Riflessioni dopo il 1° incontro (my opinions) Riflessioni personali : è vero che i ragazzi sono incapaci di attenzione prolungata, è vero che dobbiamo cercare la loro attenzione e partecipazione quindi modi di interagire differenti dalla spiegazione tout court. Quindi va bene cercare e trovare modi diversi, come nel CLIL Tuttavia : 1 Gli argomenti, svolti in CLIL, hanno bisogno di più tempo per essere sviluppati, e questo porta a programmi meno estesi. Questo riguarda comunque la didattica non frontale in genere. 2 Inoltre i modi di far scuola non frontali sono in genere associati a richieste di studio molto modeste e a preparazione autonoma. E’ un bene? Commento nel merito di 2: difficile per gli studenti riuscire a fare da soli senza una base. Riguardo a 1, dobbiamo considerare le differenze legate alle diverse discipline: se forse si possono tranquillamente fare meno autori in Italiano, Inglese, filosofia ecc., molto più difficile è escludere segmenti di programma nelle scienze Punto sulla situazione dopo la prima lezione: commenti e punti di vista per le scienze. Programmi: noi dobbiamo farli: scuola sec inf. : matematica certamente, scienze un po’ di libertà scuola sec sup: licei, prove di ammissione ad alcune facoltà universitarie, che non si possono ignorare. Come da programmazione del presente corso A PARTIRE dal TERZO incontro gli insegnantidiscenti lavorano al proprio percorso CLIL nel tempo che segue la lezione frontale, con l’assistenza degli esperti (e/o A CASA se lasciano il corso prima del tempo e/o se vogliono migliorare la loro produzione) Gli insegnanti-discenti abbozzano e formalizzano una proposta operativa, specificando: • il tipo di indirizzo del percorso di studi, • la classe a cui si rivolge, • i tempi di attuazione (che non devono essere superiori a tre settimane; quattro settimane per i docenti provenienti da fuori regione) • la collocazione nella programmazione individuale. La scelta opportunamente dovrebbe ricadere su un segmento di programma da svolgere in accordo con il calendario degli incontri del corso. Summary on how to plan a CLIL project, according to the format proposed by Università Cattolica di Milano during the 2013-14 methodological – didactic course, as performed by Claudia Terzi in the previous lecture • • Identify the unit in your program Look for and select appropriate sections of texts (passages) and videos concerning the topic you are going to present; from books, from the web • Make the text fit for your class: simplify according to both the level of English and science; split in paragraphs (scaffolding) • Present the unit to the class: subject to develop, time required, recollection of previous knowledge (prerequisites) Develop the unit during lessons: A Read and explain texts, make the students listen to videos, according to a planned schedule B Analyse words or make the students do it, finding key words, etymology, false friends etc (scaffolding). C Analyse text for any important aspect concerning it, both on English and the scientific topic. D Prepare activities to perform underway as the following : Activities to perform in itinere Worksheets requiring: 1. Transcriptions (eventually guided) of videos 2. “Fill the gaps” exercises on text and videos 3. Crosswords on text and videos 4. Questions ???? concerning text and videos Multimedia production on text and video Any other activity allowing students to work by themselves on the subject Assessment • Assessment in itinere, in order to have a feed back. Use oral and/or written tests • Final assessment for evaluation: a final written test Further activities: Laboratory activities Tours of science museums Naturalistic excursions on the territory REALLY……. CLIL is a creative way of teaching ! OCTOBER 14TH 2014 CARLA CARDANO II LECTURE TITLE Come non sottovalutare o sopravvalutare il proprio inglese e come gestirlo al meglio: consigli su come affrontare l’insegnamento in lingua. Aspetti facili e difficoltà nell’inglese delle scienze. OCTOBER 14TH 2014 CARLA CARDANO II LECTURE TITLE How to evaluate your English correctly and how to manage to get the best out of it: some advice on how to deal with teaching in English. Easy aspects and difficulties. Three themes will be developed. 1 Modern English is the dominant language Modern English is the dominant language or in some instances even the required international language of communications, science, information technology, business, seafaring, aviation, entertainment, radio, and diplomacy 1 English is THE INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGEEIL LANGUAGE Modern English often is described as the first global language: in fact it is the dominant language in the world: • grammatical mistakes are tollerated • Foreign accents are tollerated • Lots of differences from perfect English are accepted…….. ……..as long as the message passes through • Examples (from cultured italian people) of badly pronounced words • Examples from Nobel laureates: strong foreign accent Control, report, review, horizon,… diamond, psychology … Luc Montagnier http://www.thefutureofscience.org/video/sixth-worldconference-on-the-future-of-science-viruses-theinvisible-enemy-opening-lectures-living-with-viruses 2 English language is simpler than other languages, much simpler than italian language. Scientific English is even simpler than normal English: sentences are short, often essential and basic. Comparison of lengths of texts in different European languages as a parameter connected to complexity Data is missing. ENGLISH ITALIAN 3 Most scientific words have a classical etymology: they are similar to the corresponding italian words: chemistry, biology, geology, paleontology, zoology, physics, … genetics ….. vertebrates, reptiles, amphibians, … ……………. Influences in English vocabulary All English words • Percentages of English words from Greek and Latin More advanced words LATIN AND GREEK • Very high percentage (the majority of more advanced words in subjects such as the sciences), come from Latin or Greek, Use of Latin in the past • Latin was used in original scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900 in Europe. • Newton's writing career began in Latin and ended in English ( Opticks, 1704). A much earlier example is Galileo c. 1600: Some scientific writings were in Latin, some in Italian, TH E USE OF LATIN LASTED LONGER IN ENGLAND THAN IN ITALY 1564- 1642 Galileo Galilei 1610, Sidereus Nuncius IN LATIN 1616; Discorso del flusso e reflusso del mare in Italian 1619;, Discorso Delle Comete) in Italian 1623;, Il Saggiatore in Italian 1632; Dialogo dei due massimi sistemi del mondo, in Italian 1638;, Discorsi e Dimostrazioni Matematiche, intorno a due nuove scienze in Italian 1687. Philosophiae Naturalis Isaac Newton 1642-1727 Principia Mathematica, IN LATIN 1704, Opticks, in English 1810 Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae Et Insulae Van Diemen, by Robert Brown The dominance of English in the international scientific periodical literature and the future of language use in science Rainer Enrique Hamel, Throughout the 20th century, international communication has shifted from a plural use of several languages to a clear pre-eminence of English, especially in the field of science. This paper focuses on international periodical publications where more than 75 percent of the articles in the social sciences and humanities and well over 90 percent in the natural sciences are written in English. The shift towards English implies that an increasing number of scientists whose mother tongue is not English have already moved to English for publication. Consequently, other international languages, namely French, German, Russian, Spanish and Japanese lose their attraction as languages of science. Many observers conclude that it has become inevitable to publish in English, even in English only. The central question is whether the actual hegemony of English will create a total monopoly, at least at an international level, or if changing global conditions and language policies may allow alternative solutions. The paper analyses how the conclusions of an inevitable monopoly of English are constructed, and what possible disadvantages such a process might entail. Finally, some perspectives of a new plurilingual approach in scientific production and communication are sketched. These are all good reasons for feeling confortable 1 English is THE INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE (EIL) 3 Many key words are similar in italian 2 Scientific English is simple Teaching in English should be easy In a way it is, BUT……… many of us feel unconfortable…. …..because WE MIGHT BE AFRAID OF: • bad pronounciation • lack of the right word at the right moment • lack of fluency………………. …………………………. HOW can we manage all this ? Let’s make our teaching more relaxed! Let’s feel confident! BUT HOW ? Videos allow the teacher to be better equipped and more confident How can videos help ? (us and our students too) Videos get all pronounciation right Videos get the right word at the right moment Videos are fluent ………………….. and more…… • help in getting all pronunciations right from the beginning (for new words) •stimulate careful listening; reinforce general vocabulary, sentences constructions and new words learning • stimulate incidental language learning as students focus on content trying to understand the topic •Video transcribing improves attention to spelling ………..and all activities are performed at the same time ! BUT after all: we have to be careful, not to teach mistakes. It means that we must check: • every sentence for grammar ( with the collegue teacher of English) • every word for meaning • every word for pronunciation because yes, CLIL is a creative way of teaching but we do not want to create English ! Some useful tips for lexicon False friends Well known ones: freshwater, mosquito. Crude oil False friends Difficult or unlikely pronunciation It sounds like: icolai \ē-kō-lī\ PREDATOR http://www.merriam-webster.com/audio.php?file =e_col01m&word=E.%20coli&text= Escherichia coli; E. coli Video on E.coli • : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rlyfc5fVqI&feature=related • E. coli are a large and diverse group of bacteria. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, others can make people sick. Some kinds of E. coli can cause diarrhea, while others cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness and pneumonia, and other illnesses. Still other kinds of E. coli are used as markers for water contamination…… Difficult or unlikely pronunciation It sounds like: preditor \pre-də-tər, -tȯr\ http://media.merriam-webster.com/soundc11/p/predat09.wav PREDATOR Predator and Prey in an Ecosystem http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CsfJL-IIVz4 Difficult or unlikely pronunciation • Lettuce • lattice The atoms in the crystal are arranged in a lattice: Words used in English with a broader meaning Backbone. First and obvious meaning Words that have a different meaning in the plural form stamen For the noun: stamen stamens, Plural form: stamina also the strength or vigor of bodily constitution Some words of classical origin and the corresponding everyday words • decipher, decode •Crack • Chiasma, pl. Chiasmata • Larynx • Esophagus • Stomach •Crossing over •Voicebox •Gullet •Tummy Classical only…. • Datum, • and They have irregular plural forms!!! data medium media • • Bacterium, bacteria • Locus, loci used in genetics, mathematics, psycology, anatomy. Specific lexicon is important for writing, reading, speaking and listening. Using a dictionary is very important. http://www.merriamwebster.com/ It has audio pronunciation for all the words http://visual.merriamwebster.com/science.php Oxford dictionary THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION !