Development of the Novel




The novel grew out of the medieval romances
and 16th century stories
English credited with establishing the novel as
main vehicle for fiction writing
Proved attractive to women readers and writers
Samuel Richardson, printer, started writing at 50
First novel, Pamela: or, Virtue Rewarded
 Appealed to sensibilities

10/3/2015
John 3:16
116
The Development of the Novel


Henry Fielding (1707-1754)
Wrote novels abut people without scruples who
survived with their wits

The History of Tom Jones, A Foundling, was his
best
 Emphasized action rather than inner feeling
 However, he did attack the hypocrisy of his age
10/3/2015
John 3:16
117
The Writing of History

Philosophes created
revolution in history
writing



Secular orientation
Eliminated role of God in
history
Could focus on events
Voltaire
10/3/2015
John 3:16
118
The Writing of History

History writing…
for causal relationships in natural world
 Broadened the scope from just politics to economic,
social, intellectual, and cultural developments
 The Age of Louis XIV by Voltaire was written not just
to depict his life, but to depict the “…spirit of men
in the most enlightened age the world has ever seen”
 Voltaire initiated the modern ideal of social history

10/3/2015
John 3:16
119
The Writing of History


Voltaire, as much as anyone, initiated the
“modern ideal of social history”
Weakness of philosophes stemmed from their
preoccupations as philosophes
Sought to instruct as well as entertain
 Goal was to help civilize their age
 History could play a role by revealing its lessons
according to their vision

10/3/2015
John 3:16
120
The Writing of History

Philosophes writing history (cont)
Emphasized reason and science
 Disliked Christianity, making them less sympathetic
to the Middle Ages

10/3/2015
John 3:16
121
The Writing of History

Philosophes writing
history…

Decline and Fall of the
Roman Empire, by
Edward Gibbon


Portrayed the growth of
Christianity as a major
reason for Rome’s eventual
collapse
Also thought the decline
had many causes
Edward Gibbon
10/3/2015
John 3:16
122
The High Culture of the Eighteenth
Century

High Culture, by 18th century
Literally and artistic world of educated and wealthy
 Latin as language
 Theologians, scientists, philosophes, poets, etc.
 Supported by wealthy and literate lay group, mostly
landed aristocracy and rich upper classed in cities


Popular Culture

10/3/2015
Written and unwritten lore of the masses, most
passed down orally
John 3:16
123
The High Culture of the Eighteenth
Century



Expansion of reading public and publishing
Authors making money, less dependent on
patrons
Development of magazines, Great Britain
leading the way
Twenty five published in 1700, 158 in 1780
 Best known, Spectator, by Joseph Addison and
Richard Steele, started in 1711

10/3/2015
John 3:16
124
The High Culture of the Eighteenth
Century

The Female Spectator featured articles by

female writers
Newspapers began to appear
First newspaper printed on London in 1702
 By 1780, 37 other towns had newspapers
 Cheap and provided free in coffeehouses


Books circulated more widely

10/3/2015
Public libraries and private circulating libraries
John 3:16
125
Education and Universities

Large number of privately endowed secondary
schools by 18th century
Tended to be elitist, meeting needs of upper class
 Perpetuated class hierarchy instead of social mobility

10/3/2015
John 3:16
126
Education and Universities

Privately endowed secondary schools…

Philosophes reinforced idea to keep people in their
original social class

10/3/2015
“Education should teach princes to reign, the ruling
classes to distinguish themselves by their merit and virtue,
the rich to use their riches well, the poor to live by honest
industry”…Baron d’Holbach
John 3:16
127
Education and Universities

Privately owned secondary schools…
Still largely concentrated on Greek and Latin classics
 Not much mathematics, science, or modern
languages

10/3/2015
John 3:16
128
Education and Universities

Complaints by
philosophe-reformers led
to attempt at more
practical curriculums—
most common
complaints


10/3/2015
Too much emphasis on
classics and Aristotelian
philosophy
No training in sciences
and modern languages
John 3:16
129
Education and Universities



