No Brief Response • Hobbes vs Locke, instead. • Who is more democratic? • Locke: the people make the government, give it permission. If government does not do what they want, they have the right to change it. Enlightenment Ideas Spread p. 60 How did it the C Enlightenment spread? • Having or sharing Enlightenment ideas could get one arrested • The Enlightenment was difficult for most people to understand – Most were illiterate – But most were suffering under unfair or uncaring governments and ready for change. • It is important to see how people of many classes learned the ideas and used them to try to reform their societies Getting the New Ideas Across C • How were the Philosophes’ writings passed across Europe? EC (7 venues) – – – – – – – Books Plays Pamphlets Salons Music Popular songs Visual Art • They were produced in many languages and spread where ever literate people desired the new knowledge about just government and social reform. Protecting the Old Order • Censorship: • controlling or banning messages that criticize or let out secrets or are indecent. • Monarchist governments and the Church were nervous about the ideas of enlightenment writers becoming popular. – Books were banned – writers imprisoned. Upper Class and Bourgeoisie Learn • Salon: • the gathering room of a wealthy person’s home. • Parties for nobles and business people interested in meeting Enlightenment writers and thinkers were held in them. – Informal meetings make it easier for different classes to mix and feel free to talk. • Paris’ Madame Geoffrin, – one of the most well-known hosts. – EC: Her noted guests included (2)…. » Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who performed his music » Denis Diderot, who attended weekly. The Arts Reflect Enlightened Thinking • Baroque: • a heavy, grandiose, Greco-Roman based art/architecture/design style used by the Church and the Rich in the 17th and 18th centuries. • Featured massive, active, colorful applications. • It was inspired by Louis XIV’s expensive and excessive taste. Baroque Battle of the Amazons. Rubens, 1618 Rococo • Art style following baroque. • Some, like King Louis XV, its main patron, wanted things “lighter”, and less grandiose. • Featured less religion, • Stressed elegance and charm. – – – – – – Delicate shells Pastel colors Flowers Nobles and their families Charming rural settings Happy people and pets Rococo The Marsham Children. Thomas Gainsborough, 1787 An Absolute Monarch’s Absolute Monarch C • France’ Louis XIV was the most visible model of an absolute monarch. • He was the model for all other monarchs in Europe (especially England’s Stuarts). – His luxurious lifestyle and expensive wars caused great debts in France. – Nobody told him he could not spend money – At the same time, France supported the arts and sciences. Enlightened Despot: C • A monarch who in a small or big way appreciated and tried to use ideas of the Enlightenment in his/her rule. • They figured change was coming and a smart ruler should lead it. • The most noted are: EC (3) – Frederick the Great of Prussia – Catherine the Great of Russia – Joseph II of Austria Frederick the Great (Prussia): C • King of Prussia (eastern German state) • In the enlightened spirit, he called himself “first servant of the state”. – He made the “common good” his goal. – He was an ardent fan of Voltaire, – allowed free press, – reorganized the civil service (government employees), – allowed religious freedom, – reduced torture. Catherine the Great (Russia): C • Tsarina (Empress) of Russia • A fan of Voltaire and Diderot. – Liked ideas of equality and liberty. – Abolished torture, – allowed religious freedom, – criticized serfdom, but did not end it. Joseph II (Austria): C • Emperor of Austria • travelled his country to see how the ordinary people lived. • Supported religious freedom for Jews and Protestants. • Ended censorship of the press. • Attempted to control Church power (taking property the Church did not use for education and health). • Abolished serfdom. As for the peasants, they had little idea of what the Enlightenment was teaching EC (4) C • Most were Illiterate • Few could afford to buy books • Many lived far away from cities where the Enlightenment was happening. • Peasants did not like change and lived their traditional lives Homework, Notes • Go to next unit….. Standards Check, p. 61 • • • • • Question: Censorship Burning books Imprisoning writers Restricting access to information p. 61, Satire by Swift • Question: • They wanted to avoid censorship, so they disguised their ideas in fiction Standards Check, p. 63 • Question: • Art and music became more elegant and charming – Baroque: Johann S. Bach – Classical: Wolfgang A. Mozart • Performances were more affordable for the middle class • Many novels were published Thinking Critically, p. 63 • • • • 1 Life was refined and elegant 2 Philosophes thought the rococo style was superficial – Too much decoration not much function Map Skills, p. 64 • • • • 2 Catherine the Great 3 Parts of central and eastern Europe Standards Check, p. 65 • Question: • They wanted reform and tried to persuade European monarchs to accept their ideas. – The monarchs had the power to make such reforms Standards Check, p. 65 • Question: • Changes were occurring in the court in the capital city • Most Europeans were uneducated peasants. – Lived in remote villages – Educated city culture was foreign Brief Response p. 66, Thinking Critically • 1. • 2.