COMPETENCE - BASED
EDUCATION
Jack Holbrook
Competency and Competence.
And Ability and Capability.
• The viewpoint I have taken.
• Competency - the ability to explain, analyse, evaluate,
solve a scientific problem, make a decision, etc. in a
given situation.
• Competence – the capability (judged to have the
potential) to integrate abilities and related these to an
unknown situation.
Functionality in society
• In considering the difference between the term ‘ability’ and
the term ‘capability’, it might be useful to distinguish between
• attaining (measurable), but isolated, learning outcomes (each
considered as a separate competency) [A COLLECTION OF
ABILITIES] and
• developing holistic competencies (often referred to as
competence) [CAPABILITIES]
The Old Ideas
• Teaching could be expressed in terms of Aims, and more
specifically, Objectives.
• To make the objectives more meaningful, they were
expressed in behavioural terms.
• Behavioural objectives included 3 criteria:
• Student behaviour, conditions of performance and
performance criteria.
• Example – students can correctly write the symbol of 2
elements and illustrate how they combine to form a
compound by giving a complete equation.
Behavioural objectives
• The behavioural objectives movement of the late 1950s
and 1960s gave rise in the 1970s to four related
developments:
• mastery learning (Bloom, 1974);
• criterion-referenced testing (Popham, 1978);
• minimum competency testing (Jaeger and Tittle, 1980);
and
• competency-based education (Burke et al., 1975)
Competence-based education
The basic principles and intentions of competency-based
education have remained essentially unchanged since the
1960s.
They are:
• a focus on outcomes;
• greater workplace relevance;
• outcomes as observable competences;
• assessments as a judgement of competence (not
marks on a content-based test);
• improved skills recognition;
• improved articulation and credit transfer;
The Changing Face of Education
• What distinguished competence-based education from
standard aims and objectives was its concern (at least
initially) with outcomes relevant to employment.
• Today, this has been expanded to not only related to
careers, but also to everyday life and in particular to
being a responsible citizen, especially in a democratic
society.
• But what is the change?
Learning for the unknown
• Education (21st Century) needs to enable students
to deal with situations in the future which cannot
be defined in advance. i.e students are expected to
be equipped for dealing with the unknown.
• What educators must face is that students need
experiences which will enable them to develop the
capacity to perform in circumstances that can’t be
prescribed in advance.
Being competent
• What is it that makes one worker more competent than
another (who perhaps possesses the same knowledge and
skills)?
• The question can be turned around to ask:
• ‘How, when confronted with a novel situation, the more
competent person knows what aspects of their
knowledge and skills are relevant to the situation’?
• The above tries to illustrate that COMPETENCE is more that
acquiring explicit knowledge and specific subject skills.
The Need
• The next question to be asked is ‘how can the capacity
to discern the relevant aspects be developed?’
• The learning needs to move from ‘informational’ to ‘tacit’
knowledge.
• Tacit knowledge has been described as “know-how” - as
opposed to “know-what” (facts), “know-why” (science), or
“know-who” (networking).
• It involves learning and acquiring skills, but not in a way
that can be written down. (so much for written tests?!!)
Why Competences?
• Question
• Answer
• Why introduce
• The intended end product is a
Competences
into Science
Education?
person who has functional
competences to cope in everyday
life and the workplace.
• (possesses capabilities to use tools
(knowledge/skills), solve
problems, make decisions,
interact with others, as and when
appropriate when the situation
demands).
What are competences?
• Question
• Answer
• What are
• At a very general level, these have been
Competences?
expressed as attributes to:
• Use tools interactively;
• Interact in heterogeneous groups;
• Acting autonomously.
DeSeCo (OECD, 2003)
Competences can be seen as capabilities
(the ability - plus potential to use this ability
in the appropriate manner in conjunction
with other abilities; and it goes beyond
subject knowledge/skills)
Competences in Science Education
• Question
• Answer
• What is the
• CBSE is a process that enables science
intention in
introducing CBSE
(competencebased science
education)?
education to promote STL
by
• focusing on what academics believe
students need to know (teacherfocused)
And also addressing what
• students need to be capable of doing
individually or collectively in varying
and complex situations (student and/or
workplace focused).
