Multilingual Universities and Globalisation - Promoting Creativity and Linguistic Human Rights? Or? Tove Skutnabb-Kangas University of Roskilde, Denmark Åbo Akademi University, Vasa, Finland http://akira.ruc.dk/~tovesk/ SkutnabbKangas@gmail.com Contents of the paper Prelude – globalisation, neoimperialism, force, agency and global English Monolingual, bilingual and multilingual universities The role of multilingual universities in the context of globalisation – some questions (See Notes for references!) Contents of the paper Prelude – globalisation, neoimperialism, force, agency and global English Monolingual, bilingual and multilingual universities The role of multilingual universities in the context of globalisation – some questions God and the USA 1901- 2000 Senator Albert J. Beveridge, Indiana, 1901 George W. Bush, 2000 • ”God has marked the American people as his chosen nation to finally lead in the regeneration of the world. This is the divine mission of America, and it holds for us all the profit, all the glory, all the happiness possible to man. We are trustees of the world’s progress, guardians of its righteous peace.” (Beveridge, 1901) “Our nation is chosen by God and commissioned by history to be a model to the world”, Bush 2000 English according to CIA: Is American English universal, just like ”American values” are supposed to be? English the sole global language A CIA report in 1997 stated that the coming five years would be decisive for the establishment of English as the sole international language. Hervé Lavenir de Buffon, founder of ’Comités pour le français, langue européenne’, RO Magazine 34, 22 June 2002. Neo-imperialist ideas spreading again “The rest of the world is best served by the USA pursuing its own interests because American values are universal”. Condoleezza Rice, 2000 EU also follows a US agenda (Robert Phillipson, 2005). Are European universities doing so too? Guidelines for USA foreign policy from 1948 Bretton Woods, to World Bank & IMF to WTO. George Kennan, main USA BW negotiator in 1948 ’We have 50% of the world’s wealth, but only 6,3% of its population. In this situation, our real job in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships which permit us to maintain this position of disparity. To do so, we have to dispense with all sentimentality ... we should cease thinking about human rights, the raising of living standards, and democratisation’ Globalisation – imperialism definitions Colonialism - imperialism globalisation - definitions • Colonialism, the conquest and direct control of other people’s land, is a particular phase in the history of imperialism. • Imperialism … is now best understood as the globalisation of the capitalist mode of production, its penetration of previously noncapitalist regions of the world, and destruction of pre- or non-capitalist forms of social organization. (Williams & Chrisman 1993: 2) Pierre Bourdieu: globalisation is ideological universalisation of particular models France, glorifying the French society as ‘the presumed incarnation of the Rights of Man’ saw ‘the inheritance of the French Revolution … as the model for all possible revolutions’. Bourdieu (2001: 96-97) describes today's globalisation Pierre Bourdieu: globalisation is ideological universalisation of particular models Bourdieu (2001: 96-97) describes today's globalisation as ‘a pseudo-concept that is both descriptive and prescriptive. It has replaced “modernisation”, that was long used in the social sciences in the USA as a euphemistic way of imposing a naively ethnocentric evolutionary model by means of which different societies were classified according to their distance from the economically most advanced society, i.e. American society. […] Bourdieu: globalisation: the USA universalising its own particularity covertly as a universal model ’The word (and the model it expresses) incarnates the most accomplished form of the imperialism of the universal, which consists of one society [USA] universalising its own particularity covertly as a universal model.’ Moving to language(s), especially English, in globalisation/ imperialism. Is there any agency? What are the forces propelling (subtractive) English forward? Imperialism and languages – production and hierarchisation of subjectivities 1 ”The great industrial and financial powers […] produce not only commodities but also subjectivities […] Communication not only expresses but also organizes the movement of globalization […] by multiplying and structuring interconnections through networks […]. Language, as it communicates, produces commodities but moreover creates subjectivities, puts them in relation, and orders them.” Hardt, Michael & Negri, Antonio (2000). Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 32-33. Imperialism and languages – production and hierarchisation of subjectivities 2 ”Language… creates subjectivities, puts them in relation, and orders them.” Hardt & Negri, 2000: 32-33. What are the subjectivities created by ”global English”? Are people and their subjectivities ”put in relation and ordered” on the basis of their competence in English? Is this linguistic imperialism? What role do multilingual universities play in this hierarchisation? Might they unwittingly be agents of linguistic imperialism? Is linguistic imperialism part of modern ”agentless” imperialistic control? 1 ”The political argument implicit in many of those who oppose the linguistic imperialism hypothesis is to deny the existence of imperialism as such in our days, and to opt for very general ’globalisation’ hypothesis where no concrete actors can be identified.” Hamel, Rainer Enrique (2004). Language Empires, Linguistic Imperialism and the Future of Global Languages. Manuscript. firstname.lastname@example.org Linguistic neo-imperialism 2 No agency, no intentions; “God”? • “The ascendancy of English is merely the outcome of the coincidence of accidental forces” (Robert Kaplan 2001: 19) • English has become a global language because it “was in the right place at the right time” (David Crystal 1997: 8). Maybe the English language was also chosen by God, just as “Our nation is chosen by God” (Bush)? Not force itself, but the capacity to present force as being in the service of right and peace ”Sovereignty has taken a new form, composed of a series of national and supranational organisms united under a single logic of rule. This new global form of sovereignty is what we call Empire.” (p. xii) ”Empire is formed not on the basis of force itself but on the basis of the capacity to present force as being in the service of right and peace.” (p. 15). Hardt, Michael & Negri, Antonio (2000). Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Empire is NOT anchored in a place (e.g. USA) but in organisms and networks. No conspiracy theories. But the US just happens to control many of the networks. English linguistic imperialism is presented as ”being in the service of right and peace” (Hardt & Negri), not control. People need and want English! TRUE, people everywhere are screaming for English, for the promises it gives, ”the Alchemy of English” (Braj Kachru) (what English touches becomes gold). English stands for jobs and riches! You become somebody through English. BUT learning English may be subtractive, not additive. Often the promises do not materialise. Failed promisies? Excluded because of their ”bad” English • ”Earlier ordinary people were excluded because they did not know English. Now when ordinary people work three jobs to be able to send their children to Englishmedium schools, the children are excluded because of their ’bad English’” (Jennifer Bayer, Central Institute of Indian Languages, Mysore, 1994). What about universities and multilingualism? Contents of the paper Prelude – globalisation, neoimperialism, force, agency and global English Monolingual, bilingual and multilingual universities The role of multilingual universities in the context of globalisation – some questions Monolingual uni, same MT students does not exist anywhere? • Teaching language: X • Students’ mother tongue: X,X,X,X,X,X,X, X,X, X,X,X,X, X,X,X,X,X,X,X, X,X,X,X,X,X Imagined nation state, one language All students have the same mother tongue Monolingual uni, diverse students but the majority with X as MT • Teaching language: X • Students’ mother tongues: X,X,X,X,X,X,X, X,X, X,X,X, X,X,X,X,X,X,X, X,X, X;X;X • a, b, Y (invisible) X Y b a X X X Monolingual uni, very diverse students but few with X as MT • Teaching language: X (often English) • Students’ mother tongues: a, b, X,X, a, b, y, f, g, h, l, m, m, b, t, v,y • (all others except X invisible) X y f a g f v h What is NOT a multilingual university? 1 • It is manifestly not enough for a university which wants to offer multilingual education to be ”linguistically diverse” (= have students with many mother tongues). • It is not enough to have multilingual staff. • It is not enough to have a situation where many languages are heard in the corridors or even seen on the walls. • All of this is positive, and necessary, but not sufficient for a multilingual university. What is multilingual education? • Andersson & Boyer’s (1978) classic definition of bilingual education demanded that two languages be used as languages of instruction in subjects other than the languages themselves. • Accordingly, multilingual education is education where more than two languages are used as languages of instruction in subjects other than the languages themselves. • The criterion for multilingual education is here the number of languages of instruction. What is a multilingual university? 