LANGUAGES OF SCHOOLING AND
THE RIGHT TO PLURILINGUAL
AND INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION
Prof. Dr. Helmut Johannes Vollmer
University of Osnabrück/Council of Europe
MERCATOR Network Conference
Fryske Akademy, 17-18 September 2009
Structure of my presentation
1. Need for communication in Europe about language
education: multi-/plurilingualism, intercultural learn.
2. Need for comprehensive/inclusive lang. educ. policy,
based on CoE conventions/values
3. Framework: Languages in and for Education
4. Languages of Schooling: Language as Subject (LS),
Language in Other Subjects (LOS)
5. Identifying Comeptences, Descriptors, Standards
6. Platform of resources and references for pl+ic educ.
2
1. Need for a common discourse…
• The Common European Framework (for modern
languages) provides a common basis for the
elaboration of language syllabuses, curriculum
guidelines, examinations, textbooks, etc. across
Europe. (….) The Common European
Framework is intended to overcome the
barriers to communication among
professionals working in the field of modern
languages arising from the different
educational systems in Europe. (….)
• Similarly the new initiative, “framework”, project
3
A ‘common language’ in Europe?
CoE: Multilingual v. plurilingual
• Multilingualism (…) is the knowledge of a number of languages, or
the co-existence of different languages in a given society.
• Plurilingualism …
– does not keep these languages and cultures in strictly separated
mental compartments, but rather builds up a communicative
competence to which all knowledge and experience of language
contributes and in which languages interrelate and interact. In
different situations
• Plurilingual Competence: capacity to successively acquire and
use different competences in diff. languages, at diff. levels of proficiency and for different functions. The central purpose of pluriling.
education is to develop this competence.
a person can call flexibly upon different parts of this competence to
achieve effective communication with a particular interlocutor.
(CEFR p.4)
• EU: uses only ‘multilingual’
4
Multilingual vs. plurilingual –
Implications for education
• Multilingual education = one or more languages
learnt and ‘kept’ +/- separately
• Plurilingual education = one or more languages
contributing to ‘communicative competence’ of
ind. as an indivisible whole
• Individual Rights/entitlement persepctive vs. that
societal demands/expectations(of achievement)
• Performance standards vs. Opportunity-to-learn
standards
5
2. Comprehensive/inclusive
language education policy, based on
CoE conventions/values
Council of Europe language education policies aim to promote:
- PLURILINGUALISM …
- LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY …
- MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING …
- DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP …
- SOCIAL COHESION: equality of opportunity for personal
development, education, employment, mobility, access to information
and cultural enrichment
6
Political context and and general aims
7. We are determined to build cohesive societies by ensuring fair
access to social rights, fighting exclusion and protecting vulnerable
social groups. We acknowledge the importance of the European
Social Charter in this area and support current efforts to increase its
impact on the framing of our social policies. We are resolved to
strengthen the cohesion of our societies in its social, educational,
health and cultural dimensions.
Warsaw Declaration - Council of Europe Heads of State and
Government Summit 2005
7
Council of Europe language education policies aim
to promote:
• DEMOCRATIC CITIZENSHIP: participation in democratic and
social processes in multilingual societies is facilitated by the
plurilingual competence of individuals
• SOCIAL COHESION: equality of opportunity for personal
development, education, employment, mobility, access to
information and cultural enrichment depends on access to
language learning throughout life
• INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE: combination of knowledge,
skills, attitudes+behaviours which allow a speaker, to varying
degrees, to recognise, understand, interpret and accept other
ways of living and thinking beyond his or her home culture. This
competence is the basis of understanding among people, and it
in not limited to language ability.
(Self-reflection: Autobiography of intercultural encounters)
8
European Union
[ECONOMIC / INSTRUMENTAL FUNCTION]
• Proficiency in several Community languages has become a
precondition if citizens of the European Union are to benefit from the
occupational and personal opportunities open to them in the borderfree single market. (…..)
[IDENTITY FUNCTION]
• Languages are also the key to knowing other people. Proficiency in
languages helps to build up the feeling of being European with all its
cultural wealth and diversity and of understanding between the
citizens of Europe.
(European Commission White Paper: Teaching and Learning – Towards the
learning society, 1995: 67)
the knowledge of languages is one of the basic skills which each citizen
needs to acquire in order to take part effectively in the European
knowledge society and therefore facilitates both integration into
society and social cohesion (2002)
Mother-tongue and L2 are acknolwedged as (2 out of 8) KEY
Competences
9
3. Languages in Education
Languages for Education
10
Languages in and for education
• Not all languages (present) in school are
languages of schooling/instruction
• Languages in school: different categories,
different status, but change is possible
• Language(s) of schooling/instruction: keystone
of all language education: achieving school’s
objectives and pupils’ successes; major element.