In Germany, the Realschule opened 1747 and
offered modern languages, geography, and
bookkeeping to prepare boys for business
New schools also opened for women, but
emphasized religions and domestic skills
Few scientific discoveries of 18th century
occurred in universities
10/3/2015
John 3:16
130
Crime and Punishment





Most European countries had hierarchy of
courts
Judicial torture was important means of
obtaining evidence for trial
Punishments were cruel and spectacular
Nobles executed by simple beheading
Lower class criminals tortured—broken at the
wheel, drawn and quartered, etc.
10/3/2015
John 3:16
131
Crime and Punishment


Public executions seen as necessary for
deterrence
Death penalty was commonly used—more than
200 crimes earned the death penalty
10/3/2015
John 3:16
132
Crime and Punishment


There was forced labor in mines, forts, and
navies
Sent criminals as indentured servants to colonies
10/3/2015
John 3:16
133
Crime and Punishment

Italian philosophe, Cesare Beccaria, wrote, On
Crimes and Punishments
Punishments should only serve as deterrent, not
brutality
 Against capital punishment


By end of 18th century, prisons replaced much of
capital punishment actions
10/3/2015
John 3:16
134
The World of Medicine


University medical education conducted in Latin
and based on Galen medicine even to 17th and
18th centuries. Based hierarchy of positions
Graduate with doctorate in medicine needed for
license to hold regular patient consultations
10/3/2015
John 3:16
135
The World on Medicine

Below physicians were surgeons whose main
jobs were to bleed patients and perform surgery
Surgery often done without painkillers and under
filthy conditions
 Bleeding believed to combat variety of illnesses

10/3/2015
John 3:16
136
The World of Medicine


In 1740s, surgeons began to separate themselves
from the barbers and organize into guilds
Surgeons underwent more training in anatomy
Began to be licensed
 Began to see patients

10/3/2015
John 3:16
137
The World of Medicine


Apothecaries, midwives, and faith healers served
the common people
Hospitals were filthy and often people would
leave with diseases they didn’t have when they
went in
10/3/2015
John 3:16
138
Popular Culture


Social activities and other pursuits common to
lives of most people
Festivals—a variety of celebrations
Christmas and Easter
 Carnivals
 People ate, drank, and celebrated to excess

10/3/2015
John 3:16
139
Carnival


Celebrated the weeks leading up to Lent
Time of great indulgence
Lots of food
 Offensive songs
 Verbal and physical aggression through insults and
pelting with eggs, apples, flour, etc.
 Criticism of superiors OK

10/3/2015
John 3:16
140
Taverns and Alcohol



People also gathered in taverns and cabarets
Social gatherings in neighborhoods
Cheap alcoholic beverages led to physical and monetary
problems for average people


The rich drank different beverages such as port or brandy
causing fewer physical problems
The differences in drinking habits and the abandoning
of festivals by the rich was symbolic of abandoning the
popular world view as well
10/3/2015
John 3:16
141
Taverns and Alcohol

Abandoning the world view

10/3/2015
Upper classes now viewed such things as witchcraft,
faith healing, fortune telling, and prophesy as the
beliefs, “such are of the weakest judgment and
reason, as women, children, and ignorant and
superstitious persons.”
John 3:16
142
Literacy and Primary Education

Pop culture not entirely oral

Chapbooks were short brochures sold by peddlers to
lower classes containing spiritual and secular material
Lives of saints, adventure stories, etc.
 Promoted literacy


While the wealthy and middle class artisans grew
in literacy, women and peasants remained largely
illiterate
10/3/2015
John 3:16
143
Literacy and Primary Education



Protestant reformation and bible reading led to
more interest in literacy
Some states, Germany, Swiss, Scotland, etc.,
made an effort toward mass education
Efforts to teach the lower classes was often
thwarted by the upper class because they feared
educating the lower classes would lead to
rebellion

10/3/2015
Teaching hard work and loyalty to superiors was
seen as paramount
John 3:16
144
Literacy and Primary Education

Hannah More, English writer, set up a network
of Sunday schools, explains her philosophy