Implications for Science Education
• Question
Answer
• What are the
Society and workforce relevant (focused on
society/ workforce need outcomes)
Focus on outcomes which are increasingly
holistic (plus complex in nature), rather than
deriving from the addition of multiple low
level, isolated objectives.
More complex assessment procedures (as
judgement of competence) , involving
portfolios, experiential learning assessment in
field experience, demonstration in varying
contexts, role play, problem solving/decision
making projects, etc.
implications of
introducing
CBSE?
So what is new?
• Question
• How is a
competencebased science
curriculum
different from one
based on goals
and objectives?
• Answer
Acquiring specific (but isolated) knowledge and
skills (intellectual, processing procedures,
personal, social) is not seen as the major goal
and neither is content acquisition.
Enhancing scientific literacy requires a need to
go further and by drawing on science (and
general) knowledge and skills, and taking into
consideration society values, be capable to
exhibit competence by holistically applying
these attributes to new situations and
considerations, should the occasion arise.
Comparing Learning Outcomes and Competences
• Question
Are learning
outcomes in
science teaching
the same as
outcome
‘competences’?
• Answer
Yes and no.
Developing abilities is target-related and
hence indicated by learning outcomes that are
action-oriented and measurable.
However, learning outcomes specifically
explicit but relating to that taught, tend to be
isolated statements (unless lower order
expectations are subsumed within higher order
cognitive expectations).
Developing the potential to act in unknown
situations (capability) requires more holistic
learning outcomes (gaining a measure of
‘potential to do’ by the capability to integrate
ability, skills and society values learning).
Summarising: the red or the blue
• THE RED
• THE BLUE
• SCIENCE through
• EDUCATION through
EDUCATION
• The emphasis is on
the science
• The target is the
specialist
SCIENCE
• The emphasis is on
the education
• The target is all
students
Science through Education Education through Science
Learn fundamental science
knowledge, concepts, theories and
laws.
Undertake the processes of science
through inquiry learning as part of
the development of learning to be a
scientist.
Learn science knowledge and concepts important
for understanding and handling socio-scientific
issues within society.
Undertake investigatory scientific problem solving
to better understand the science background
related to socio-scientific issues within society.
Gain an appreciation of the nature of
science from a scientist’s point of
view.
Undertake practical work and
appreciate the work of scientists.
Develop positive attitudes towards
science and scientists.
Gain an appreciation of the nature of science from
a societal point of view.
Develop personal skills related to creativity,
initiative, safe working, etc.
Develop positive attitudes towards science as a
major factor in scientific endeavours.
Acquire communicative skills related Acquire communicative skills related to oral,
to oral, written and symbolic/tabular/ written and symbolic/tabular/ graphical formats to
graphical formats
better express scientific ideas in a social context.
Undertake decision making in
tackling scientific issues.
Apply the uses of science to society
and appreciate ethical issues faced
by scientists.
Undertake socio-scientific decision making related
to issues arising from the society.
Develop social values related to becoming a
responsible citizen and undertaking sciencerelated careers.
Education through science promotes STL
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
ensuring relevance of school science (develop intrinsic
motivation based on the students’ world).
incorporating science into social decision making (school
science is socio-scientific in nature)
teaching students problem solving/inquiry skills (reaching
scientific solutions that can then be transferred to issues and
concerns in society)
guiding students to gain an understanding of the nature of
science (appreciate what science can and cannot do; how it can
be carried out, what its limitations are; the value of the
scientific enterprise; science as a social endeavour).
enhancing generic competences related to personal attributes
(aptitudes/attitudes) and social attributes (teamwork,values)
Education through Science addresses the Issues
associated with Science Education
For the most part, science education is (EC, 2007)
• Not relevant
• Boring
• Too abstract
• Difficult
Let us consider the possible ‘Education through Science’ way
forward addressing these concerns.
Introducing the 3 stage model an approach to the teaching of science
Science learning
is initiated by a
familiar context
as the frame of
reference, It is
linked to a need
in the eyes of
students.
In a social
context involving
science
Meeting the
science learning
need by scientific
problem solving
learning, giving
due attention to
NOS.
In a science
context (nonsocial)
Consolidation of
scientific
learning through
transference to
the contextual
frame and
promoting socioscientific
decision making.
In a socioscientific context
The 3 stage model
Stage 1
THE INITIAL MOTIVATIONAL (CONTEXT-BASED) STAGE
All learning start within a context by means of a scenario.
