Effective Training Techniques Mark A. Hernandez, CHST Houston South Area Office Presentation outline • Most frequent cited standards 2011 • Training requirements for General Industry • Other training references: ANSI Z 490.1 & Blooms Taxonomy • ASSE Professional Safety Articles on Effective Training Techniques • OSHA Construction Trainer resources and requirements • OSHA Resources Top 10 MFC standards in FY 2011 (1910) 1. Hazard Communication 2. Respiratory Protection 3. Lockout/Tagout 4. Electrical, Wiring Methods 5. Power industrial Trucks 6. Electrical, General Requirements 7. Machine Guarding 8. Recordkeeping 9. Personal Protective Equipment 10. Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus Blooms Taxonomy In 1780 Abigail Adams stated, "Learning is not attained by chance; it must be sought for with ardor and attended to with diligence" Although it received little attention when first published, Bloom's Taxonomy has since been translated into 22 languages and is one of the most widely applied and most often cited references in education. Blooms Taxonomy • Creating: can the student create new product or point of view? • Evaluating: can the student justify a stand or decision? • Analyzing: can the student distinguish between the different parts? • Applying: can the student use the information in a new way? • Understanding: can the student explain ideas or concepts? • Remembering: can the student recall or remember the information? ANSI Z490.1: Criteria for Accepted Practices in Safety, Health & Environmental Training • 1.1 Scope - This Standard establishes criteria for safety, health, and environmental training programs, including – development, – delivery, – evaluation, and – program management. ANSI Z490.1: Criteria for Accepted Practices in Safety, Health & Environmental Training • 3.2 The training program shall, at a minimum, include the following elements: - training development, including needs assessment, - learning objectives, - course content and format, - resource materials, and - criteria for course completion (see Section 4 of this Standard) ANSI Z490.1: Criteria for Accepted Practices in Safety, Health & Environmental Training 3. Training Program Administration and Management: – training delivery by competent trainers in a suitable training environment (see Section 5 of this Standard) – training evaluation and a continuous improvement system Effective training: Case Study (Oil & Gas) 1. Compelling content: • Must be interesting, credible, and compelling. Lessons learned proved to be significant (relevant story). • Use Adult learning theories. 2. Identify the players: • The “Master” in the group to act as a narrator for video, describing task and potential hazards. Source: Professional Safety: March 2011 How to Identify Master (Influencer) - Pareto Principle In 1906, Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto created a mathematical formula to describe the unequal distribution of wealth in his country, observing that twenty percent of the people owned eighty percent of the wealth. In the late 1940s, Dr. Joseph M. Juran inaccurately attributed the 80/20 Rule to Pareto, calling it Pareto’s Principle. While it may be misnamed, Pareto’s Principle or Pareto’s Law as it is sometimes called, can be a very effective tool to help you manage effectively. Pareto Principle – How to Implement • • • • Determine which people are the top 20% producers Spend 80% of your “people time” with the top 20% Spend 80% of your personnel development dollars on the top 20% Ask the top 20% to do onthe-job training for the next 20% (Multiply vs. Growth) Source: John C. Maxwell Step 1: I do it. Step 2: I do it and you’re with me. Step 3: You do it and I’m with you. Step 4: You do it. Step 5: You do it and someone is with you. Compounding (Multiplication) happens when you equip someone who equips someone else. Effective training: Case Study 3. Avoid Common Mistakes: • Do not use professional actors, the CEO for videos. The worker knows much more about the job than an outsider. • Best choice for the master trainer is the person who looks the part and speaks with occupational (not organizational) authority. • Use language that is understood by the workers and is a cultural insider. Source: Professional Safety: March 2011 Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick The Training Process: According to Kline (1985)’ [T]raining emphasizes the psychomotor domain of learning. Training that is done in the cognitive domain is generally at the knowledge level or lower part of the comprehension level. Education, on the other hand, teaches a minimum of psychomotor skills. It concentrates instead on the cognitive domain, especially the higher cognitive levels. (ie. High comprehension & above) Source: Professional Safety: August 2011 Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick Adult Learners retain: • 20% of what they read and hear • 40% of what they see • 50% of what they say • 60% of what they do (people do what people see) Source: Professional Safety: August 2011 Building Rapport: (Connecting) • 38% Tonality • 55% Physiology • 7% Words Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick 1. Talk: • All kinds: monologues, dialogues, discussions, debates, interviews – promotes creative and critical thinking. • Lecturing is the most common form of training – only 20% what is heard is retained. 2. Role Playing: • Based on believability of scenario and participants -will gain life & interpersonal skills. Source: Professional Safety: August 2011 Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick 3. Group Projects with single response: • Break-out into 3 or 4 groups, give a scenario with same question, ea. group responds to 2 questions, and has a time-limit for answers. Each group will deliver their responses. 4. Group Project with Individual responses: • Similar to 3., with instructor choosing one person and each person writes their own answers. Source: Professional Safety: August 2011 Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick 5. Group Examination: • Each group has a different scenarios and questions, each group give outcomes. 