Mark A. Hernandez, CHST
1
Presentation outline

 Most frequent cited standards 2011
 Training requirements for General Industry
 Other training references: Blooms Taxonomy &
ANSI Z 490.1
 ASSE Professional Safety Articles on Effective
Training Techniques
 OSHA Construction Trainer resources and
requirements
 OSHA Resources
2
Top 10 MFC standards in FY 2011 (1910)
Standards
Total
Violations
1. 19101200 – Hazard Communication
5,521
2. 1910.147 – Lockout/Tagout
3,595
3. 1910.305 – Electrical, Wiring Methods
3,551
4. 1910.178 – Powered Industrial Trucks
3,192
5. 1910.134 – Respiratory Protection
3,125
6. 1910.303 – Electrical, General Requirements
2,831
7. 1910.212 - Machine Guarding
2,718
8. 1910.132 – Personal Protective Equipment
1,855
9. 1904.029 – Recordkeeping, Forms
1,719
10. 1910.219 – Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus
1,644
3
Training: Pay now or pay later

 According to Broad & Newstrom in
1992, an estimated $50 Billion was
spent on formal training, with another
$90 – 120 Billion on structured training.
 ASTD estimated in 2010, that US
organizations spent $125.88 Billion
dollars on training.
4
OSHA’s: VPP Program
Elements
In VPP, management, labor, and
OSHA work cooperatively and
proactively to prevent fatalities,
injuries, and illnesses through a
system focused on: hazard
prevention and control; worksite
analysis; training; and management
commitment and worker
involvement.
Blooms Taxonomy

In 1780 Abigail Adams stated, "Learning is not
attained by chance; it must be sought for with ardor
and attended to with diligence"
Although it received little attention when first
published in 1956, Bloom's Taxonomy has since
been translated into 22 languages and is one of
the most widely applied and most often cited
references in education.
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Blooms Taxonomy
 Creating: can the student create
new product or point of view?
 Evaluating: can the student justify
a stand or decision?
 Analyzing: can the student
distinguish between the different
parts?
 Applying: can the student use the
information in a new way?
 Understanding: can the student
explain ideas or concepts?
 Remembering: can the student
recall or remember the
information?
ANSI Z490.1: Criteria for Accepted
Practices in Safety, Health &
Environmental Training

 1.1 Scope - This Standard establishes
criteria for safety, health, and
environmental training programs,
including
 development,
 delivery,
 evaluation, and
 program management.
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ANSI Z490.1: Criteria for Accepted
Practices in Safety, Health &
Environmental Training

 3.2 The training program shall, at a minimum,
include the following elements:
- training development, including needs
assessment,
- learning objectives,
- course content and format,
- resource materials, and
- criteria for course completion
(see Section 4 of this Standard)
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ANSI Z490.1: Criteria for Accepted
Practices in Safety, Health &
Environmental Training

3. Training Program Administration and
Management:
 training delivery by Competent Trainers in a
suitable training environment
(see Section 5 of this Standard)
 training evaluation and a continuous
improvement system
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Effective training: Case Study (Oil & Gas)
1. Compelling content:
 Must be interesting, credible, and compelling.
Lessons learned proved to be significant
(relevant story).
 Use Adult learning theories.
2. Identify the players:
 The “Master” in the group to act as a narrator
for video, describing task and potential hazards.
Source: ASSE Professional Safety: March 2011
11
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Pareto Principle: Background
In 1906, Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto created a
mathematical formula to describe the unequal
distribution of wealth in his country, observing that
twenty percent of the people owned eighty percent
of the wealth. In the late 1940s, Dr. Joseph M. Juran
inaccurately attributed the 80/20 Rule to Pareto,
calling it Pareto’s Principle. While it may be
misnamed, Pareto’s Principle or Pareto’s Law as it is
sometimes called, can be a very effective tool to help
you manage effectively.
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Pareto Principle: How to Implement

1. Determine which people are the top 20%
producers
2. Spend 80% of your “people time” with the
top 20%
3. Spend 80% of your personnel development
dollars on the top 20%
4. Ask the top 20% to do on-the-job training for
the next 20% (Multiply vs. Growth)
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Source: John C. Maxwell
Greatest Motivational Principle: People
Do what People See

Step 1: I do it.
Step 2: I do it and you’re with me.
Step 3: You do it and I’m with you.
Step 4: You do it.
Step 5: You do it and someone is with you.
Compounding (Multiplication) happens when you equip
someone who equips someone else.
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Source: John C. Maxwell
Effective training: Case Study
3. Avoid Common Mistakes:
 Do not use professional actors, the CEO for
videos. The worker knows much more about the
job than an outsider.
 Best choice for the master trainer is the person
who looks the part and speaks with
occupational (not organizational) authority.
(Master/Maestro)
 Use language that is understood by the workers
and is a cultural insider.
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Source: ASSE Professional Safety: March 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make
training stick
The Training Process: According to Kline (1985):
[T]raining emphasizes the psychomotor domain of
learning. Training that is done in the cognitive
domain is generally at the knowledge level or lower
part of the comprehension level. Education, on the
other hand, teaches a minimum of psychomotor
skills. It concentrates instead on the cognitive
domain, especially the higher cognitive levels. (ie.
High comprehension & above)
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Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make
training stick
Adult Learners retain:

 20% of what they read
and hear
 40% of what they See
 50% of what they Say
 60% of what they Do
(People do what people See)
For Trainer:
Building Rapport:
(Connecting)
 38% Tonality
 55%
Physiology
 7% Words
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Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make
training stick
1. Talk:
 All kinds: monologues, dialogues, discussions,
debates, interviews – promotes creative and critical
thinking.
 Lecturing is the most common form of training –
only 20% what is heard is retained.
2. Role Playing:
 Based on believability of scenario and participants
-will gain life & interpersonal skills.
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Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make
training stick
3. Group Projects with single response:
 Break-out into 3 or 4 groups, give a scenario with
same question, ea. group responds to 2 questions, and
has a time-limit for answers. Each group will deliver
their responses.
4. Group Project with Individual responses:
 Similar to 3., with instructor choosing one person
and each person writes their own answers.
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Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make
training stick
5. Group Examination:
 Each group has a different scenarios and questions,
each group give outcomes.
6. Accelerated Learning:
 A combination of games or activities which
involves imaginary and all of the senses in order to
create a rich memorable moment (ex. Bingo).
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Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make
training stick
7. Student Demonstrations: Show what they know:
 Allow students who “know” or are proficient in a
specific area (Maestro/Master) and allow that person
the opportunity to show their proficiency by allowing
five minutes to demonstrate skill.
8. Peer Coaching:
 One-on-One: observe work and give positive
feedback
22
Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make
training stick
9. Guided Discussions:
 This method is useful when a trainer is trying to
help students develop their ability to asses a situation
and “think on their feet”
“Thinking is the hardest a person can do that is why
so few engage in it.” – Henry Ford
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Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To Make
training stick
10. Simulations:
 A training environment set up to produce a
comprehensive “workplace-like” experience.
11. Storytelling:
 “The single most effective training is telling relevant
stories and having students reflect on them” (Blair & Seo.
2007)
“Reflection + Experience = Insight” – John C. Maxwell
24
Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To
Make training stick
11. Storytelling: Cullen
(2007) Four types:
 Hero Stories: larger
than life characters who
saves another worker or
prevents a crisis.

 Villain stories: one
who is opposite of hero
and causes the loss of
life or crisis.
25
Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Engaging Learners: Techniques To
Make training stick
11. Storytelling: Cullen
(2007) Four types:

 Adventure stories: tell
of a specific event drama.
 Fool stories: character
who does things wrong
and creates loss of life or
crisis.
26
Source: ASSE Professional Safety: August 2011
Les Brown’s 3 step process of giving
value in a story
a. Distract: From the present story they are currently
listening to (emotionally, mentally, physically etc.)
b. Dispute: Strategy to have individual back-away from
their present limited belief. –Having a good strategy makes
you stand out.
c. Inspire: To Behave different differently. Inspire to do
more, challenge, think outside their present thinking – add
value. Don’t simply tell it, Experience it. Only then will you
draw the audience in with you by using your emotions,
tone, and body language. You want to take the audience
there and experience the moment with you – that’s
connecting.
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Reflection

 Blooms Taxonomy & ANSI Z490.1 are resources for
developing clear learning objectives and training that is
understood.
 Create an environment conducive for the employees growth.
 Identify Influencers in the group and equip them to Multiply
others.
 Engage critical thinking and challenge limited belief systems
with any of the groups discussions or questions. This will
also increase communication, life, and inter-personal skills.
 Use Storytelling as a way to Inform, Challenge, and Inspire
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employees.
WE IS THE KEY!
We is the Key!

