Raising Awareness by Understanding
Problems & Consequenes
...Passenger ship safety
...How safe... safe
Passenger ship safety
• What is a passenger ship
• Cruise industry – Facts & figures
• Cruise industry – General informaton
• Learning form accidents (improvements)
• “Costa Concordia”
• Aspects to consider (free debate)
• Quiz
Passenger ship safety
1/ What is a passenger ship?
Passenger ship safety
• Cruise ship
• Ocean liner
• Ro-Pax
• Ferry
• Fast Ferry
• River cruises
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Cruise ship:
• Passenger ship used for pleasure voyages.
• Voyage itself + ship's amenities + different destinations.
• Transportation is not the prime purpose
Ocean liner (passenger ship):
• Transport of passengers (some freight, mail,...) from A to B
• Built to higher standard
• High freeboard
• Large capacities for fuel/provisions/consumables...
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> 12 passengers
• When int’l trading: compliance SOLAS, ICLL, IMO regs
Passenger ship ≠ cruise ship:
• Passenger ship:
• High fuel consumption (speed)
• Deep draught
• Enclosed decks
• Cabins to maximize passenger numbers
• Lower comfort (windowless suites)
• Cruise ships:
• Amenities more important than speed
• Balcony-laden floating condominiums
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2/ Cruise industry (2011): Facts & Figures
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In 2011:
• 30 billions US$ industry
• 19 millions passengers
• Booming industry
• Ship size: 270 – 360 m > 100,000 GT (Oasis of the Seas: 225,000 GT)
• Number of passengers/ship: 3000-4000 (average) to 6300 (max)
• Mariner of the Seas consume 20,000 pounds (9,000 kg) of beef, 28,000
eggs, 8,000 gallons (30,000 L) of ice cream, and 18,000 slices of pizza in
a week.
• 50% of energy = Catering dept.
• Passenger ship in decline (aviation industrty)
• Cruise industry gaining popularity
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3/ Cruise industry: General information
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• Tailor made formulas: Speciality range of products:
• Passenger age
• Tall ships/sailing vessels
• Size of vessels
• Expedition
• ...
• Companies:
• Carnival
• Royal Caribbean Cruises
• Star cruises
• Norwegian Cruise Line
• MSC Cruises
• Louis Cruise Lines
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Organisation: Normal ship +
• Ship’s crew + hospitality staff =/> passengers
• Restaurants (Dining & buffet style)
• Shows/performances
• 50% of energy = Catering dept.
• Excursions
• Tax free shops
• Casinos/events
Other uses:
• Troop transport & hospital ships (ocean liners)
• Hotel ships (Athens olympics)
• Emergency accommodation for evacuees (Katrina)
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• Casino — Only open when the ship is at sea to avoid conflict with local laws
• Spa
• Fitness center
• Shops — Only open when ship is at sea to avoid merchandising licensing and local taxes
• Library
• Theatre with Broadway style shows
• Cinema
• Indoor and/or outdoor swimming pool
• Hot tub
• Buffet restaurant
• Lounges
• Gym
• Clubs
• Some ships have bowling alleys, ice skating rinks, rock climbing walls, miniature golf
courses, video arcades, ziplines, surfing simulators, basketball courts, tennis courts,
chain restaurants and/or ropes obstacle courses.
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4/ Learning from incidents
Improvements (following incidents):
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Improvements over last years (following incidents):
• Escape routes/Fire protetion for large atrium cruise ships, LSA.
• STCW (crew training requirements, crowd management)
• MARPOL (waste)
The Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) at its 82nd session in NovemberDecember 2006 adopted a package of amendments to SOLAS:
• Prevention from accidents occuring
• Improved survivability
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The amendments also provide regulatory flexibility so that ship designers can
meet any safety challenges the future may bring. The amendments include:
• Alternative designs and arrangements;
• Safe areas and the essential systems to be maintained while a ship
proceeds to port after a casualty, which will require redundancy of
propulsion and other essential systems;
• On-board safety centers, from where safety systems can be controlled,
operated and monitored;
• Fixed fire detection and alarm systems, including requirements for fire
detectors and manually operated call points to be capable of being remotely
and individually identified;
• Fire prevention, including amendments aimed at enhancing the fire safety of
atriums, the means of escape in case of fire and ventilation systems; and
• Time for orderly evacuation and abandonment, including requirements for the
essential systems that must remain operational in case any one main vertical
zone is unserviceable due to fire.