Stage 1 is socio-scientific, but recognises a science learning
component (& hence a need to determine students’ prior
science knowledge).
Stage 1 strives for relevance but being familiar to students.
Stage 1 is intriguing to students by addressing an issue or a
concern that is meaningful to students.
Relevance promotes interest to induce intrinsic (student
driven) motivation
i.e Motivation = f(Rel) + f(Int) + [other Internal and External factors]
Stage 2
THE SCIENCE LEARNING, NON CONTEXTUALISED STAGE
(acquiring new science knowledge and skills through an inquiry learning
approach & maintaining positive attitudes)
The teaching engages students in inquiry learning and is expected to engage
students in SCIENTIFIC PROBLEM SOLVING and develop SCIENCE
CONCEPTUALISATION.
If PROBLEM SOLVING IS THE COMPETENCE, then INQUIRY LEARNING IS THE
APPROACH TO SKILLS AND CONCEPTUALISATION
Most teaching time in science education is associated with this
stage.
THIS IS THE MAJOR STAGE FOR ACQUIRING NEW SCIENCE CONCEPTS AND
DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC AND GENERIC SKILLS
Stage 3 THE CONSOLIDATION RE- CONTEXTUALISED, SOCIOSCIENTIFIC, DECISION-MAKING STAGE
The learning within stage 2 needs a science consolidation stage.
Students are expected to learn to associate the science they have
acquired with the functioning, developments and issues within
society.
Students engage in socio-scientific decision making (gaining
competencies through utilising the acquired science in a new
situation and engaging in argumentation).
Flowchart for the Module ‘Are we overusing Plastics?’
Stage
1
2
3
Plastics are all around us. We like to
use them for many purposes. But this
was not the case 100 years ago. And
100 years ago the issue of handling
plastics waste did not arise.
Exploring the advantage and
disadvantages of
thermoplastic and
thermosetting materials
So what are plastics?
What makes plastics
so useful?
Identifying and explaining
thermoplastics and
thermosetting plastic
materials.
What to do with plastic materials
when we no longer need them? An
issue.
With so many uses of
plastics, are the
plastics all the same?
Testing plastics from different
sources. Can we categorise plastics ?
Can we explain their properties by
developing models (structures) ?
Exploring options - landfill,
burning, recycling, ensuring a
LCA (life cycle analysis) policy,
banning the use of certain,
mixed (or all) types of plastics
Devising tests to see if
plastics have different
properties
Deciding how the disposal of
plastics problem is best
solved. Is using less plastics an
option?
THE END
Assessing Capabilities
• Question
• Answer
• If capabilities are • They can only be assessed
complex and
cannot be
expressed
precisely, how
can they be
assessed?
when the capability is shown
in carrying out a specific
action in response to a
(perhaps unknown) situation.
• The potential to do so in new
situations can only be judged
(evaluated) as an indicator of
capability in general.
Assessing Knowledge & Skills & Competences
• Question
• Answer
• Does this mean that
• No (they need to be assessed).
acquired scientific
• But it does mean that assessing
knowledge and skills knowledge and skills, in isolation
should not be
(as in a typical pencil and paper
assessed?
examination) cannot be expected
to indicate possession of
competences.
• The competence is the transfer, or
application (the holistic using) of
conceptual knowledge, skills and
values in new situations.
Learning beyond Science Knowledge & Skills
• Question
• So does this mean
that, in science
lessons, students
need to acquire
knowledge, skills
and develop
attitudes (values),
and then, in
addition, there is a
need to develop
competences ?
• Answer
• Yes.
• The competences such as problem solving or
decision making cannot be exhibited without a
knowledge & skills base.
• But the gaining of competences requires going
beyond simple abilities. It means possessing
capabilities (a potential) to bring isolated and
integrated learning to form a holistic action.
And this goes beyond subject and need to
integrate general competences (abilities), etc.
Does ‘Basic’ or ‘Fundamental’ Science exist?
• Question
• Answer
• What science content
• Competences are culturally and society
must form the base
for the gaining of
competences ?
dependent. [Being competent to drive a
car in a small village is not the same as
driving in a big city (or in, say, Germany as
opposed to Bangladesh)]
• So while there are basic or fundamental
experiences so as to cope in society, is
there actually basic or fundamental
science which is basic or fundamental
worldwide? YOU DECIDE!!