1 We can use the same definition for universities: A multilingual university is a university where more than two languages are used as languages of instruction in subjects other than the languages themselves. What is a multilingual university? 2 This definition means that the main criterion for multilingual universities is the number of languages of instruction. But this not the only criterion Issues to be thought through and acted on in multilingual universities The relationship between ALL students’ mother tongues and other languages, especially the medium of education The students’ competences in their various languages and how to enhance ALL of them Possible hierarchisations based on language (linguicism), The same applies to teaching staff. Bilingual or multilingual? • Finland is an officially bilingual country (Finnish and Swedish), and with regional language rights for 3 Saami languages, plus other languages including the Finnish Sign language and Romany - recognised in the constitution. Nevertheless, Finland has many bilingual but few MULTIlingual universities. University of Helsinki – from bilingual to multilingual? 1 The University of Helsinki was a bilingual university when I taught here in the 1970s. Both Finnish and Swedish were used as languages of instruction. Bilingual uni, two sets of ”monolingual” students (NOT ”my” Helsinki) • Teaching languages: X, Y • Students’ MTs: X,X,X,X,X,X,X, X,X, X,X,X, • a, b (invisible) • Y,Y,Y,Y,Y,Y,Y, Y,Y,Y,Y, a, b (invisible) Student X, Student Y, NO taught through taught through CONTACT language Y language X Bilingual uni, two sets of ”monolingual” students with some cross-over (”my” Helsinki) • Teaching languages: X, Y • Students’ MTs: X,X,X,Y, X, X,X,XX,X,X,X,X, X,X,X, Y, Y, • a, b (invisible) • Y,Y,X,Y,Y,Y,Y,Y,Y, Y,Y,X,Y, a, b (invisible) Mostly X, some Y, invisible a,b NO or little CONTACT Mostly Y, some X, invisible a,b University of Helsinki – from bilingual to multilingual? 2 • Now one of the six Master programmes are taught through the medium of English (Raivio 2005). Altogether over 400 courses are taught in English. • This is now a multilingual university. • Or is it? University of Jyväskylä is multilingual • Another multilingual university in Finland is Jyväskylä. Finnish is the main teaching language. English is used as a medium in 6 of the 9 Master programmes (Raivio 2005). There is no Swedish medium teaching. • But in the 5-year teacher education for teachers who will be competent to teach all 9 years of basic school through the medium of Finnish Sign language, most of the courses are taught through the medium of Sign, or, if the lecturer does not know any Sign language, interpreted into Finnish Sign language. In all the bilingual universities, those students who cross over (e.g. Finnish mother tongue students who choose to study through the medium of Swedish in Finland), need to know the language of instruction, to manage. Often they get little support in the language of instruction (their L2) and none in their mother tongue. But the Finnish-speaking students in Finland, studying through the medium of Swedish, have freely chosen the language of instruction among existing alternatives. They could also have studied through the medium of their mother tongue, Finnish, in Finland, had they wanted to. The same is true for Swedishspeaking students in Finland, studying through the medium of Finnish. They have freely chosen the language of instruction among existing alternatives. They could also have studied through the medium of their mother tongue, Swedish, in Finland, had they wanted to. Being able freely to choose the language of instruction among existing alternatives which are qualitatively approximately at the same level is for schools one of the most important necessary factors for successful study through the medium of a foreign language and for becoming high-level bilingual through this type of education. What about universities? This necessary factor for successful study through the medium of a foreign language does NOT exist for most indigenous, minority or dominated group students in the world, neither at school nor at university level. It is often the most decisive factor in the educational failure of students, quantitatively especially in Africa and Asia. In all the monolingual or bilingual universities, the invisible a, b, c, d, etc students also need to know the language of instruction to manage. In many (most?) of them they get no or little support in the language of instruction (their L2). Virtually no universities support their L1. Schools which force indigenous, minority or dominated group students to accept education through the medium of a language foreign to them, with no alternatives, may participate in linguistic genocide according to two of the definitions of genocide in the United Nations Genocide Convention. UN International Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (E793, 1948) has five definitions