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Following submissions made by Italy and other interested parties (cruise
industry) on 01/06/2012 the IMO Maritime Safety Committee adopted
Recommended Interim Measures for Passenger Ship Companies to enhance the
Safety of Passenger Ships (Circular 1446).
These interim measures cover following :
• Provision of additional lifejackets in public spaces, at muster stations or in lifeboats to avoid
passengers having to return to their cabins in case the ship needs to be abandoned.
• Ensure that communication and emergency instructions to passengers are duly understood,
taking into account potential language barriers (not all passengers understand English).
• For voyages exceeding 24 hours there should be a lifeboat drill for all new passengers before
• When the vessel is sailing in congested waters or where navigation requires increased
vigilance (e.g. in poor visibility), access to the bridge should be restricted to operational
personnel only i.e. no passengers.
• Ensure that passage plans duly take Guidelines for voyage planning (in remote areas as
applicable) into account and clearly specify/limit the circumstances in which the master can
deviate from the passage plan, other than for safety or security reasons, as well as the
procedures to follow in such cases.
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The IMO urges member states to recommend passenger ship owners to:
• Ensure that their current safety procedures and best management practices
are fully and effectively implemented
• Conduct a review of their existing operational safety procedures (SMS) and if
necessary adapt them taking into account the above recommended interim
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6/ Passenger ships: Aspects to consider:
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• Structural integrity
• Management
• Crew
• Accommodation
• Fire
• Life Saving Appliances
• Navigation
• Machinery
• Cargo = Passengers (safety & wellbeing)
• Security
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Structural integrity
• Stability
• Passenger → cruise ships:
• Passenger cabins from inside to outside (higher price)
• Increase in overall height – top heavy - stability?
• CoG – rather low (large open spaces – light weight material & heavy
components (M/E, fuel, propellers in lower parts)
• Wide ships > initial stability > metacentric height
• Stabilizers = comfort, no added benefit from stability point of view
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• Crewing (1500-2000 crew, ≠ nationalities)
• Training
• Remote ports (supplies, assistance)
• Insurance
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• Under-industrialized countries
• Ship crew – entertainment crew (performers) & hospitality
• Different nationalities
• Living conditions(shared cabins)
• 3 – 11 month contracts
• 77 hour workweeks – 10 months/2 months holidays
• Facilities for crew separate from passengers
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• Passenger accommodation & amenities
• Crew accommodation & facilities
• Safety (signage,..)
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• 2005 – 2012: 100,000,000 passengers
– 16 fatalities
• Fire safety & LSA
• Various systems
• Maintenance & inspection
• Testing
• Number & types of LSA
• Drills & training
• Inspections (remote ports, replacement equipment,...)
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• Huge waste streams:
Grey water
Hazardous waste
Oily bilge water
Ballast water
Solid waste
Air polluants (A/C)
• Garbage management
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• Remote ports (drafts,...)
• Passage planning
• Passengers on bridge
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• Noise/vibration
• Maintenance
• Electricity
• Passenger related machinery & equipment
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Cargo = Passengers (safety & wellbeing)
• Old people – disabled people – sight disabled people
• Communication/Language
• SAR initiatives
• Excursion/tender safety
• Personal preferences of passengers
• Passenger health & hygiene:
• Huge number of people
• Rapid spreading of diseases
• Close monitoring of hygiene & health to prevent diseases
• Exposure to claims/compiling evidence
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• Cabin security
• Boarding security
• Registration/signing on
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