Taaldiversiteit in het Onderwijs
Linguistic Diversity in Education
Dr. Alex M.J. Riemersma
Lector Frisian & Multilingualism in Education
[email protected]
Ems-Dollard Regiodag
Groningen,22 November 2012
Overview
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Global Linguistic Diversity
Individual bi- and plurilingualism
Transfer & Translanguaging
Multilingual Education:
why, what, how, results
• Language Policy at School
Startvragen
• Waar denkt U aan bij:
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Taaldiversiteit in het onderwijs
Taalgericht vakonderwijs
Meertalig onderwijs
Schooltaalbeleid
Global Linguistic Diversity
• Globe: 6,000 Languages (in oral use)
• Unesco Language Vitality Index (2009):
more than 2,500 languages (in oral use)
endangered / threatened
with extinct in 21st century
Global Linguistic Diversity
• 600 à 700 Languages
with basic infrastructure:
Orthography, Dictionary, Grammar Book
• 475 Languages
with complete Bible translation
+ 1,240 languages with New Testament
+ 823 languages with (small) part of Bible
Unesco Language Vitality
Language Vitality factors (6)
• Intergenerational transmission
• Absolute number of speakers
• Proportion of speakers within total
population
• Trends in existing domains
• Response to new domains & media
• Materials for Education and Literacy
Language Vitality factors (3)
• Governmental and Institutional
Language Attitudes & Politics
• Community Member’s Attitudes towards
their own languages
• Documentation (& corpus planning)
Degrees of Endangerment
• 5: safe
The language is used by all ages, from children up.
• 4: unsafe
The language is used by some children in all
domains; it is used by all children in limited domains.
• 3: definitively endangered
The language is used mostly by the parental
generation and up.
• 2: severely endangered
The language is used mostly by the grandparental
generation and up.
• 1: critically endangered
The language is used mostly by very few speakers,
of great-grandparental generation.
• 0: extinct
There exists no speaker.
Language Planning Key Words
State:
Citizen:
Capacity
Command
Opportunities
Use
Desire / Plan
Will
International organisations
• United Nations (195 member states):
6 working languages:
Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian,
Spanish
• Council of Europe (47 member states):
6 working languages:
English, French (documents)
German, Italian, Russian, Spanish
(interpretation)
European Linguistic Diversity
EU Language Policies
• Mother tongue + 2 other languages
• Individual Multilingualism as an asset
> (2) Mother tongue + 2 (or more)
• Lifelong Learning Program (2007-2013)
> Erasmus for All (2014-2020)
European Policies: EU
• European Treaty:
“EU respects the religious, cultural and
linguistic diversity.”
• Definition “Mother tongue” = state language
• Principle of “subsidiarity”
is in favour of national languages.
• “All languages are equal” > “mainstreaming”
is in fact in favour of English (only) !
Individual bi- and plurilingualism
• 65% of world population uses more than
one language in every day life
• 10% of EU population speaks
a minority language
• Millions of migrant language speakers
Individual bi- and plurilingualsm
• Handicap for happiness?
• Asset for successes in:
> cognitive
> character
> communication
> culture
> career
Old theory / ferâldere ideeën
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New theory / nij ynsjoch
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Ice berg by Jim Cummins
Bilingualism
The image of an iceberg is sometimes used to explain the way that bilingual learners’ brains use two
languages to make sense of their world (Cummins, e.g. 2005).
Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma Lectoraat Fries & Meertaligheid in Onderwijs en opvoeding
Triple Ice berg and
Common Underlying Proficiency
Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma Lectoraat Fries & Meertaligheid in Onderwijs en Opvoeding
Why multilingual education?