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Other Resources
1. “Everyone Communicates, Few Connect.” – John
C. Maxwell
2. “Tribal Leadership: Levering groups to Build a
Thinking Organization” – Dr. Dave Logan
3. “StandOut” – Marcus Buckingham
4. Blooms Taxonomy:
http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blo
oms_taxonomy.htm
5. Les Brown video:
http://tellyourstory.lesbrown.com/fe/11655-howto-tell-your-story-series?r=y
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Quotes

 “If you know the Why, you can live any How” – Friedrich
Nietzsche
 Leadership is nothing more & nothing less than
Influence” – John C. Maxwell
 Trust is the foundation of Influence” – Stephen Covey
 “Change is inevitable, Growth is Optional” - JCM
 “Only wet babies like change, the rest of us resist it” Scott
Faye
 “People do what People see” – JCM
 “People don’t care what you know until you show them
that you care.” - JCM
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OSHA Training resources

 Employee training must be provided in a language that
employees understand: https://www.osha.gov/dep/OSHAtraining-standards-policy-statement.pdf
 OSHA Construction training:
http://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/construction/index.html
 Intro to OSHA:
http://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/teachingaids.html
 Construction Focus 4:
http://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/construction/focus_four/i
ndex.html
 Susan Harwood Grants:
http://www.osha.gov/dte/grant_materials/material_listing_top
ic.html
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GHS Compliance Assistance
Resources

 Background: http://www.osha.gov/dsg/hazcom/global.html
http://www.unece.org/trans/danger/publi/ghs/ghs_rev02/02files_e.ht
ml
 GHS PPT:
http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/alliances/schc/silk_schc_sept05/index.ht
ml
 Interp:
http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_tabl
e=INTERPRETATIONS&p_id=27218
 Facts on Aligning:
http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_tabl
e=INTERPRETATIONS&p_id=27218
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Heat Stress & Fall Prevention
Campaign

Heat Stress:
http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/heatillness/in
dex.html
Fall Prevention:
http://www.osha.gov/stopfalls/index.html
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NFPA 70E 2012 video updates

NTT: http://www.nttinc.com/freeresources/webinars/webinar-nfpa-70e-how-2012updates-effect-you
Loos & Co. Significant Case:
http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.sho
w_document?p_table=NEWS_RELEASES&p_id=2
1327
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Safety Resources
 Business Case for Safety:
http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/eto
ols/safetyhealth/index.html
 http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/pro
ducts/topics/businesscase/index.
html
 OSHCON:
http://www.tdi.state.tx.us/wc/s
afety/oshcon.html#WrittenProgr
ams
 Safety Pays:
http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/sma
llbusiness/safetypays/index.html
OSHA Compliance Assistance Resources
 Quick Takes:
http://www.osha.gov/as/opa/quicktakes/in
dex.html
 Compliance Assistance Quick Start: 1910,
1926, Healthcare, & Hispanic
https://www.osha.gov/dcsp/compliance_
assistance/quickstarts/index.html
 OSHA Publications:
https://www.osha.gov/pls/publications/p
ublication.html
 BLS Incident Rate calculator:
http://data.bls.gov:8080/IIRC/?data_tool=IIR
C
Mark A. Hernandez, Certified Speaker, Trainer, Coach
[email protected], 832-597-5474
http://www.johnmaxwellgroup.com/markhernandez/
Connect with me:
LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/mahernandez
Facebook: mark.hernandez
Twitter: https://twitter.com/#!/marka_hernandez
Lead Yourself & Multiply Others!
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
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Effective Training Techniques