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Most important Geographers/Theories
Be able to match the person to their theory/model
Be able to recognize/classify the theory/model
• Pop/Migration
• Boserup
Nature/Perspectives
• Malthus
Sauer
• Ravenstein
Ratzel
Koppen
• Thompson
• Zelinsky
THEORIES/CONCEPTS >
environmental determinism
Possiblism,
Climate classification system
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DEV/RESOURCES
Rostow
Wallerstein
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Theories/CONCEPTS >
Stages of eco growth,
world systems theory
•
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THEORIES/CONCEPTS >
Gravity model-migration push & pull
factors,
population & food supply issues
rural to urban migration,
Ties b/t population growth &
economic growth,
Demographic Transition
Culture > Language diffusion
(military vs agriculture…
• M. Gimbutas (p
• C. Renfrew (p )
Name the model or theory
• Koppen
• Climate classifications
Name the model or theory
• Norman Borlaug
• RIP, 2009 
• Green Revolution
Name the model or theory
• Esther Boserup
• Population and
economic growth
theory
Not the worry wart regarding population
Name the model or theory
• ERNST BURGESS
• CONCENTRIC ZONE
MODEL OF URBAN
GROWTH
Burgess and Urban = BURban
Name the model or theory
• CHRISTALLER
• CENTRAL PLACE
THEORY OF
URBAN/SERVICES
DEVELOPMENT
Name the model or theory
• HARRIS & ULLMAN
• MULTIPLE NUCLEI
MODEL OF URBAN
GROWTH
Multiple names = multiple nuclei
Name the model or theory
• HOMER HOYT
• SECTOR MODEL OF
URBAN GROWTH
Homer / sector
Name the model or theory
• Alfred Mahan
• Sea power theory of
political growth
Name the model or theory
• Thomas Malthus
• Theory of
overpopulation
Name the model or theory
• HALFORD
MAKINDER
• HEARTLAND
THEORY OF
POLITICAL POWER
MaKINDer is kind HEARTed
Name the model or theory
• PETER MULLER
• SUBURBANIZATION
+
TRANSPORTATION
ANALYSIS IN
URBAN REGIONS
Muller = Mules TRANSPORT
Name the model or theory
• FRIEDRICH RATZEL
• ORGANIC THEORY
OF STATE GROWTH
• + ENVIRONMENTAL
DETERMINISM Natural surroundings
A RAT is ORGANIC/alive
rule human action
RATs live in the environment
Name the model or theory
• Ernst Ravenstein
• Gravity model of
migration + Laws of
Migration
RAVENS fly/ MIGRATE
Name the model or theory
• Collin Renfrew
• Language diffusion by
agricultural means
CoLLin/Language…..
Name the model or theory
• Walter Rostow
• Stages of economic
growth/development
• Be able to name the
stages w/country
examples
RostOW = economic grOWth
Name the model or theory
• Carl Sauer
• Possibilism
• Humans can alter
their environment
??
Name the model or theory
• Nicholas Spykeman
• He who controls the
Rimland, controls the
world – political
systems theory
SPYKE the RIM
Name the model or theory
• Taylor and Lang
• World Cities Model
tAyLor / LAng
L.A. is a world city
Name the model or theory
• VON THUNEN
Not Burgess,
but look the same.
• AGRICULTURAL
ACTIVITIES IN AN
ISOLATED STATE
SURROUND A
MARKET ZONE
THAT IS CIRCULAR
Name the model or theory
• Immanuel Wallerstein
Wallerstein = World
• World Systems
Theory
Name the model or theory
• Alfred Weber
Cheap guy/theory
• Least Cost theory and
Industrial location
theory
Name the model or theory
• Warren Thompson
• Demographic Transition
•
Holds that slowing population growth is
attributable to
– improved economic production
–
•
and higher standards of living brought
about by changes in medicine,
education and sanitation.
Overcrowding is a reflection of
the Carrying Capacity and
not the numbers per unit area.
(Carrying Capacity is the # of
people an area can support on a
sustained basis given the
prevailing technology.)