• Concern: The relationship between main
language(s) of school/instruction and languages
of pupils
11
European reference documents/website
instead of another framewwork: Why?
• Learner perspective: ALL languages are part of a
‘language capacity’ for learning (and other kinds of living)
– need for a holistic approach, but WE KNOW LESS
• Teacher perspective: All teachers are “language
teachers”, at least: they have to become languagesensitive; this provides a common basis to overcome the
barriers to communication among professionals
• National or member state perspectives:
– permit transparency in the development of didactics of Language
as Subject (LS) (e.g. English in England; Portuguese in
Portugal);
– articulate the didactics of LS and foreign language(s);
– create transparency (for all teachers – e.g. of science, history
etc) concerning language across the curriculum (LAC, LOS);
– define intervention measures for ‘vulnerable students’/special
groups
12
4. Languages of Schooling
 the (national) languages as subjects taught in schools (e.g. German
taught in German schools, Frech taught in French schools); term to
be used: language as subject (= LS)
 the languages used as media of teaching and learning of other
subjects ; term to be used: language(s) in other subjects (= LOS)
 the institutionalised forms of discourse and social interaction (hidden)
 all languages which are part of the overall language curriculum
which embraces all the languages a learner meets in school (in
Germany a learner meets German as the official school language
taught as a subject, English, French, Italian etc. taught as foreign
languages (FL), Turkish taught in language maintenance courses
etc.);
13
School Language as a largely „hidden
curriculum“
… teachers´expectations for language use are seldom made explicit, and
much of what is expected regarding language use in school tasks remains
couched in teachers´ vague admonitions to „use your own words“ or „to be
clear“… For these reasons Christie (1985) has called language the „hidden
curriculum“.
… judgements about students´ abilities are often based on how they
express their knowledge in language.
… teachers need greater knowledge about the linguistic basis of what they
are teaching and tools for helping students achieve greater facility with the
ways language is used in creating the kinds of texts that construe
specialized knowledge at school.
Mary J. Schleppegrell. The Language of Schooling. A Functional Linguistics
Perspective. Mahwah/London 2004
14
4.1 Language as Subject (LS):
Possible themes
• Teaching ‘a canon’ of literature?
• Teaching language (grammatical system, generative
principles, genres, pragmatics …?)
• Teaching literacy and identity-building
• Bildung - to develop and bring out the full potential
of a human being, based on his/her nature, but
stimulated and structured by education (nurture)
(.....) the process of becoming educated/becoming
one’s own self AND the state reached by a human
being
15
4.2 Elements for Language in Other
Subjects LOS)
• Acquiring + using subject-specific concepts and
terminology
• Understanding + using a rational, formal,
explicit academic or pre-scientific style of
expression (initiation into academic lang. use)
• Comprehending and constructing cohesive and
coherent pieces of information (subject-specific
texts, including WRITING)
• Understanding, thinking+talking subject/science
16
A Simplified Model of SubjectSpecific Competence
Knowledge/Meaning
Cognition/Proc.Comp.
Discourse
Competence
Language/
Communic.Competence
4
17
Example from Chemistry: Developing
the notion of Reaction
• Starting with everyday concepts/
understandings
• Setting up experimental conditions for own
observations and recordings
• Summarising + interpreting the data,
• Formulating possible rules or regularities
• Developing and testing own hypotheses
• Defining REACTION in subject-specific
terms
18
LOS - Possible themes
- Language as an activity, as conceptualisation, as
cognition, as an instrument for learning + interaction
– in school and beyond
- Defining competences in language as activity, and
the pedagogical areas/domains of use
- Describing rights to and expectations of levels of
language competence at specific points in schooling
- Discussing assessment procedures and criteria for
good assessment
- Discussing possible methodologies of languagesensitive subject-matter teaching and learning
19
Preliminary Model of a German Subgroup
Can participate
in classroom
interaction and
communication
Can obtain
and process
relevant
information
Can (re-) structure and extend
knowledge
concepts
Can
communicate
and present
learning results
Can evaluate
ways, means,
and methods of
learning
Descriptors are used to describe and scale competences
Media,
learning
materials, text
types, genres
Thinking skills
/ Discourse
functions
Descriptors
refer to …
Repertoire:
Lexis
Morpho-Syntax
Pronunciation
Spelling
Texture:
Strategies
Structures
Reference
Coherence
Communicative
activities:
Listening
Reading
Speaking
Writing
20
5. Competences, Descriptions or
Descriptors, Levels (Standards)
Developing procedures and a practical instrument serving to
(a) describe necessary LANGAUGE COMPETENCES and stages
of development in the acquisition/handling of the language varity
used in formal education for the support of cognitive processes as
well as activities targeted at the acquisition of knowledge and
skills,
(b) to identify the specific rights and needs of individual learners
so that remedial work can be organised and no child will be left
behind for not being able to cope with the specifics of school
language („BILDUNGSSPRACHE“).