of genocide. Three of them are about physical killing. The two that are not, fit today’s indigenous & minority education (and much of dominated language group education) Genocide is… • Article II(e): 'forcibly transferring children of the group to another group'; and • Article II(b): 'causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group'; (emphasis added). If students, taught in school through the medium of a dominant second/foreign language, are forced to learn this language AT THE COST OF THEIR MOTHER TONGUE, subtractively, the school may participate in linguistic genocide, through transferring the students linguistically to another group and preventing or delaying (= seriously harming) the students’ cognitive, linguistic and academic growth Contents of the paper Prelude – globalisation, neoimperialism, force, agency and global English Monolingual, bilingual and multilingual universities The role of multilingual universities in the context of globalisation – some questions Question: If schools which force indigenous, minority or dominated group students to accept education through the medium of a language foreign to them, with no alternatives, may participate in linguistic genocide, might this be true for universities too? Answer: we do not know. Possibly, possibly not – but it is worth investigating to what extent similar problems exist. Dominant-language-only submersion programmes “are widely attested as the least effective educationally for minority language students” (May & Hill 2003: 14, study commisioned by the Maori Section of the Aotearoa/New Zealand Ministry of Education). Multilingual universities (adding, for instance, English as a teaching language, as in many European countries), have to ask themselves, several overall questions. Some are listed here. 1. Is everybody’s mother tongue supported? Do they become academically competent in their L1 too? 2. Does everybody have an opportunity to become really competent in the medium of instruction? 3. Are students or programmes or staff hierarchised on the basis of language (their MTs and their competence in the medium of instruction)? Is linguicism at work here? (compare with racism, sexism, ethnicism, ageism, etc). Are language-created subjectivities hierarchised? Linguicism • LINGUICISM: 'ideologies, structures and practices which are used to legitimate, effectuate, regulate and reproduce an unequal division of power and resources (both material and immaterial) between groups which are defined on the basis of language' (Skutnabb-Kangas 1988: 13). • Most education systems worldwide reflect linguicism (Skutnabb-Kangas 2000). 4. Do the staff have adequate training for multilingual teaching, linguistically and pedagogically? Are they multilingual themselves? Often heard counterargument: But it is voluntary – they have chosen themselves! Surely students taught through the medium of a dominant second/foreign language have freely chosen this education; in fact they demand and desire it! But are they aware of the possibility of the education being subtractive? Are they being dispossessed? It is a Free Choice! Isn’t it? Or is it dispossession of capital? Haven’t the students chosen freely? Don’t they all WANT English medium? They NEED English for their future! • Or - Are the students (being taught subtractively in a foreign language) being dispossessed (Harvey 2005) of their linguistic capital, if their total linguistic repertoire does not grow much through the education in this foreign language,? Assimilation is not freely chosen if the choice is between one’s mother tongue and one’s future The United Nation’s 2004 Human Development Report links cultural liberty to language rights and human development (http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2004/) and argues that there is “ no more powerful means of ‘encouraging’ individuals to assimilate to a dominant culture than having the economic, social and political returns stacked against their mother tongue. Such assimilation is not freely chosen if the choice is between one’s mother tongue and one’s future”. (p. 33). Assimilation not freely chosen if the choice is between one’s mother tongue and one’s future The press release about the UN report exemplifies the role of language as an exclusionary tool: “Limitations on people’s ability to use their native language—and limited facility in speaking the dominant or official national language—can exclude people from education, political life and access to justice. Sub-Saharan Africa has more than 2,500 languages, but the ability of many people to use their language in education and in dealing with the state is particularly limited. In more than 30 countries in the region, the official language is different from the one most commonly used. Only 13 percent of the children who receive primary education do so in their native language.” Assimilation not freely chosen if there are no alternatives, and if the consequences are not known • We can only speak about ”choice”, if • - there are (qualitatively equal) alternatives, and • - the students have enough research-based knowledge about the likely long-term consequences of the choices. • This includes consequences such as possible dispossession of linguistic (and intellectual?) capital through subtractive learning, hierarchisation, and endangerment for other languages. Multilingual uni, three sets of students hierarchised on the basis of language? Teaching langX uages: X, Y, Z Programme Z has a higher Mostly X status than the others? Z Therefore, it will grow…and grow, at the cost of the others (cuckoo syndrome)? Y LITTLE Mostly Y CONTACT? Students diverse, but hierarchised according to competence in language Z The cuckoo syndrome? Y X Z Mostly X Z LITTLE Mostly Y CONTACT? Students diverse, but hierarchised according to competence in language Z English medium Master programmes at Finnish universities, share of total (TUTKINTOASETUS 2005) – Helsinki 1/6 – Tampere 3/7 – Joensuu 4/5 – Turku 5/7 – Jyväskylä 6/9 – Åbo Akademi 1/3 – Kuopio 4/7 – Lappeenranta, Oulu, Vaasa 0 Multidisciplinary Master programmes in English, total 24/44 = 55% Source: Chancellor Kari Raivio (Helsinki), Paper in Järvenpää, 3 August 2005 Should Finns be worried? At least about domain loss? Are they/we? The Swedes, Norwegians, Danes, Icelanders, French, Estonians, etc., are worried (too). What is happening to other languages in countries where English becomes an important language of instruction in higher education? • Many countries are worried about domain loss, and worse. On the other hand, many see the situation as a necessary choice between romantic traditionalists clinging to the mother tongue, and realists wanting to participate in a globalised modern word – in English. Either/or ideologies/paradigms, instead of both/and/and. English OR the mother tongue is an unfortunate ”choice” when both/and is possible and preferable • There is no need to choose; both/and/and is perfectly possible. In additive bilingual education, competence levels reached in a dominant language (e.g. English) are as high as or often higher than in subtractive monolingual English-medium education. In addition, students learn their own language. High-level multilingualism is the future. Saami University College (Norway) http://www.samiskhs.no/ “The College has national responsibility for Saami teachertraining and journalist-training and higher education. The College serves all Saami students in Saami Area of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. In Saami University College the Saami language is the main language and most of the instructing of the studies is given in Saami language. [All] students and staff are … bi or multilingual. The priorities for building up competence and creating a Saami higher education are to develop Saami language as an academic language; to develop concepts into Saami language for teaching and to research and develop the syllabuses/ curricula on the basis of Saami needs for the studies in the Saami society. Please note that the main language of the Saami University College webpages is Saami”. Multilingual uni, one set of students not hierarchised on the basis of language? Teaching language A + others, mainly other Saami languages and Nordic languages or English, mainly with guest lecturers; materials in many languages Students diverse, from several countries and mother tongues, but not hierarchised according to competence in language A; staff diverse; ALL minimally bilingual, with different combinations, but always with at least one Saami language; language support for all. Multilingual? Goal! • Some universities might be defined as multilingual universities on the basis of their goal: the students should be high level multilinguals when they leave the university. In indigenous and some minority situations this might best be reached through using mainly one language of instruction. Can multilingual universities without hierarchisation deliver? • THE PRIZE FOR QUALITY OF EDUCATION 2005 TO SAAMI UNIVERSITY COLLEGE • Saami University College in Guovdageaidnu, Norway has won the prestigious prize for quality of education for excellent quality for study and education in the higher education in Norway. The prize is given by The Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT). It is 500.000 Norwegian crowns (about 62.200 euros). • http://www.samiskhs.no/eng/update/quality_price05.htm Are some European elites being infected by monolingual reductionism? Monolingual reductionism: attitudes which see monolingualism (in English?) as something normal, desirable, sufficient, and unavoidable. Are some European elites being infected by this illness? The role of multilingual