Effective Training Techniques
Mark A. Hernandez, CHST
Houston South Area Office
Presentation outline
• Most frequent cited standards 2011
• Training requirements for General Industry
• Other training references: ANSI Z 490.1 & Blooms
• ASSE Professional Safety Articles on Effective
Training Techniques
• OSHA Construction Trainer resources and
• OSHA Resources
Top 10 MFC standards in FY 2011 (1910)
1. Hazard
2. Respiratory
3. Lockout/Tagout
4. Electrical, Wiring
5. Power industrial
6. Electrical, General
7. Machine Guarding
8. Recordkeeping
9. Personal Protective
10. Mechanical Power
Transmission Apparatus
Blooms Taxonomy
In 1780 Abigail Adams stated, "Learning is not attained by
chance; it must be sought for with ardor and attended to
with diligence"
Although it received little attention when first published,
Bloom's Taxonomy has since been translated into 22
languages and is one of the most widely applied and most
often cited references in education.
Blooms Taxonomy
Creating: can the student create new
product or point of view?
Evaluating: can the student justify a stand
or decision?
Analyzing: can the student distinguish
between the different parts?
Applying: can the student use the
information in a new way?
Understanding: can the student explain
ideas or concepts?
Remembering: can the student recall or
remember the information?
ANSI Z490.1: Criteria for Accepted Practices in
Safety, Health & Environmental Training
• 1.1 Scope - This Standard establishes criteria for
safety, health, and environmental training
programs, including
– development,
– delivery,
– evaluation, and
– program management.
ANSI Z490.1: Criteria for Accepted Practices in
Safety, Health & Environmental Training
• 3.2 The training program shall, at a minimum,
include the following elements:
- training development, including needs
- learning objectives,
- course content and format,
- resource materials, and
- criteria for course completion
(see Section 4 of this Standard)
ANSI Z490.1: Criteria for Accepted Practices in
Safety, Health & Environmental Training
3. Training Program Administration and
– training delivery by competent trainers in a
suitable training environment
(see Section 5 of this Standard)
– training evaluation and a continuous
improvement system
Effective training: Case Study (Oil & Gas)
1. Compelling content:
• Must be interesting, credible, and compelling.
Lessons learned proved to be significant
(relevant story).
• Use Adult learning theories.
2. Identify the players:
• The “Master” in the group to act as a narrator for
video, describing task and potential hazards.
Source: Professional Safety: March 2011
How to Identify Master (Influencer) - Pareto Principle
In 1906, Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto created a
mathematical formula to describe the unequal distribution of
wealth in his country, observing that twenty percent of the
people owned eighty percent of the wealth. In the late 1940s,
Dr. Joseph M. Juran inaccurately attributed the 80/20 Rule to
Pareto, calling it Pareto’s Principle. While it may be
misnamed, Pareto’s Principle or Pareto’s Law as it is
sometimes called, can be a very effective tool to help you
manage effectively.
Pareto Principle – How to Implement
Determine which people are
the top 20% producers
Spend 80% of your “people
time” with the top 20%
Spend 80% of your
personnel development
dollars on the top 20%
Ask the top 20% to do onthe-job training for the next
20% (Multiply vs. Growth)
Source: John C. Maxwell
Step 1: I do it.
Step 2: I do it and you’re with me.
Step 3: You do it and I’m with you.
Step 4: You do it.
Step 5: You do it and someone is
with you.
Compounding (Multiplication)
happens when you equip
someone who equips
someone else.
Effective training: Case Study
3. Avoid Common Mistakes:
• Do not use professional actors, the CEO for
videos. The worker knows much more about the
job than an outsider.
• Best choice for the master trainer is the person
who looks the part and speaks with occupational
(not organizational) authority.
• Use language that is understood by the workers
and is a cultural insider.
Source: Professional Safety: March 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training
The Training Process: According to Kline (1985)’
[T]raining emphasizes the psychomotor domain
of learning. Training that is done in the cognitive
domain is generally at the knowledge level or lower
part of the comprehension level. Education, on the
other hand, teaches a minimum of psychomotor
skills. It concentrates instead on the cognitive
domain, especially the higher cognitive levels. (ie.
High comprehension & above)
Source: Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training
Adult Learners retain:
• 20% of what they
read and hear
• 40% of what they see
• 50% of what they say
• 60% of what they do
(people do what people
Source: Professional Safety: August 2011
Building Rapport:
• 38% Tonality
• 55% Physiology
• 7% Words
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training
1. Talk:
• All kinds: monologues, dialogues, discussions,
debates, interviews – promotes creative and
critical thinking.