6. Accelerated Learning: • A combination of games or activities which involves imaginary and all of the senses in order to create a rich memorable moment (ex. Bingo). Source: Professional Safety: August 2011 Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick 7. Student Demonstrations: Show what they know: • Allow students who “know” or are proficient in a specific area (Maestro/Master) and allow that person the opportunity to show their proficiency by allowing five minutes to demonstrate skill. 8. Peer Coaching: • One-on-One: observe work and give positive feedback Source: Professional Safety: August 2011 Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick 9. Guided Discussions: • This method is useful when a trainer is trying to help students develop their ability to asses a situation and “think on their feet” “Thinking is the hardest a person can do that is why so few engage in it.” – Henry Ford Source: Professional Safety: August 2011 Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick 10. Simulations: • A training environment set up to produce a comprehensive “workplace-like” experience. 11. Storytelling: • “The single most effective training is telling relevant stories and having students reflect on them” (Blair & Seo. 2007) Source: Professional Safety: August 2011 Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training stick 11. Storytelling: Cullen (2007) Four types: • Hero Stories: larger than life characters who saves another worker or prevents a crisis. • Villain stories: one who is opposite of hero and causes the loss of life or crisis. • Adventure stories: tell of a specific event drama. • Fool stories: a character who does things wrong and creates loss of life or crisis. Source: Professional Safety: August 2011 Les Brown’s 3 step process of giving value in a story a. Distract: From the present story they are currently listening to (emotionally, mentally, physically etc.) b. Dispute: Strategy to have individual back-away from their present limited belief. –Having a good strategy makes you stand out. c. Inspire: To Behave different differently. Inspire to do more, challenge, think outside their present thinking – add value. Don’t simply tell it, Experience it. Only then will you draw the audience in with you by using your emotions, tone, and body language. You want to take the audience there and experience the moment with you – that’s connecting. Other Resources 1. “Everyone Communicates, Few Connect.” – John C. Maxwell 2. “Tribal Leadership: Levering groups to Build a Thinking Organization” – Dr. Dave Logan 3. Blooms Taxonomy: http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_ taxonomy.htm 4. Les Brown video: http://tellyourstory.lesbrown.com/fe/11655-how-totell-your-story-series?r=y OSHA Training resources • Employee training must be provided in a language that employees understand: https://www.osha.gov/dep/OSHAtraining-standards-policy-statement.pdf • OSHA Construction training: http://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/construction/index.html • Intro to OSHA: http://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/teachingaids.html • Construction Focus 4: http://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/construction/focus_four/in dex.html • Susan Harwood Grants: http://www.osha.gov/dte/grant_materials/material_listing_top ic.html Safety Resources • Business Case for Safety: http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/ safetyhealth/index.html • http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/product s/topics/businesscase/index.html • OSHCON: http://www.tdi.state.tx.us/wc/safety /oshcon.html#WrittenPrograms • Safety Pays: http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/smallbu siness/safetypays/index.html Compliance Assistance Resources • Quick Takes: http://www.osha.gov/as/opa/quicktakes/index.ht ml • Compliance Assistance Quick Start: 1910, 1926, Healthcare, & Hispanic https://www.osha.gov/dcsp/compliance_assi stance/quickstarts/index.html • OSHA Publications: https://www.osha.gov/pls/publications/public ation.html • BLS Incident Rate calculator: http://data.bls.gov:8080/IIRC/?data_tool=IIRC Emergency Preparedness • Hurricane eMatrix: https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/hurricane/i ndex.html • Evacuation Plan & Procedures eTool: https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/evacuatio n/index.html • Incident Command eTool: https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/ics/index.h tml • Floods & Tornadoes: https://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/flood-tornadorecovery.html • NIEHS: Hurricanes & Floods: http://tools.niehs.nih.gov/wetp/index.cfm?id=2 472 Where is OSHA Located? Houston North Area Office: 507 N. Sam Houston Pkwy E. Ste. 400 Houston, TX 77060 281-591-2438 Houston South Area Office: 17625 El Camino Real Ste. 400 Houston, TX 77058 281-286-0583 Disclaimer • This information has been developed by an OSHA Compliance Assistance Specialist and is intended to assist employers, workers, and others as they strive to improve workplace health and safety. While we attempt to thoroughly address specific topics [or hazards], it is not possible to include discussion of everything necessary to ensure a healthy and safe working environment in a presentation of this nature. Thus, this information must be understood as a tool for addressing workplace hazards, rather than an exhaustive statement of an employer’s legal obligations, which are defined by statute, regulations, and standards. Likewise, to the extent that this information references practices or procedures that may enhance health or safety, but which are not required by a statute, regulation, or standard, it cannot, and does not, create additional legal obligations. Finally, over time, OSHA may modify rules and interpretations in light of new technology, information, or circumstances; to keep apprised of such developments, or to review information on a wide range of occupational safety and health topics, you can visit OSHA’s website at www.osha.gov.