FOR SAFETY AT SEA IN A CLEAN ENVIRONMENT
Implementation of IMO´s
BWMC in Norway
Geir Høvik Hansen
Karin Margrethe Vedø
FOR SAFETY AT SEA IN A CLEAN ENVIRONMENT
Ballast Water Facts
• Transportation of goods
worldwide: 80% on ships
• Ballast water (fresh,
brackish or seawater) –
stabilization and weight
control
• Annual release in the order
of 10 billion tons
• Up to 200 000 m3 per ship
• Introduction of new species
to new locations
• At least 3-4000 species
continously on the way
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Introduced species per region
Gollasch, 2008
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Introduced species: Chatonella sp. (alga)
Situation in May 1998 (Photo
courtesy of Remote Sensing
group at CCMS Plymouth
Marine Laboratory)
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Introduced species: Mnemiopsis leidy
(North-West Atlantic comb jelly)
• Introduced by way of
ballast water to the
Black Sea
• Catastrophic effects on
fisheries
• Demonstrated in
Skagerrak and the
west-coast of Norway
• Probable cause of
death in salmon farms
in 2008
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Challenges to be met in Norwegian waters
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FOR SAFETY AT SEA IN A CLEAN ENVIRONMENT
Basis for introducing national regulations on
ballast water
• Increased concern about introduced invasive
species in the population
• Political pressure
• Governmental willingness to establish national
regulations prior to entry into force of the BWMC
• In order not to disfavour Norwegian ships to
foreign:
– Regulation D-1: Ballast Water Exchange Standard
mandatory
– Regulation D-2: Ballast Water Performance
Standard voluntary
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The ratification process
• BWMC adopted in
2004
• The Government
– October 2006
• The Parliament
– December 2006 –
legal base for the
regulation
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Regulation on BWM – the process
• Assignment to the Maritime
Administration
• Reports from the DNV
• Draft regulation
• Public consultation
• Regulation sanctioned
• Proposed amendments and
new public consultation
• Entry into force
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FOR SAFETY AT SEA IN A CLEAN ENVIRONMENT
Regulation on BWM - scope
• Scope of application
– All ships constructed to carry BW (Norwegain and
foreign)
– Territorial waters and economic zone,
including territorial waters surrounding
Spitzbergen and Jan Mayen
– Except:
• Ships exclusively sailing in Norwegian territorial
waters and economic zone
• Ships with permanent BW in sealed tanks
• Ships <50 m and max 8 m3 BW-capacity
• Norwegian BW regulation in English
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FOR SAFETY AT SEA IN A CLEAN ENVIRONMENT
Regulation on BWM - exceptions
• Exceptions
– Ingress or discharge allowed if
• Resulting from damage to ship or equipment
• Necessary for safety of ship or lives
– Ad hoc more stringent regulations
• Increased risk
• NMD may grant exemptions
• Application
• Necessary for specific reasons
• Justifiable
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FOR SAFETY AT SEA IN A CLEAN ENVIRONMENT
Regulation on BWM – BW exchange
• 95% volumetric exchange
• 200 nm from nearest land
and 200 m depth
• 50 nm from nearest land
and 200 m depth
• Designated areas
• Territorial waters
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Regulation on BWM – exchange areas
• Criteria for designated areas
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
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Navigational constraints
Risk assessment
Oceanographic
Physicochemical
Biological
Important resources
BW operations
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Regions and areas for BWM
The region consists
of the following
areas:
I The Barents Sea
and the Norwegian
Sea
II The North Sea
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Designated BW exchange areas
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Regulation on BWM – treatment
• Voluntary
• Approved technology
• Performance standard
(D-2)
• Prototype technology
test programmes
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Regulation on BWM – reception facilities
• Assessment of BW
exchange in
harbours
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Regulation on BWM – BWM plan
•
•
•
•
•
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Each ship
Specific and detailed
Officers in charge
Language
Approval
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Regulation on BWM – record book
• Ballast water
operations
• Accidental or other
exceptional
discharge
• Language
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Regulation – survey & certification
•
•
•
•
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Norwegian ships
Gross tonnage of 400 and above
Utilising BW treatment technologies
Exception: mobile offshore units
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Enforcement of the BWM regulation
• The Norwegian ballast water regulation enters
into force 1 July 2010
• §9: Each ship shall have on board a ballast water
and sediment management plan (BWMP)
• Due to time needed for approval of BWMPs, a
letter of confirmation will be accepted stating
receiving of the application at the class society
• Expected time schedule for approval must be
included in the letter of confirmation
• NMD anticipates that the ship follows the BWMP
and that this is logged
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Enforcement of the BWM regulation – Fines
• Administrative fines may be imposed on a
master, on other persons working on
board, on the shipping company and
others for breaching the shipping
company’s duties in respect of
environmental safety
• Fine value: 60 000 NOK or above;
individuals 15-45.000 NOK
• In case of serious environmental crime:
imprisonment for a term not exceeding
two years.
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BWM – Impact study
• Curent impact study: focused on BW exchange
• Economic impacts
– Industry: BWMP, <30 000 NOK per ship
– Maritime Administration: 2-3 man-year
• Benefit: Assumed reduced risk for introducing
harmful invasive species, especially at the great
oil and gas terminals
• Concluded that the benefits will exceed the total
costs
• When incorporating ballast water performance
standard, D-2, expanded impact study necessary
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Recognised problems during the legislative
process
• Detection of violations – compliance
control?
• Exchange areas – risk reducing effect?
• Fishing vessels (RSW tanks)
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Conclusion
• Limited effect until
treatment is required
• Exceptions, exemptions
• Fines may have preventive
effect
• Industry: Incentive to start
the process of BWM
implementation
• Basis for full
implementation of the
convention upon entry into
force
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The Norwegian Maritime Directorate
www.sjofartsdir.no
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