Name the model or theory
• John Borchert
• Urbanization:
American Epochs
•
Five distinct periods in the history of
American urbanization. Each epoch is
characterized by the impact of a particular
transport technology on the creation and
differential rates of growth of American
cities.
Name the model or theory
• Joel Garreau
• Edge Cities/ Urbanization
Name the model or theory
• Harold Hotelling
• Industry –
– Locational
interdependence
– Ice cream/starbucks theory
Name the model or theory
• August Losch
• Industrialization –
– Profit
maximization
– ‘$$ make me happy’ guy
Most important Geographers/Theories
Be able to match the person to their theory/model
Be able to recognize/classify the theory/model
•
Political
Mahan
Spykman
Mackinder
Ratzel
Models/Theories/concepts
Sea power
Rimland theory
Heartland theory
Organic states
•
AGRICULTURE
Von Thunen
Borlaug
Boserup
Christaller
Renfrew
Models/theories
Agri in the isolated state
Green Revolution
Centers of Agri and diffusion of culture/language
•
INDUSTRIALIZATION/ECO DEVELOPMENT
Weber
Rostow
Wallerstein
Thompson
Borlaug (as related to development)
Theories/CONCEPTS >
Stages of eco growth,
world systems theory
Demographic Transition
Least cost theory
Green Revolution – links to development
•
CITIES AND URBAN LAND USE
Borchert, Burgess, Harris/Ullman
Hotelling, Losch, Garreau, Christaller
Hoyt, Muller
THEORIES/CONCEPTS
Concentric Zones
Multiple Nuclei
Central Place Theory
Sector Model
Suburbanization
• Anatolian Hearth
theory
• Correlation b/t source
areas of 3 agricultural
centers and 3 major
languages
Turkey/agriculture/food/language
• Central Place Theory
• Spatial distribution of
cities/service centers
is a hexagon w/CP in
the middle
Chrystals…
• Core-Periphery model
• World systems
• Places/regions can’t
develop equally,
somebody has to be
poor!
• Demographic
Transition Model
• Birth and mortality
rates are tied to
stages of
development
• Demographic Transition
•
Holds that slowing population growth is
attributable to
– improved economic production
–
•
and higher standards of living brought
about by changes in medicine,
education and sanitation.
Overcrowding is a reflection of
the Carrying Capacity and
not the numbers per unit area.
(Carrying Capacity is the # of
people an area can support on a
sustained basis given the
prevailing technology.)
• Dependency Theory
Tied to Neo-colonialism
• Poor country’s
economy is tied to a
rich country, usually
it’s former colonizer
• Gravity model of
migration
• Relationship b/t
volume of migration
and distance from
source & destination
‘Black Hole’ city
is inverse
• Heartland Theory
Mackinder's Heartland
(also known as the
Pivot Area) is the core
area of Eurasia, and
the World-Island is all
of Eurasia (both
Europe and Asia).
• He who controls
Europe, controls the
world
‘Who rules East Europe
commands the Heartland
Who rules the Heartland
commands the World-Island
Who rules the World-Island
commands the world’
• Least Cost/Location
Theory
Cheap theory
• Minimizing
transportation costs
• Migration Theory
• Push-Pull Forces
impact choices
• FORCED
• VOLUNTARY
• IMPELLED
• CHAIN
• Concentric Zone
Model
• Burgess
????
• Focus on CBD
importance b/c CBD
is at the center of the
model
• Multiple Nuclei model
• CBD is not as
important, urban
areas develop several
CBDs
• Sector model
• Based on urban
transportation routes
and bid rent prices
• World Systems
Theory
• Development is
applicable across
scales – local to
regional to global
• Five distinct periods
in the history of
American
urbanization.
• Each epoch is
characterized by the
impact of a particular
transport technology
on the creation and
differential rates of
growth of American
cities.
• Urbanization:
American
Epochs
• Edge Cities/ Urbanization
• ‘Where there is a
Target, there is also
a….’
• Industry –
– Locational
interdependence
– Ice cream/
starbucks theory
• Industrialization –
–Profit
maximization
–‘$$ make me
happy’ guy
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Most important Geographers/Theories