URBANIZATION
1775 /1800 : 10% of Americans lived in the city
1900: 40% lived in the city.
1920: 50% of Americans lived in the city.
Today: 75% live in the city.
I CAN EXPLAIN URBANIZATION AND HOW IT AFFECTED AMERICA IN THE 1800S
By 1990 New York was the 2nd biggest city in
the world! – a population of 3.5 Million People
I CAN EXPLAIN URBANIZATION AND HOW IT AFFECTED AMERICA IN THE 1800S
- In cities most people walked. Mass transit becoming possible though
- The “Elevator” was a new form of transportation.
-The “skyscraper” was made possible because of the elevator.
I CAN SUMMARIZE THE IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON THE CITY
Louis Sullivan
•
-Famous American
architect in the late
1800’s.
His motto was …….-“Form
should follow function!”
I CAN SUMMARIZE THE IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON THE CITY
1. Electricity
2. Indoor Plumbing
3. Telephone
I CAN LIST THE ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES OF LIVING IN THE CITY
Aaron Montgomery
Ward
Came Up With The First Mail
Order Catalogue
Sears & Roebuck was the
next mail order catalogue.
I CAN LIST THE ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES OF LIVING IN THE CITY
Problems with
the city:
1. Impure Water
2. Uncollected Garbage
3. Unwashed Bodies
4. Animal Droppings
5. Poor lighting
6. Crime
I CAN LIST THE ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES OF LIVING IN THE CITY
“Dumbbell” Tenement:
•1879
• 7 or 8 stories high
• Minimum ventilation.
• Designed to make
buildings fit as many people
as possible.
“Lung Block”
-Tuberculosis (TB) / Consumption
-Terrible contagious diseases
I CAN DEFINE AND DESCRIBE A “DUMBBELL TENEMENT”
Sleep
tight…don’t let
the bed bugs
bite!
“Flophouses” were cheap places where you could
“flop down” and sleep for a few pennies.
I CAN DEFINE AND DESCRIBE A “DUMBBELL TENEMENT”
1880’s – 1890’s
Came from Southern Europe & Asia
Review
the “OLD”
The “New Immigrants” had different
languages, customs, traditions,
religions. They dressed, talked,
looked and worshiped differently!
They did not assimilate well!
“Little Poland”
“Little Italy”
“Little Chinatown”
I CAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST OLD AND NEW IMMIGRATION
“Birds of Passage”
Were Immigrants who earned a
living in the United States & then
moved back to their former country.
They never intended to stay.
“American Fever”
“American Letters”
I CAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST OLD AND NEW IMMIGRATION
The ”Social Gospel”
Washington Gladden
was the concept that
religious, moral individuals
should get involved and try
to solve the problems in
society.
The two main Leaders of
the “Social Gospel” were
Walter Rausenbauch
and
Washington Gladden
I CAN DESCRIBE THE SOCIAL GOSPEL AND ITS LEADERS
1)
Jane Addams -started most famous
settlement home. It was called the
House
Hull
-started in 1889 Chicago, IL. She
even won the Nobel Peace Prize.
2)
Lillian Ward -started Henry St.
Settlement House in 1893. It was
located in New York City, New York.
3)
Florence Kelly -dressed in black, fought for
welfare of blacks and women.
I CAN DESCRIBE THE LEADERS OF THE SETTLEMENT HOUSE MOVEMENT
APA
American Protective
Association
-started against
immigrants from
the “New
Immigration” in the
1880’s-1890’s.
-Labor Unions did not
like immigration
because immigrants
could be hired as strike
breakers or scabs.
I CAN SUMMARIZE REACTIONS TO NEW IMMIGRATION
The Salvation
Army was
started in
England, but
moved to
America.
I CAN DESCRIBE THE EFFORTS OF CHURCHES TO DEAL WITH CITY PROBLEMS
Christian Science (1879)-founded by
Mary Baker Eddy
Science & Health w/ Key to the
Scriptures
“We Classify disease as error, which nothing but truth or
mind can heal, & this mind can heal, & this mind must be
divine, not human.”
-Mary Baker Eddy
I CAN DESCRIBE THE EFFORTS OF CHURCHES TO DEAL WITH CITY PROBLEMS
Young Men & Women’s
Christian Associationstarted in 1889!
I CAN DESCRIBE THE EFFORTS OF CHURCHES TO DEAL WITH CITY PROBLEMS
Religious people who stood
firmly on the fixtures that the
bible and God are supreme
were called “Conservatives” &
“Fundamentalist”
People who refused to believe
the bible & its entirety as
history or science were
“liberals” or “Modernist”
I CAN DESCRIBE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FUNDAMENTALISTS AND MODERNISTS
Teacher-training schools!