Is the required science learning that portrayed in textbooks ?
• Question
• What is science ?
• Answer
• Two considerations –
• If it is related to being a body of
knowledge, then it can relate to seeking
explanations for natural phenomena
(CONTENT).
• If, however, it is more a way of thinking, it
facilitates creativity, imagination,
ingenuity, problem solving and the making
of decisions (WITHIN A CONTEXT).
• WHICH FOR COMPETENCE?
Regulations for Estonian National
curriculum for secondary schools
The regulation was established on the basis of Subsection 3 (2)
of the Basic Schools and Upper Secondary Schools Act.
• Chapter 2 GENERAL PART
• Division 1 CORE VALUES OF UPPER SECONDARY EDUCATION
• Division 2 LEARNING AND EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES
§ 4. Competences in the national curriculum
• Competence is indicated as the aggregate relevant knowledge,
skills and attitudes that ensure the capability to operate
productively in a particular area of activity or field.
• Competence can be categorized as either -
• Subject-specific competences, or
• General competences and are shaped through all subjects as
well as during extra-curricular and out-of-school activity.
Subject fields
The primary objective of a subject field is to shape the
corresponding subject field competences, supported by the
objectives of, and learning outcomes in, each subject.
The development of subject field competences is also supported by
subjects in other subject fields and extracurricular and out-ofschool activities.
The national curriculum includes the following subject fields:
• language and literature:;
foreign languages;
• mathematics;
natural science;
• social subjects;
art subjects;
• physical education.
At the end of grade 12, upper secondary science school
graduates are expected to have developed the capability
to:
• analyse and interpret directly perceived phenomena, as well as
phenomena imperceptible to our senses at the micro, macro
and mega levels, and appreciate the role of models and their
limitations in describing such phenomena;
• find and use sources of scientific and technological information
in Estonian and English, presented at the verbal, numerical or
symbolic level and are able to critically evaluate and appreciate
such information from both a personal and social viewpoint;
Capabilities contd.
• recognise socio-scientific issues in the environment, express
these in a scientific manner, use scientific methods to gather
information and investigate problems, frame hypotheses,
control variables, collect data/evidence through observations or
experimentation, analyse and interpret results and present
conclusions of the solution to the scientific problem as well as
limitations and sources of error involved.
• use systematic information obtained from studying biology,
chemistry, physics and geography, applied to socio-scientific
issues, to make reasoned decisions which take into account
other social, political, environmental, economic, ethical and
moral aspects;
Capabilities contd
• appreciate the different sub-areas of the Natural Science
domain, their areas of focus, the interlinking between them
and recognise the focus of emerging, interdisciplinary scientific
subjects in this overall system;
• appreciate science as a method of obtaining information in its
historical and modern context and recognise its role as a
creative enterprise in the context of scientific discoveries, ways
of thinking, explaining phenomena and limitations in
describing the actual world;
Capabilities contd
• evaluate the environmental and social effects of technological
achievements on the basis of scientific, social, economic,
political, ethical and moral standpoints;
• exhibit personal and social values associated with the
environment, the society as a whole and the role of science in
sustaining modern lifestyles, basing this on evidence that
indicate actions towards becoming a responsible citizen, and
• are interested in local and global phenomena plus new
developments in science and technology taking place in the
environment and the society and are motivated towards making
reasoned decisions in choosing a career, as well as lifelong
learning.
Learning Outcomes
• So what are learning outcomes?
• They are explicit and measureable components of
learning leading to competences and which when
integrated form a base for developing competence.
• These learning outcomes encompass subject knowledge
and skills, but also general attributes such as problem
solving, decision making, communication, perseverance,
creativity, collaborative working, consensus decision
making.