universities in the context of globalisation. Some more questions • Many universities in countries where English is not the or an official language, have added English as a teaching language (e.g. through the Bologna process in Europe), thus becoming bilingual or multilingual. There is enthusiasm – but amongst whom? • In many former colonies English is or has remained the only teaching language in universities even after formal decolonisation. There is also massive resistance. • QUESTION 1: Is Europe going towards a new linguistic self-colonisation? Could we learn from other countries with longer experience of English medium? Failed promisies? The myth of English medium superiority in school Ajit Mohanty shows that children whose mother tongue is a regional language and who have this language as the main medium of education during the first many years, get better educational results than Indian children in English medium education, despite the economic disparities between the models. ”English-medium versus regional mother tongue medium schooling: The myth of English medium superiority”. Subtitle in article (in press) by Professor Ajit Mohanty, Jawahrlar Nehru University, Delhi, India. Failed promisies? English medium superiority at universities. Roskilde “In the coming years this university intends to offer courses in English in almost all its departments. After teaching an introductory course this spring in History and Culture in the Humanities at International Cultural Studies, we wonder if Roskilde University is inviting a disaster, for many of our students are simply not able to write correct and clear English. …The problem … is not the students’ lack of will to work in ORAL English, it is the lack of tools with which the university equips them FOR WRITTEN ENGLISH…. Many students have such severe difficulties expressing their views in written English that it is hard to understand what they are trying to say”. Failed promisies? English medium superiority at universities. Roskilde “… it wasn’t the student’s ability to analyse that constituted the problem, but their lack of training in conveying analytical points due to their limited English…. For the time being we are letting down the students… We are shoving massive problems into a closet and shutting the door and pretending they do not exist. For those of us who genuinely believe in a university as a place for higher education, it is time to do something about a low standard of English that makes intellectual discourse on a university level difficult if not impossible”. (Jensen & McGuire 2005). Reaction from the vice-chancellor ”Henrik Toft [the Vice-chancellor of the University of Roskilde, Denmark] has said there is no money for any kind of remedial language teaching nor for instruction in academic English” (Brian Patrick McGuire, Professor of History, personal communication 27 August 2005). A description of Arab countries where most of the university education is through the medium of English, and where hierarchies are partially based on English competence (Sohail Karmani 2005: 91) • The extreme reliance on hiring foreign expertise – mostly Western or Western oriented – often proves to be costly and tends to advocate policy changes that (a) conflict with local interests and (b) are seldom absorbed locally. […] The broader social effects of relying so heavily on foreign expertise have proven to be far more devastating: the demand and possibilities for the production of local knowledge are severely stifled. Potential local experts are instantly rendered obsolete; and the general social value of [Arab] social scientists, educators and language specialists is substantially reduced. (UN Development Programme 2003). (Sohail Karmani 2005: 91) • “All this tends to produce artificial social hierarchies between Westerners and [Arabs] in terms of knowledge and expertise, and eventually perpetuates the [Arab] brain drain” (United Nations Development Programme 2003, quoted in Karmani 2005: 91). “More perniciously, a ‘rentier mentality’ sets in orientated towards spending and acquisition where the onus is placed almost entirely on foreign experts to work out crucial far reaching policy initiatives”. (Karmani, Sohail, 2005, Islam and English in the Post-9/11 Era). Nexus between English and the corporate world… •Sohail Karmani 2005: Petro-Linguistics: The Emerging Nexus between Oil, English, and Islam ’We are mentally colonialized and alienated from our cultures if all we know is in English’ Tariq Rahman, 2002 (Pakistan) Snobs? English is the possession of elites? (Tariq Rahman, Pakistan, 2002) • ”English-medium schools tend to produce snobs completely alienated from their culture and languages” • ”English should be taught as a [foreign] language to all children so that it is no longer the sole possession of the elite” The role of multilingual universities