10/3/2015
“They learn on weekdays such coarse work as may
befit them for servants. I allow of no writing for the
poor. My object is to train up the lower classes in
habits of industry and piety.”
John 3:16
145
Religion and the
Churches
Life was becoming secularized and men of reason
attacked the churches. Yet much of the art and
music was religious. Most Europeans were
Christian. Accepted by most church critics was that
society could not function without faith
10/3/2015
John 3:16
146
The Institutional Church

Churches of 18th century upheld society’s
hierarchical structure
No dramatic internal changes
 Church, run by priest or pastor, was center of
religious practice
 Kept records of births, deaths, and marriages
 Provided charity for the poor
 Supervised primary education
 Cared for orphans

10/3/2015
John 3:16
147
Church-State Relations


Protestant Reformation established state control
over the churches
Protestant state churches flourished throughout
Europe in 18th century
 Scandinavia, north German states, England,
Scotland, etc.
10/3/2015
John 3:16
148
Church-State Relations

Catholic church still exercised much control by
1700. Church had enormous wealth
 In Spain, 3000 monastic institutions housing
100,000 men and women controlled
enormous land estates
 Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Hapsburg
empire, Poland, and southern Germany
10/3/2015
John 3:16
149
Church-State Relations

Catholic church remained on top of the
hierarchy structure
Bishops, archbishops, abbots, and abbesses were
members of the upper classes
 Received revenues from landed estates and faithful
tithes
 Wide gulf between upper and lower clergy


10/3/2015
Bishop of Strasburg received 100,000 livres a year, parish
priests paid 500
John 3:16
150
Church-State Relations

States sought to control (nationalize) the
Catholic churches
Meant controlling the papacy and Society of Jesus
 Jesuits had created special enclaves within states and
French, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies

Much political influence
 Created many enemies
 Spain and France demanded the Society be dissolved and
Pope Clement XIV complied

10/3/2015
John 3:16
151
Church-State Relations


Jesuits had acquired much success and power
Monarchs distrust Jesuits
Portugal, Spain, France expelled the Jesuits
 Spain and France asked Pope Clement XIV to
dissolve the Jesuits—he reluctantly did

10/3/2015
John 3:16
152
Church-State Relations



The termination of the Jesuits paralleled the
decline in papal power
Mid-eighteenth century, papacy played only
minor role in diplomacy and international affairs
The papacy could no longer appoint high clerical
officials
10/3/2015
John 3:16
153
Toleration and Religious Minorities


Philosophes had called for religious toleration
Many rulers still found toleration difficult to
accept
Louis XIV had suppressed the rights of Huguenots
 It was seen as true duty of ruler not to allow subjects
to be condemned to hell by being heretics
 Persecution continued and the last burning of
heretics took place 1781

10/3/2015
John 3:16
154
Toleration and Religious Minorities

Some progress made toward religious toleration
through Joseph II of Austria
Toleration Patent of 1781
 Granted Lutherans, Calvinists, and Greek Orthodox
the right to worship privately
 In all ways, all subjects were now equal

10/3/2015
John 3:16
155
Toleration and the Jews



Jews were the most despised religious minority
of Europe
Largest number called Ashkenazic Jews
Except for Poland, they were restricted in their
movements, forbidden to own land or hold
many jobs, forced to pay special taxes, and
subject to outbursts of popular wrath
10/3/2015
John 3:16
156
Toleration of the Jews

Pogroms were actions
that saw looting of
Jewish communities and
the massacre Jews
10/3/2015
John 3:16
157
Toleration of the Jews

Sephardic Jews were another major group
Lived in Amsterdam, Venice, London, Frankfurt,
etc., relatively free to practice banking and
commercial activities, which they had done since the
Middle Ages
 Provided valuable services to courts

10/3/2015
John 3:16
158
Toleration of the Jews

Treatment of Jews…
 They were still set apart and socially resented
 Many philosophes denounced persecution of
Jews
 Many Europeans favored assimilation of Jews
but only if they converted to Christianity—
not acceptable to most Jews
10/3/2015
John 3:16
159
Toleration of the Jews