Learning outcomes in upper secondary school
Biology lessons in upper secondary school level are designed for
students to gain competences to:
• value their knowledge of, skills in and attitudes towards, biology as
important components of scientific and technological literacy and to
be internally motivated for lifelong learning;
• acknowledge the interrelations of nature, technology and society
and value their influence on the environment and society;
• gain a systematic overview of phenomena, diversity and processes
making up the organic world, the relationships between organisms
and their interaction with the inorganic world;
• show a responsible attitude towards the environment they live in
and value biological diversity and a sustainable and responsible
lifestyle;
contd
• apply scientific methods in solving biological problems, plan, carrying
•
•
•
•
out and analysing observations and experimental results and present
the results obtained in appropriate verbal and visual form;
make competent socio-scientific decisions about the natural and social
environment and predict the consequences of these decisions;
use various (including electronic) sources to find information about
issues in biology, to be able to analyse, synthesize and critically
evaluate the information obtained from these sources and apply it
effectively in explaining objects and processes in, as well as solving
problems associated with, the organic world;
where appropriate, use technological means, including ICT
possibilities, in studying biology and carrying out investigations; and
gain an overview of professions connected to biology and utilise
knowledge and skills and interest in biology in planning futurer careers.
Taking one topic
Cells
Learning outcomes (at a specific topic level in Biology)
• By the end of the course, students can:
• explain the unity of organic nature of matter according to the main
principles of cell theory;
• associate the structure of human epithelium, muscle, connective and
nervous cells with their functions and identify these tissues on slides,
microscope images and drawings;
• explain the role of the cell nucleus and chromosomes in the functioning of
cells;
• compare active and passive movement through the cell membrane;
• associate the components of animal cells (the cell membrane, cell
nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus,
endoplasmic reticulum and cytoskeleton) with their functions;
• identify the main parts of an animal cell on microscope images and
drawings; and
• compile and analyse sketch drawings and definition cards for the
functional relationships between cell components.
Section 2.6. Study Activities
PLEASE NOTE
In planning and organising curricular activities
• the starting point is basic values, general competences,
subject competences, educational goals and the
expected learning outcomes of the curriculum,
• while also supporting integration with other subjects,
generic competences and cross-curricular topics;
For STL - is the focus for the Science
Curriculum on Science or on Education?
• The red (corner) - the Focus is on Science
• The blue (corner) - the Focus is on Education
• Which for specialisation?
• Which for all students ?
• Which for the Estonian curriculum?
Summarising: the red or the blue
• SCIENCE through
EDUCATION
• The emphasis is on
the science
• The target is the
specialist
• EDUCATION through
SCIENCE
• The emphasis is on
the education
• The target is all
students
Science through Education Education through Science
Learn fundamental science
knowledge, concepts, theories
and laws.
Undertake the processes of
science through inquiry learning
as part of the development of
learning to be a scientist.
Learn science knowledge and concepts important for
understanding and developing capabilities for handling
socio-scientific issues within society.
Undertake investigatory scientific problem solving to
better understand the science background related to
socio-scientific issues within society and develop
capabilties to tackle unfamiliar problems.
Gain an appreciation of the nature
of science from a scientist’s point
of view.
Undertake practical work and
appreciate the work of scientists.
Develop positive attitudes
towards science and scientists.
Gain an appreciation of the nature of science from a
societal point of view which can impact on the
development of capabilties.
Develop personal skills related to enhance capabilties
using creativity, initiative, safe working,
Develop positive attitudes towards science as a major
factor in developing capability in scientific endeavours.
Acquire communicative skills
related to oral, written and
symbolic/tabular/ graphical
formats
Undertake decision making in
tackling scientific issues.
Apply the uses of science to
society and appreciate ethical
issues faced by scientists.
Acquire communicative skills related to oral, written and
symbolic/tabular/graphical formats to better express
scientific ideas in a social context.
Undertake socio-scientific decision making capabilties
related to issues arising from the society.
Develop social values related to gaining capabilities to
become a responsible citizen and undertake sciencerelated careers.
‘Education through science’ promotes STL
if permitted to:
ensure relevance of school science (developing intrinsic
motivation based on the students’ world).
(b) incorporate science into social decision making (school
science is socio-scientific in nature)
(c) teach students problem solving/inquiry skills (reaching
scientific solutions that can then be transferred to issues
and concerns in society)
(d) guide students to gain an understanding of the nature of
science (appreciate what science can and cannot do; how
it can be carried out, what its limitations are; the value of
the scientific enterprise; science as a social endeavour).
(a)
The Issue with Science Education –
where is this renewed pedagogy?
For the most part, current science education is (EC, 2007)
• Not relevant
• Boring
• Too abstract
• Difficult
(textbook focused
(factual and text driven)
(conceptual and not visual)
(not experienced in society)
• In short. Science education is ‘science through education.’
• It is time to consider a possible ‘Education through Science’
way forward.