in the context of globalisation. More questions • In many countries where English is not the or an official language, a large amount of time and resources in school are devoted to the learning of English. In many former colonies, learning English is seen as “to become educated”. In England and the USA, few students learn foreign languages in school except in a marginal way. QUESTION 2: Is a situation fair and equal where language learning is unidirectional, and everybody is supposed to function on an equal basis while the communication language is the mother tongue of some but not others? Esperanto – a linguistic handshake “One Chinese Esperanto speaker described Esperanto as a linguistic handshake. When two people shake hands they both reach out halfway. When two people speak Esperanto they have both made the effort to learn a relatively easy, neutral language instead of one person making the huge effort to learn the other person's difficult national language and the other person making no effort at all except to correct his/her interlocutor's errors.” Sylvan Zaft: http://www.esperanto.net/veb/faq-9.html Question: Is learning and using English with ”native speakers” ”a linguistic handshake” for us who have other mother tongues? Who has to reach further? Monolingual English speakers exploit their monolingualism (Monolingual) English speakers are in a better negotiating position, being able to use their mother tongue while we others have to use a foreign or second language. They can concentrate more on content and less on form when using the mother tongue. In research, they dominate "international" journals (look at the editorial boards of a few…) and conferences; their papers are accepted into journals and conferences more often than equally scientifically solid papers by foreign-language writers of English. And so on… USA savings: 19 billion/year 1 Most European countries teach a lot of foreign languages in schools; Britain and the USA do not. The savings (as compared to Europe) because of the very limited foreign language teaching in the USA, with some 38 million pupils in elementary and secondary schools, are minimally around 19 billion dollars per year (Grin & Sfreddo 1997, Grin 2003). They benefit, we pay. USA savings: 19 billion/year 2 These savings are made possible because "people in the rest of the world are willing to devote time, money and effort in learning […] English“ (Grin 2003). USA can then invest this saved money (and time) into some other human-capital-enhancing activity that gives their students an edge. Or use it for wars… So far, monolingual English speakers are winning economically – but not for long… Monolingual English speakers do not need to pay for our learning. We pay ourselves, in terms of cash and time. (Monolingual and/or “native”) English speakers (or, rather, some of them) get direct cash transfers from our learning the English teaching is a multibillion pound/dollar business for Britain and the United States. The role of multilingual universities in the context of globalisation. Some questions QUESTION 3: If the students learn English at a fairly high level in English medium education (and maybe maintain at least some of their mother tongue competence, even if they cannot easily speak and write about their own area of expertise in the MT), is this not enough? English opens all the doors and is absolutely necessary? Monolingualism is a curable illness English is not enough! Neither for ”native speakers”, nor for those with other mother tongues. Voluntarily monolingual English speakers are dangerous dinosaurs. In 50 years’ time, we might find voluntarily monolingual English speakers (who COULD have learned other languages but chose not to), in pathological museums. English is not enough: inability to speak client’s language can lead to failure • A survey undertaken for the Community of European Management Schools, an alliance of academia and multinational corporations, concludes that a company’s inability to speak a client’s language can lead to failure to win business because it indicates lack of effort. • The Financial Times, 3.12.2001 English is not enough: ”Foreign” language skills – earn more! Graduates with foreign language skills earn more than those who only know English (reported in the British newspaper The Independent 31.5.2001) English is not enough English is not enough. We are fortunate to speak a global language but, in a smart and competitive world, exclusive reliance on English leaves the UK VULNERABLE and dependent on the linguistic competence and the goodwill of others … Young people from the UK are at a GROWING DISADVANTAGE in the recruitment market (emphases added) Nuffield Languages Enquiry, 2000 English is not enough English monolingual British graduates are already at a disadvantage (recruitment, salary level). Supply and demand