(c) analyse empirically and construct curricula with explicit
reference to the language competences involved in LS and LOS
21
Examples for comprehensive
descriptions of outcomes/competences
LS:
• Show understanding of both surface and deep meanings
in response to a range of texts (including fiction, nonfiction, linear and non-linear texts, media texts) and make
appropriate inferences
• Can use appropriate reading strategies
LOS:
• Can express himself/herself in speaking and writing
• Is able to read for information, can restructure a text
• Understands how science works
• Perceive one‘s own beliefs and life faith, express it and
defend it against others as legitimate and reasonable
• Develop intercultural understanding of people from
different linguistic and cultural backgrounds/contexts
22
Examples for more specific
linguistic/communicative competences
LS:
• Check spelling and use a dictionary
• Mark key terms in a text to prepare for a summary
• Identify symbols and metaphors in a text
LOS
• Extract key points from a history text to produce
notes (for later use)
• Know and develop subject-specific vocabulary
• Formulate, test and prove hypotheses about ...
23
Format of curricular descriptors /standards
/competence strings
Pupils select data and information from different sources
(e.g. print-, electronic media), assessing plausibility and
relevance and process the information in a way adequate for a
specific purpose, target group and situation. (Biology, Grade 9)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Verbal elements (operators) – marked black –define a capability to do sth.
Nominal elements –marked green– specify a subject-specific content
Nominal extensions – marked violet – further specify the content (optional)
Modal elements of the competence format – marked red – specify conditions,
circumstances and degrees of mastery.
24
Typical operators in LS descriptors
read for…(a range of purposes) - select (key points) - identify (key
themes/ different passages or genres), comment on (key passages)
- use (previous knowledge) - write (different types of text) - plan and
structure - communicate (clearly and suitably for the context) choose (the appropriate vocabulary, grammar, spelling,
punctuation)
- express (ideas and opinions) (in response to …) – take part in –
reflect on – recognise that – show understanding – use (different
strategies) – assess (critically)…
Typical operators in LOS descriptors (across subjects)
describe (125) - explain (67) – compare (44) – present (43) assess(33) - distinguish (32) – explicate/illustrate (31) – give
reasons for (29) – derive (29) – determine (19) – name/label (18) appraise (17) – record/document (16) – construe(15) – interpret (15)
– discuss (12) – evaluate (10)
25
Cognition and discourse functions
Discourse functions describe and specify fundamental cognitive actions/
activities and their linguistic realisation/expression
• NAMING
• DESCRIBING
• NARRATING
• EXPLAINING
• ARGUING
• EVALUATING
• NEGOTIATING
Plus(?): EXPLORING/DISCOVERING, COMPREHENDING, REFLECTING
(Problem: these are partly or largely not observable in verbal behaviour)
Texts/Types of discourse use those macro functions and the many micro
functions (e.g. contrast, define, hypothesise, infer) selectively
Can be combined in a number of different ways in texutal reception and
production
Some discourse/text types rely dominantly on one DF, never exclusively
Activities/descriptors in LS relate to language demands/descriptors in other
subjects largely via text types and discourse functions: TRANSFER? 26
Discourse Functions in Relation to Text
types and Linguistic Features
(German Subgroup)
DISCOURSE FUNCTIONS (Macro level)
Naming/Pointing – Narrating- Describing – Explaining – Arguing –
Evaluating – Negotiating …
Meso/Micro level
name – label – define – point out - specify (details) –
summarise – compare – contrast – relate – judge –
appreciate – position …
literary texts and genres –
factual prose and genres
– discontinuous texts –
multi-media texts …
BICS/CALP: lexis –
morpho-syntax – style –
register - means to
establish coherence and
cohesion …
27
Questions involved
• Can the most important goals/outcomes be adequately be described
and “operationalised”?
• What levels of proficiency are explicitly previewed for the languages
of education?
• How can students’ level of proficiency validly (and rigorously) be
determined?
• Can students be assessed with a Common European Instrument for
the Language(s) of Schooling or only locally?
• LINKS between competences in LS and in LOS???