An ‘education through science approach’
to the teaching of science
Science learning
is initiated by a
familiar context
as the frame of
reference, It is
linked to a need
in the eyes of
students.
In a social
context involving
science
Meeting the
science learning
need by scientific
problem solving
learning, giving
due attention to
NOS.
In a science
context (nonsocial)
Consolidation of
scientific
learning through
transference to
the contextual
frame and
promoting socioscientific
decision making.
In a socioscientific context
The 3-stage model
Stage 1
THE INITIAL MOTIVATIONAL (CONTEXT-BASED) STAGE
Relevance drives motivation. All modules start within a relevant,
familiar context (socio-scientific) by means of a scenario.
Stage 1 is socio-scientific and hence relates to a science learning
component (& hence an important need is to determine students’
prior science knowledge within stage 1).
Stage 1 strives for relevance by being familiar to students as an
important step towards interest and hence motivation.
Stage 1 is intriguing to students by address an issue or a concern
that is meaningful to students.
Stage 2
IBSE in a DE-CONTEXTUALISED STAGE
(acquiring capabilities and new science knowledge and skills through
an inquiry learning approach but maintaining positive attitudes)
The teaching engages students in inquiry learning and is expected to
engage students in student-driven SCIENTIFIC PROBLEM SOLVING.
If PROBLEM SOLVNG IS THE SKILL, then INQUIRY LEARNING IS THE
APPROACH and the target is problem solving capability.
Most teaching within science education needs to be associated with
this stage.
THIS IS THE MAJOR STAGE FOR ACQUIRING NEW SCIENCE
CONCEPTS & SKILLS (and interrelating these – concept map)
A Possible Chlorine Concept Map
CHLORINE
is an
it is
Diatomic and a Gas at
room temperature
prepared b y
(in lab oratory)
prepared b y (industrially)
Conc. HCl
+
KMn04
BLEACH
strength
determined
by
Volumetric
analysis
reacts with
1. Indicator paper
2. Coloured flowers
3. Coloured cloth
physical
properties
ELEMENT
1. Green coloured gas
2. Reasonably soluble in cold water
3. Poisonous and choking
chemical
properties
formed b y
Electrolysis
of Rock Salt
uses
1.1. Forming
chlorinatedhydrocarbons
hydrocarbons
Forming chlorinated
2.2. Purifying
drinkingwater
water
Purifying drinking
Oxidation processes
3.3. Oxidation
processes
1. Acidic
2. Oxidising agent
3. Chlorinating agint
Stage 3 THE CONSOLIDATION, RE- CONTEXTUALISED, SOCIOSCIENTIFIC, DECISION-MAKING STAGE
The learning needs a science consolidation stage
(the new science is shown to have meaning).
Students are expected to gain the capability to associate the
science they have acquired with society.
Students engage in socio-scientific decision making (gaining
competences through utilising the acquired science in a new
situation and developing argumentation skills).
Flowchart for the Module ‘Are we overusing Plastics?’
Stage
1
Plastics are all around us. We like to
use them for many purposes. But this
was not the case 100 years ago. And
100 years ago the issue of handling
plastics waste did not arise.
2
Exploring the advantage and
disadvantages of
thermoplastic and
thermosetting materials
3
What to do with plastic materials
when we no longer need them? An
issue.
So what are plastics?
What makes plastics
so useful?
Identifying and explaining
thermoplastics and
thermosetting plastic
materials.
With so many uses of
plastics, are the
plastics all the same?
Testing plastics from different
sources. Can we categorise plastics ?
Can we explain their properties by
developing models (structures) ?
Exploring options - landfill,
burning, recycling, ensuring a
LCA (life cycle analysis) policy,
banning the use of certain,
mixed (or all) types of plastics
Devising tests to see if
plastics have different
properties
Deciding how the disposal of
plastics problem is best
solved. Is using less plastics an
option?
THE END
Learning Outcomes in Chemistry (for
Esters, amides and polymers)
By the end of the course, students are expected to have the capacity to:
• compile meaningful, empirically derived chemical equations: ester formation,
alkaline hydrolysis of esters, acid hydrolysis of esters and formation and
hydrolysis of amides;
• explain reactions with problems concerning the practical use of reversible
reactions – improving yield rate, speeding up a process (e.g. using catalysis)
and economic aspects of production;
• explain the differences between addition polymerisation and polycondensation;
• identify with justification a short segment of a polymer composed of
monomers and vice versa – recognising the repeat units in a piece of a
polymer and the original material of these units;
• evaluate the hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of polymers on the basis of
their structure and draw conclusions on the hygienic and practical properties
of these materials; and
• explain the properties of polyesters and polyamides from the point of view of
their practical use and compare these materials with natural materials.
