No Brief Response
• Hobbes vs Locke, instead.
• Who is more democratic?
• Locke: the people make the government,
give it permission. If government does not
do what they want, they have the right to
change it.
Enlightenment Ideas Spread
p. 60
How did it the C
Enlightenment spread?
• Having or sharing Enlightenment ideas could get
one arrested
• The Enlightenment was difficult for most people
to understand
– Most were illiterate
– But most were suffering under unfair or uncaring
governments and ready for change.
• It is important to see how people of many
classes learned the ideas and used them to try
to reform their societies
Getting the New Ideas Across C
• How were the Philosophes’ writings passed across
Europe? EC (7 venues)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Books
Plays
Pamphlets
Salons
Music
Popular songs
Visual Art
• They were produced in many languages and spread
where ever literate people desired the new knowledge
about just government and social reform.
Protecting the Old Order
• Censorship:
• controlling or banning messages that
criticize or let out secrets or are indecent.
• Monarchist governments and the Church
were nervous about the ideas of
enlightenment writers becoming popular.
– Books were banned
– writers imprisoned.
Upper Class and
Bourgeoisie Learn
• Salon:
• the gathering room of a wealthy person’s home.
• Parties for nobles and business people
interested in meeting Enlightenment writers and
thinkers were held in them.
– Informal meetings make it easier for different classes
to mix and feel free to talk.
• Paris’ Madame Geoffrin,
– one of the most well-known hosts.
– EC: Her noted guests included (2)….
» Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who performed his music
» Denis Diderot, who attended weekly.
The Arts Reflect
Enlightened Thinking
• Baroque:
• a heavy, grandiose, Greco-Roman based
art/architecture/design style used by the
Church and the Rich in the 17th and 18th
centuries.
• Featured massive, active, colorful
applications.
• It was inspired by Louis XIV’s expensive
and excessive taste.
Baroque
Battle of the Amazons. Rubens, 1618
Rococo
• Art style following baroque.
• Some, like King Louis XV, its main patron,
wanted things “lighter”, and less grandiose.
• Featured less religion,
• Stressed elegance and charm.
–
–
–
–
–
–
Delicate shells
Pastel colors
Flowers
Nobles and their families
Charming rural settings
Happy people and pets
Rococo
The Marsham Children.
Thomas Gainsborough, 1787
An Absolute Monarch’s
Absolute Monarch C
• France’ Louis XIV was the most visible
model of an absolute monarch.
• He was the model for all other monarchs
in Europe (especially England’s Stuarts).
– His luxurious lifestyle and expensive wars
caused great debts in France.
– Nobody told him he could not spend money
– At the same time, France supported the arts
and sciences.
Enlightened Despot: C
• A monarch who in a small or big way
appreciated and tried to use ideas of the
Enlightenment in his/her rule.
• They figured change was coming and a
smart ruler should lead it.
• The most noted are: EC (3)
– Frederick the Great of Prussia
– Catherine the Great of Russia
– Joseph II of Austria
Frederick the Great (Prussia): C
• King of Prussia (eastern German state)
• In the enlightened spirit, he called himself
“first servant of the state”.
– He made the “common good” his goal.
– He was an ardent fan of Voltaire,
– allowed free press,
– reorganized the civil service (government
employees),
– allowed religious freedom,
– reduced torture.
Catherine the Great (Russia): C
• Tsarina (Empress) of Russia
• A fan of Voltaire and Diderot.
– Liked ideas of equality and liberty.
– Abolished torture,
– allowed religious freedom,
– criticized serfdom, but did not end it.
Joseph II (Austria): C
• Emperor of Austria
• travelled his country to see how the ordinary
people lived.
• Supported religious freedom for Jews and
Protestants.
• Ended censorship of the press.
• Attempted to control Church power (taking
property the Church did not use for education and
health).
• Abolished serfdom.
As for the peasants, they had little idea of what the
Enlightenment was teaching EC (4) C
• Most were Illiterate
• Few could afford to buy books
• Many lived far away from cities where the
Enlightenment was happening.
• Peasants did not like change and lived
their traditional lives
Homework, Notes
• Go to next unit…..
Standards Check, p. 61
•
•
•
•
•
Question:
Censorship
Burning books
Imprisoning writers
Restricting access to information
p. 61, Satire by Swift
• Question:
• They wanted to avoid censorship, so they
disguised their ideas in fiction
Standards Check, p. 63
• Question:
• Art and music became more elegant and
charming
– Baroque: Johann S. Bach
– Classical: Wolfgang A. Mozart
• Performances were more affordable for
the middle class
• Many novels were published
Thinking Critically, p. 63
•
•
•
•
1
Life was refined and elegant
2
Philosophes thought the rococo style was
superficial
– Too much decoration not much function
Map Skills, p. 64
•
•
•
•
2
Catherine the Great
3
Parts of central and eastern Europe
Standards Check, p. 65
• Question:
• They wanted reform and tried to persuade
European monarchs to accept their ideas.
– The monarchs had the power to make such
reforms
Standards Check, p. 65
• Question:
• Changes were occurring in the court in the
capital city
• Most Europeans were uneducated
peasants.
– Lived in remote villages
– Educated city culture was foreign
Brief Response
p. 66, Thinking Critically
• 1.
• 2.
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Enlightenment Ideas Spread