Describing ‘RIGHTS’ and ‘EXPECTATIONS’ of levels of proficiency in
language at specific points in schooling
CAN ONLY BE DONE BY – those responsible in each Member state
28
CHALLENGE: Scaling Approaches
(German Subgroup)
… is able to show comprehension
with body language and very basic
verbal means when subject-specific
facts,persons, procedures are delt
with. Has sufficient BICS to talk
about these in class and understands
basic recurrent subject-specific
terminology.
… understands basic subject-specific
terminology (e.g. „adjective“,
„terrestrial globe“)
… can understand derivatives of
basic subject-specific terminology
(e.g. division, divisor, divide…)
… can understand terms for frequent
classroom activities
…
10/
11
… can follow subject-specific texts /
presentations without being irritated
by specific terminology, knows which
terms are relevant for solving a
specific task and how to clarify their
meaning, is acquainted with
canonical definitions and knows
when it is necessary to use them ….
15
pointing
function … can read factual subject-specific
prose without being irritated by
terminology
… can identify passages in a written
text which clarify meaning of elevant
terms
… can explain elements and their
function of definitions by giving sbject29
specific examples
….
READING
LS: Show understanding of both surface and deep meanings in response to a
range of texts (including fiction, non-fiction, linear and non-linear texts,
media texts) and make appropriate inferences
LOS: 1. Recall, analyse, interpret, apply and question scientific information or
ideas
2. restructure text for a particular purpose, e.g. extract key points from a
science text to produce notes; convert information found on the web into an
information leaflet (for use in a doctor’s surgery or in his/her office for
patients)
Possible operations:
to present
DISCOURSE FUNCTION: Describing, Evaluating
to summarise
DISCOURSE FUNCTION: Describing
to relate, to interpret
DISCOURSE FUNCTION: Explaining
to review
DISCOURSE FUNCTION: Evaluating?
…
(either orally or in writing)
Themes? Domain specific knowledge?
TASKS: Interpret a diagram on the demographical development of.. OR Identify
topic-related and relevant pieces of information (from one or two different
sources ↔ Read one of the children‘s book and present it to the class
30
6. PLATFORM – REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
Platform of resources and references for plurilingual + intercult. education
that is flexible and dynamic, allowing for growth – a web-based approach
Develop documents in stages so that they can be launched without having
been developed in full
Use feedback from users to shape further development
Key texts to form the basis for the first stage of the Platform:
# General introduction/Overview
# Plurilingual and intercultural education
# Entitlement/Rights of the Learner
# Regional, Minority and Migrant Languages
# Foreign Languages – Modern/Classical
# Language as subject (LS)
# Language in other subjects (LOS)/Language across the curriculum (LAC)
# The Use of Descriptions and Descriptors - Assessment and evaluation
Drafts of the documents to be presented 3/09
Feedback from member countries prior to third European conference in
June 2009, Final Intergov’mental Conference in Nov. 2009 (Geneva)
31
6.1 Implications:
Whole School Language Policy
• Relating language education in LS to subject-specific language learning
(LAC) and competences across all subjects
• Integrating content and language learning (CLIL) by using foreign
language(s) for subject-matter teaching
• Relating education in LS to foreign or second language learning
• Relating foreign language education to heritage language education.
With the help of the following documents of the CoE:
Guide for the Development of Language Education Policies in Europe
Common European Framework of Reference for Languages/ website
Guide for Planning and Implementing Plurilingual Curricula
32
6.2 The needs of ‘vulnerable learners’
(disadvantaged L1 learners + migrant children)
Cognitive-Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)
Basic interpersonal Communicative Skills (BICS)
• The language of school and of science (CALP) demands
the performance of other speech acts and discourse
functions than in communicating about common topics
(BICS). Transition from everyday language use to academic
language use requires precision, explicitness, rationality
and argumentative structures
• (For immigrant children) Conversational fluency is often
acquired to a functional level within about two years of
initial exposure to the second language whereas at least
five years is usually required to catch up to native speakers
in academic aspects of the second language (Cummins)
33
Questions
• What measures are previewed by the Council of
Europe to reduce the disadvantages of
immigrant, second-generation immigrants and
children with a low socioeconomic level in
achieving a proficiency level which allows them
to successfully learn and integrate in society?
• What measures should be taken in order to
assure that vulnerable groups achieve a
minimum proficiency level?
REF DOC – make the stake-holders aware of …
REF DOC – make suggestions ‘only’ …
34
LINKS
http://www.coe.int/lang
http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Publication
s_EN.asp#P205_11993
http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/LangEduc/
ConfLE09ProgrammePresent_bil.asp#TopOfPage
35
Thank you very much
for your attention
36
Descargar

LANGUAGES OF SCHOOLING AND THE RIGHT TO …