I CAN SUMMARIZE CHANGES IN EDUCATION IN THE 1800S
The “lyceum” was
the way adults could
become educated.
before the civil war
in the “Antebellum”
period.
Featured speakers
that would give
lectures to the
public. Ex. Ralph
Waldo Emerson
C
I
V
IL
W
A
R
The “Chautauqua
movement”
Replace the “lyceum”
as the way that adults
educated themselves
AFTER the Civil War.
Features lectures like
Mark Twain.
Also included a home
study course.
I CAN SUMMARIZE CHANGES IN EDUCATION IN THE 1800S
Booker T. Washington
•1881- started Tuskegee Institute
•Taught academics & a trade
•Autobiography Up From Slavery
•Admired by blacks & whites
•Economic equality will lead to full
political and social equality.
• He was deeply criticized by W.E.B. De
Bois. He called him an “Uncle Tom”
Famous speech was
”The Atlanta
Compromise”
-”In all things that are purely social, we
must be as separate as the fingers, yet
one as the hand in all things essential to
human progress”
I CAN IDENTIFY AND DESCRIBE THE TEACHINGS OF BOOKER T. WASHINGTON
*Became a teacher at
Tuskegee Institute
*Boosted the southern
economy by discovering
hundreds of uses for
peanuts, sweet potatoes, &
soybeans.
I CAN DESCRIBE THE WORK OF GEORGE WASHINGTON CARVER
• First black person to get a doctorate degree from Harvard
• Help found the NAACP in 1910. (National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People
• Fought for complete black equality now!
• Critical of Booker T. Washington
• Believed in the “Talented Tenth” of each race.
• Renounced American Citizenship-embraced communism…in selfexile
I CAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE VIEWS OF BOOKER T. WASHINGTON AND
In 1900 25 percent (25%) of
college graduates were women.
This was very significant for the
advancement of women's
rights.
I CAN DESCRIBE THE EMERGENCE OF THE COLLEGE EDUCATION MOVEMENT
Morrill Act-1862 -provided
land to the states for land- grant
colleges.
Hatch Act-1887 -gave more land to
colleges if they started agricultural
experimentation stations
I CAN IDENTIFY TWO PIECES OF LEGISLATION DESIGNED TO CREATE COLLEGES
The First high-grade graduate
school!
I CAN DESCRIBE THE EMERGENCE OF THE COLLEGE EDUCATION MOVEMENT
Louis Pasteur -came up
with “Pasteurization”
which made some food
products safer for
consumption.
Joseph Lister -antiseptics
Yellow Journalism
A new kind of journalism in newspapers
and magazines. Featured sex, scandal,
and human interest stories. Ex. tabloids
The 3 major journalistic Tycoons:
• Joseph Pulitzer
• William Randolph Hearst
• Charles Dana
Pulitzer …. The
“Yellow Kid” was the
first comic strip added
to newspapers tp
stimulate sales.
CALIFORNIA
HOME
WILLIAM RANDOLPH HEARST
Where Mr. Byrd’s
house would sit!
Dime novels become extremely popular—fantasy stories of the
West common
Believed in “free love”
Goal was to get rid of
“immoral” materials
Urbanization: Impact on the
family
Was (and still is) hard on families.
Many cracked under the strain.
The “urban era” launched the era of divorce!
People had fewer kids.
Marriages were delayed.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman Women and Economics
She rejected that biology made women
fundamentally different.
Urged women to use day-care and go out and get
a job.
Distant
relation to
Beechers
She shunned feminine frills
and advocated physical
exercise.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony
Helped found the N.A.W.S.A.
1890
(National American Women’s Suffrage
Association)
BY 1900 there were two
new leaders of the
women’s right movement:
Carrie Chapman
Catt
Carrie Chapman Catt
Alice Paul
Alice Paul
Wyoming
was the first state to give
women right to vote in 1869.
The “Equality
State”
19th amendment passed in…1920
James Whistler
“Whistler’s Mother”
Winslow Homer “Civil war
& seascapes”
Frederick Remington “Old West /Sp-Am”
George Inness
Thomas Eakins
John Singer Sargent
The Buffalo Hunt
On the Southern Plains
Frederic Remington’s artwork
The Trooper
The Smoke Signal
The modern “circus” popularized in the late 1800’s by
P.T Barnum ( “The Greatest Show on Earth!”)
“There’s a sucker is born every minute!”?
Today: Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey’s Circus
What’s “a Annie
Oakley” today?
Three sports in order of invention:
Baseball
Football
***Basketball
James Naismith:
inventor of the game
of basketball
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