Remember
• The driving purpose of science education is to enable
scientific literacy (or capability) for all.
• Embedded within the multi-dimensional notion of scientific
capability are:
• dispositional facets, such as interest and curiosity,
• operational facets, such as creativity and problem solving,
and
• cognitive facets, such as reasoning and critical thinking.
Through learning scientific ideas,
practices, language and values.
• it is intended that students will choose to engage with and
use science as future learning citizens, innovative science
professionals and informed critics.
• All students will learn the ways in which science interacts
with our physical, constructed and social worlds, and how
it interacts with their personal lives and the communities
within which they interact.
• In teaching science, we need to be invitational, beginning
in students’ worlds, seeking ways to engage students in
thinking and working through science.
As a student who has studied science, you are aware of the
importance of fuels in a modern technological society.
Potentially both petroleum oils and vegetable oils are fuels usable in
society.
What conceptual understanding, skills and values (towards employees
and future customers) should you envisage if you are asked to a make a
decision within an industry whether fuels from vegetable oils are viable.
In arriving at your ultimate decision you should indicate how you
considered the following: ….
• The meaning of a fuel, a petroleum oil, vegetable oil
• Properties of a desirable fuel (such as petroleum or vegetable oil)
• Why petroleum oil and vegetable oil can be used as a fuel
• Source of petroleum oil and vegetable oil
• Why there might be question mark against the viability of vegetable oils
and why the viability of petroleum oils was not to be questioned.
• The carbon footprint in choice of fuel
• Safety factors for workers involved in handling the fuel
• Political and ethical considerations that impact on a decision
• Tests to be carried out to determine the quality and suitability of the fuel.
• Cost of fuel impact
CHEMISTRY 6-12
The teacher (A)
• Is able to plan an inquiry-based science program for
students, using as a framework,
• Develops a framework of yearlong and short-term goals
for students.
• Understands curriculum design to meet the interests,
knowledge, understanding, abilities, and experiences of
students.
• Selects teaching and assessment strategies that support
the development of student understanding and encourage
a community of science learners.
• Works with colleagues within and across disciplines and
grade levels.
(B) Is able to guide and facilitate learning
by:
• Focuses and supports inquiries while interacting with
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students.
Facilitates discussion among students about scientific ideas.
Challenges students to accept and share responsibility for
their own learning.
Recognizes and responds to student diversity and
encourages all students to participate fully in science
learning.
Encourages and models the skills of scientific inquiry, as
well as the curiosity, openness to new ideas and data, and
questioning that characterizes science.
(C) Is able to engage in ongoing assessment of own
teaching and of student learning.
In doing this, one:
• Uses multiple methods and systematically gathers data
about student understanding and ability.
• Analyzes assessment data to guide teaching.
• Guides students in the evaluation of their work.
• Uses student data, observations of teaching, and
interaction with colleagues to reflect on and improve
teaching practice.
• Uses student assessment information and classroom
observation to report student achievement to students
and parents.
(D) Is able to design and manage learning environments
that provide students with the time, space, and
resources needed for developing science skills by.
• Structures the time so that students are able to engage in
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extended investigations.
Creates a setting for student work that is flexible and
supportive of science inquiry.
Ensures a safe working environment.
Makes the available science tools, materials, media, and
technological resources accessible to students.
Identifies and uses resources outside the school.
Engages students in designing the learning environment.
(E) Is able to develop communities of science learners
that reflect the intellectual rigor of scientific inquiry and
the climate conducive to science learning, by:
• Respects the diverse needs, skills, and experiences of all
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students.
Enables students to have a significant voice in decisions
about the content and context of their work and prepares
students to take responsibility for learning.
Encourages collaboration among students.
Structures and facilitates ongoing formal and informal
discussion based on a shared understanding of rules of
scientific discourse.
Models and emphasizes the skills and value of scientific
inquiry.
THANK YOU
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Competency-based education