theories predict: When many people possess what earlier was a scarce commodity (near-native English), the price goes down. The value of ’perfect’ English skills as a financial incentive decreases substantially when a high proportion of a country’s or a region’s or the world’s population know English well. ’Good’ English will be like literacy yesterday or computer skills today: employers see it as self-evident and necessary BUT NOT SUFFICIENT for good jobs. Figure 1. The market diagram (Grin 2003: 26); market equilibrium, balance between supply and demand Price Supply P* Demand Quantity Q* Figure 2. The market for high levels of English; what happens when supply is higher than demand? Consequences for market equilibrium (TSK) Price Supply 2020? P* 2004? Demand Quantity Q* When the supply (number of people with ”good” English) goes up, the price (its usefulness for individuals on the job market) goes down The role of multilingual universities in the context of globalisation. More questions QUESTION 4: What are the benefits for the students and the rest of society if the students, through a better organisation of multilingual universities, become HIGHLEVEL multilinguals? What are the drawbacks if they don’t? Creativity, innovation, and investment are results of additive teaching and multilingualism • Additive teaching leads to high-level multilingualism. • High-level multilinguals as a group do better than corresponding monolinguals on tests measuring several aspects of 'intelligence', creativity, divergent thinking, cognitive flexibility, etc. • Creativity precedes innovation, also in commodity production. • Investment follows creativity. • High-level multilingualism enhances creativity; monolingualism and /or subtractive teaching diminish it. In knowledge/information societies uniformity is a handicap Creativity, new diverse ideas, are the main assets (cultural capital) in a knowledge society and a prerequisite for humankind to adapt to change and to find creative solutions to the catastrophes of our own making. Multilingualism (linguistic capital) enhances creativity, monolingualism and homogenisation kill it. Industrial society Main product: commodities Those do well who control access to raw materials and own the other prerequisites and means of production Knowledge society • Main product: knowledge, ideas • Those do well who have access to diverse knowledges, diverse information, diverse ideas: creativity In knowledge societies uniformity is a handicap Some uniformity might have promoted certain aspects of industrialisation (Fordism) In post-industrial knowledge/ information societies uniformity will be a definite handicap Linguistic diversity is a prerequisite for maintaining biodiversity and life on the planet Linguistic diversity and biodiversity are correlationally and causally related. Knowledge about how to maintain biodiversity is encoded in small indigenous and local languages. Through killing them (as we do today) we kill the prerequisites for maintaining biodiversity and thus life on our planet. Universities may participate in this killing. To conclude Basic linguistic human rights should include mother tongue medium maintenance education. Do universities participate or obstruct? • English is not enough. In knowledge societies uniformity is a handicap. • Creativity, innovation and investment are results of additive teaching and high levels of multilingualism. • Linguistic diversity is a prerequisite for maintaining biodiversity and life on the planet Basic linguistic human rights should include mother tongue medium maintenance education. Do universities participate, or obstruct? • English-medium university education where mother tongues are not supported may lead to ”the-imperialismof-the-universal” globalisation (Bourdieu)and creation of subjectivities hierarchised on the basis of language (Hardt & Negri). • Knowledges of non-English-medium-educated may be invisibilised and invalidated (Karmani) • Rationalisations of the hierarchies are presented in terms of putative benefits for those who participate in corporate globalisation – but these materialise only for the few. Others are blamed. It is their own fault since there are no agents, no linguistic imperialism (Hamel). The role of applied linguistics • “applied linguistics has a heavy responsibility for spreading killer languages such as English, and a dismal record in preserving small languages. Language maintenance remains an underdeveloped field.” Peter Mühlhäusler 2003:8. Question: Are multilingual universities ”spreading killer languages such as English” if they teach subtractively? The role of multilingual universities? “Language maintenance remains an underdeveloped field.” Peter Mühlhäusler 2003:8. Is language maintenance a field that would be particularly well suited to be developed by multilingual universities?