• Lecturing is the most common form of training –
only 20% what is heard is retained.
2. Role Playing:
• Based on believability of scenario and participants
-will gain life & interpersonal skills.
Source: Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training
3. Group Projects with single response:
• Break-out into 3 or 4 groups, give a scenario with
same question, ea. group responds to 2 questions,
and has a time-limit for answers. Each group will
deliver their responses.
4. Group Project with Individual responses:
• Similar to 3., with instructor choosing one person
and each person writes their own answers.
Source: Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training
5. Group Examination:
• Each group has a different scenarios and questions,
each group give outcomes.
6. Accelerated Learning:
• A combination of games or activities which involves
imaginary and all of the senses in order to create a
rich memorable moment (ex. Bingo).
Source: Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training
7. Student Demonstrations: Show what they know:
• Allow students who “know” or are proficient in a
specific area (Maestro/Master) and allow that person
the opportunity to show their proficiency by allowing
five minutes to demonstrate skill.
8. Peer Coaching:
• One-on-One: observe work and give positive
Source: Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training
9. Guided Discussions:
• This method is useful when a trainer is trying to help
students develop their ability to asses a situation and
“think on their feet”
“Thinking is the hardest a person can do that is why
so few engage in it.” – Henry Ford
Source: Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training
10. Simulations:
• A training environment set up to produce a
comprehensive “workplace-like” experience.
11. Storytelling:
• “The single most effective training is telling relevant
stories and having students reflect on them” (Blair &
Seo. 2007)
Source: Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make training
11. Storytelling: Cullen (2007) Four types:
• Hero Stories: larger than life characters who saves
another worker or prevents a crisis.
• Villain stories: one who is opposite of hero and
causes the loss of life or crisis.
• Adventure stories: tell of a specific event drama.
• Fool stories: a character who does things wrong and
creates loss of life or crisis.
Source: Professional Safety: August 2011
Les Brown’s 3 step process of giving value in a story
a. Distract: From the present story they are currently listening
to (emotionally, mentally, physically etc.)
b. Dispute: Strategy to have individual back-away from their
present limited belief. –Having a good strategy makes you stand
c. Inspire: To Behave different differently. Inspire to do more,
challenge, think outside their present thinking – add value. Don’t
simply tell it, Experience it. Only then will you draw the audience
in with you by using your emotions, tone, and body language.
You want to take the audience there and experience the
moment with you – that’s connecting.
Other Resources
1. “Everyone Communicates, Few Connect.” – John
C. Maxwell
2. “Tribal Leadership: Levering groups to Build a
Thinking Organization” – Dr. Dave Logan
3. Blooms Taxonomy:
4. Les Brown video:
OSHA Training resources
• Employee training must be provided in a language that
employees understand: https://www.osha.gov/dep/OSHAtraining-standards-policy-statement.pdf
• OSHA Construction training:
• Intro to OSHA:
• Construction Focus 4:
• Susan Harwood Grants:
Safety Resources
• Business Case for Safety:
• http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/product
• Safety Pays:
Compliance Assistance Resources
• Quick Takes:
• Compliance Assistance Quick Start:
1910, 1926, Healthcare, & Hispanic
• OSHA Publications:
• BLS Incident Rate calculator:
Emergency Preparedness
Hurricane eMatrix:
Evacuation Plan & Procedures eTool:
Incident Command eTool:
Floods & Tornadoes:
NIEHS: Hurricanes & Floods:
Where is OSHA Located?
Houston North Area
507 N. Sam Houston Pkwy
E. Ste. 400
Houston, TX 77060
Houston South Area
17625 El Camino Real Ste.
Houston, TX 77058
This information has been developed by an OSHA Compliance Assistance
Specialist and is intended to assist employers, workers, and others as they
strive to improve workplace health and safety. While we attempt to
thoroughly address specific topics [or hazards], it is not possible to include
discussion of everything necessary to ensure a healthy and safe working
environment in a presentation of this nature. Thus, this information must be
understood as a tool for addressing workplace hazards, rather than an
exhaustive statement of an employer’s legal obligations, which are defined
by statute, regulations, and standards. Likewise, to the extent that this
information references practices or procedures that may enhance health or
safety, but which are not required by a statute, regulation, or standard, it
cannot, and does not, create additional legal obligations. Finally, over time,
OSHA may modify rules and interpretations in light of new technology,
information, or circumstances; to keep apprised of such developments, or to
review information on a wide range of occupational safety and health topics,
you can visit OSHA’s website at www.osha.gov.

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