Austrian emperor Joseph II tried new policy
Too limited
 Freed the Jews from nuisance taxes
 Allowed more freedom of movement and jobs
 Restricted from owning land
 Could not worship in public
 Encouraged them to learn German
 Encouraged greater assimilation into German society

10/3/2015
John 3:16
160
Popular Religion in the
Eighteenth Century
Despite the rise of skepticism and the
intellectuals’ belief in deism and natural
religion, religious devotion remained strong
in the 18th century
10/3/2015
John 3:16
161
Catholic Piety

European Catholic religiosity difficult to assess
Parish was important center for community
 Hard to establish regular attendance figures
 Ninety-plus percent attended Mass on Easter Sunday

10/3/2015
John 3:16
162
Catholic Piety

Catholic piety…
Much externalized form of worship, e.g., prayers to
saints, pilgrimages, and devotion to relics and images
 Parishioners “more superstitious than devout”
 Feared witches and prayed to Virgin Mary to save
them from personal disasters caused by the devil

10/3/2015
John 3:16
163
Protestant Revivalism: Pietism


Protestant state-run churches established good
patterns and served by well-educated clergy
Bureaucratic and bereft of religious enthusiasm

In Germany and England, where there was more
“rational” Christianity, ordinary Protestants wanted a
deeper religious experience leading to new religious
movements

10/3/2015
Pietism was one response to rationalism
John 3:16
164
Protestant Revivalism: Pietism

Pietism
Begun in 17th century by German clerics
 Spread by teachings of Count Nikolaus von
Zinzwndorf and his Moravian Brethren (sect)
 “Personal experience of God”—true religious
experience
 Zinzedorf: “He who wishes to comprehend God
with his mind becomes an atheist”

10/3/2015
John 3:16
165
Protestant Revivalism: Pietism (cont)




Protestant churches offered little excitement in
England as well
Anglican church offered little excitement
Dissenting Protestants—Puritans, Quakers,
Baptists, were relatively subdued
Deeper spiritual experience gone unmet until
John Wesley
10/3/2015
John 3:16
166
Wesley and Methodism

John Wesley, ordained Anglican minister (17031791)
Experienced deep spiritual, mystical experience
 “…an assurance was given me, that He had taken
away my sins…saved me from the law of sin and
death”
 “The gift of God’s grace” assured him of salvation
 Criticized by Anglican church as emotional
mysticism

10/3/2015
John 3:16
167
Wesley and Methodism

To Wesley, all could be
saved by experiencing
God and opening the
doors to His grace
John Wesley
10/3/2015
John 3:16
168
Wesley and Methodism

Wesley…



Spoke to masses in open
fields
Concentrated on lower
classes neglected by elitist
Anglicans
Charismatic preaching
fostered highly-charged
conversion experiences
John Wesley
10/3/2015
John 3:16
169
Wesley and Methodism

Wesley…
 Converts organized into Methodist societies
for good works
 Became separate religious sect after Wesley’s
death despite his preference to keep
Methodism within Anglican church
 Proved need for spiritualism not expunged by
search for reason
10/3/2015
John 3:16
170
Conclusion

The 18th century was about change and, to some
degree, tradition
Influenced by Scientific Revolution and particularly
ideas of Locke and Newton
 Philosophes hoped they could create new society
through natural laws, like laws of science
 Believed education could produce better human
beings and better society

10/3/2015
John 3:16
171
Conclusion


Attacking traditional religion and creating the
“new science of man” in economics, politics,
justice, and education, the philosophes laid the
foundation for a modern worldview based on
rationalism and secularism
Despite secular thought, most people still lived
in God, religious worship, and farming.
10/3/2015
John 3:16
172
Conclusion


The most brilliant architecture and music of the
age were religious
Yet, secular changes were underway and would
lead to both political and social upheavals before
century’s end
10/3/2015
John 3:16
173
Descargar

The Eighteenth Century: An Age of Enlightenment