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Mother tongue development
Cognitive developments
Easier third language acquisition
Flexible communication:
> social participation
> economic success: career & cash
• Cultural heritage/language maintenance
Foreign language learning
• Original status & function:
> Elite – mainly in reading and writing
> Cultural purposes
• Changing towards:
> All students and adults: “M + 2”
> Global communication – oral use & ict
Development of multilingual
education in 20th century
• Neglect of mother tongue
> submersion
• Transitional bilingualism
> subtractive bilingualism
• Equal footing / immersion
> additive / full bilingualism
Goals of Multilingual
Education
• Cultural heritage of home language
• Transition towards national language
versus:
• Language maintenance & development
• Full bilingualism / biliterate
Characteristics of Multilingual
Education
• Goal oriented
> language development
> full bilingualism & biliteracy
• Subject & use (medium of instruction)
• Communication & culture
• Continuous curriculum
Models of multilingual education
• One person / one language >
identification with ‘native speaker’
• Split of time > language rich input
• Division of subjects > task specific &
CLIL: content & language integrated learning
• Immersion (in the weaker language)
Immersion versus CLIL
• Immersion:
• from (pre-)school onwards
• more than 50% teaching time
• native speakers as teachers
• CLIL:
• Mainly in secondary education
• Less than 50% of teaching time
• Non-native speakers as teachers
Actors at Macro + Meso level
• Macro (national and international):
conflicting policies
• National: stress on national language only
discouraging regional and migrant languages
• International: EU-/ CoE-policy: mother tongue + 2
• Meso (school level): reflects conflicting policies
• Concept of Multilingual Education (ME) fits better
to EU- & CoE-policy  CLIL & Immersion
Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma
Bilingual Education in the
Netherlands
• NO migrant language education
• Primary school: English obligatory
+ 650 schools “Early language learning”
• Secondary school: English + one
+ 160 schools with English – CLIL
+ 2 schools with German - CLIL
Why Language Policy at School?
• Changing world(s):
mobility & experiences
• Position school in multilingual context
• Awareness raising on linguistic
diversity: minority & migrant languages
• Integrated teaching & learning
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What Language Policy at School?
• “Every teacher is a language teacher”
• Integrated Teaching & Learning
• Comparability of:
- teachers’ didactics
- students’ results
- schools’ results in the region
• Visibility of languages: source & target
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Language Policy at School
• Vision on school as:
- “language rich school” / TTO / VVTO
- Bi-, tri- or multilingual school
• Agreements on language use:
- internal communication at school
- internal communication in the class room
- external communication: orally and in writing
(f.e. on the school website)
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Professional Competencies
Language Policy at School
• In service training aiming at qualified
teachers (competencies) towards:
“Every teacher is a language teacher”
• Language support for subject teachers
(f.e. native speakers)
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Professional Co-operation
Language Policy at School
• Transfer: (implicit) use of various languages
• Translanguaging:
acquisition of knowledge in one language,
use and present in another language
• CLIL: Content & Language Integrated Learning
• Comparison of Languages:
grammar, vocabulary, pragmatics
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Activities on Language
Richness of the School
• Thematic week on Linguistic Diversity
including RMLs & IMLs
• Weekly Presentation of a student’s
language and its culture
• Special activities language acquisition
f.e. Language Village
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Actors for multilingual education
• Educational authorities
(national, regional, local school board)
• School principals & management
• Class room teachers
• Parents & students
• Social and cultural environemnt
Micro (school & class room)
• Teamwork of teachers of subjects and medium of
instruction > integral approach
• Common descriptors of language command in the
target languages > CEFR + Language Portfolio
• Comparable testing methods
> student monitoring system
• Learning strategies of pupils based on
translanguaging and language use
Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma
Ambitions of lectureship
• Continuity of Multilingual Education
from primary to secondary education;
adequate teacher training
• Didactic approach for teacher training:
- effective & integrated learning
- aiming at results
• Language portfolio:
- languages integrated
- curriculum oriented
Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma
Ambitions of lectureship
• Development of measurement tool for
comparable results of language command:
- Frisian – Dutch - English;
Reference levels:
- CEFR: Common European Reference
Level (Council of Europe)
- DFR: Dutch national reference levels
- Anglia-levels / Me!English
- Frisia-level
Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma
CEFR & Anglia
Comparative levels
Levels DFR & CEFR, Anglia & Frisia
DFR
CEFR
A1
Anglia
Frisia
Start
1F
2F
3F
4F
A2
B1
B2
C1
Junior
Intermediate
Stap 1
Stap 2
Stap 3
C2
Relevant literature
• M. Hajer & Th. Meestringa, Handboek
Taalgericht Vakonderwijs.
• H. Paus e.a., Dertien doelen in een dozijn.
Een referentiekader voor taalcompetenties van
leraren in Nederland en Vlaanderen. Nederlandse
Taalunie.
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• Dankuwel
• Köszönöm
• Dankscheen
Tankewol
Tankewol
• Eskerrik asko
• Mercé plan
• Graciis
• Kiitos
• Multimesc
• Hvala
• Trugarez
• Mange Takk
• Diolch
Tankewol
Thank
you
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