Issues in EFL
Graham Crookes
Why EFL? Why not just ELT, or ESL, or
English Education?
• EFL “countries” (particularly those outside Europe) are said to face special
challenges
• what are they?
• The research base for L2 teaching has been reluctant to see differences
because it thinks, or used to think, of itself as being concerned with universal
psychological factors
1) The “linguistic imperialism” line(s)
• Phillipson
• English in post-colonial countries
• the association between English, empires, and international business
2) Relatedly, the BANA phenomenon
• For example, me (Graham Crookes)
• why are Brits and Americans still showing up all round the world, apparently
telling people the way things are, or are supposed to be, concerning the
teaching of English in other countries (especially ex- or post-colonical
countries)?
3) Cultural psychologies?
• do people from other countries or cultures think, or learn, differently?
• is psychology universal, or is it “western” in origin and in its primary
characteristics or findings?
• “ethnopedagogies”? Are there culturally distinct ways of teaching that reflect
ways of learning and which are different from the “western” traditions of
school?
cultural psychology continued
• topics covered in this area include cognition, perception, self-concept,
motivation, memory, developmental procedures, sexuality, agency, anti-cocial
behavior, and mental illness
• learning is a small part of this
• also see “folk psychologies” (Thomas, 2001)
4) NNS issues
• One of the obvious characteristics of EFL countries is that most teachers of
English in them are not “native speakers”
• Is this a problem? Why, or, to what extent?
• Is it still a problem?
5) Structural problems in EFL delivery systems
• exams
• bureaucracies
• resources (lack of)
• teacher-student ratio (bad, i.e., large classes)
6) Educational innovation
• one reason for considering this area is the assertion that some EFL countries
have not innovated sufficiently in English Language Teaching
• who says this? Is it a fair accusation?
• the study of change in educational systems is an established domain of
educational research
• what do we know about innovation efforts in EFL contexts?
Factors that affect adoption and application of an
innovation:
relevance
feasibility
size
trialability
compatibility (with existing values, policies and
practices)
personal factors, such as resentment and resistance to externally imposed
change efforts, exacerbated if no consultation; teacher support; relevant knowledge.
7) Knowledge utilization (lack of)
• perhaps this is actually a general problem in education
• does ELT in general make sufficient use of research findings?
• elite EFL ought to be better than ESL — does it make more use of research?
• or could this be “quality control” // formative evaluation?
8) EFL curricula and materials
• can they be part of the solution?
• or are they usually part of the problem?
9) The proprietary (or commercial) sector
• cram schools, though also conversation schools
• a problem (exaggeration of income-related differences in English proficiency
among school-age learners)
• sometimes provides good examples of what can be done
10) The educational change agent
• what self-concept is developed in EFL teacher education?
• what role can you play? / do you already play?
• EFL teacher career paths
• compromise, resistance, and moving on
The future of EFL
• continuing increase in the overall average proficiency of NNS EFL teachers
• and their students, more of whom will have travelled abroad
• the break-up of state monopolies on education
• break up of unitary state curricula
• inexpensive access to keypals and internet-based native speaker tutors
• the rise of local Englishes and establishment of English as a Lingua Franca
not reflecting native (American or British or Australian etc) standards
Recapping the preliminary list of topics
• linguistic imperialism
• BANA domination of EFL
• cultural psychologies
• non-native speaker issues
• structural problems in EFL delivery systems
• educational innovation
• knowledge utilization
• curricula and materials
• the proprietary sector
Ilustrative references (for electronic version only)
•
References
•
Abbott, G. 1992. The proper study of ELT. In A. van Essen & E. I. Burkart (eds.), Homage to W.R. Lee: Essays in English as a Foreign or Second Language (pp. 21-27). Berlin: Foris.
•
Barnes, G. A. 1989. Why Norwegians speak English—well. TESOL Newsletter[Feb.]7-9.
•
Bock. P. K. 1988. Rethinking psychological anthropology (postlude: All psychology is cultural; prelude: All anthropology is psychological). New York: W. H. Friedman.
•
Braine, G. (ed.). 1999. Non-native educators in English Language Teaching (Preface; Introduction). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
•
Brown, J. D. 1996. Japanese entrance exams: a measurement problem? Daily Yomiuri (Feb 5, p. 15).
•
Brown, J. D., & Yamashita, S. O. (eds.). 1995. English language entrance examinations at Japanese universities: 1993 and 1994. In J. D. Brown & S. O. Yamashita (eds.), Language testing in Japan, (pp. 86-100). Tokyo: JALT.
•
Burnaby, B., & Sun, Y. 1989. Chinese teachers' views of Western language teaching: context informs paradigms. TESOL Quarterly, 23(2), 219-238.
•
Bush, T., & Qiang, Haiyan. 2002. Leadership and culture in Chinese education. In A. Walker & C. Dimmock (eds.), School leadership and administration: adopting a cultural perspective (pp. 173-186). New York: Routledge.
•
Cameron, R. 1996. Masao Miyamoto and the castration of Japan. The Japan Times, July 14.
•
Canagarajah, A. S. 2002. Globalization, methods, and practice in periphery classrooms. In D. Block & D. Cameron (eds.), Globalization and language teaching (pp. 134-150). London: Routledge.
•
Canagarajah, A. S. 1999. Resisting linguistic imperialism in ELT. (Preface; Introduction; Ch. 1: Adopting a critical perspective on pedagogy). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
•
Cho, Hye-sun. 2001. A grassroots EFL teacher development group: a case study of the Korean English Teachers' Group. Unpublished ms., DSLS, UHM.
•
Coleman, H. 1987. Teaching spectacles and learning festivals. ELT Journal, 41(2), 97-103. [Indonesia]
•
Cook, V. 2001. Using the first language in the classroom. Canadian Modern Language Journal, 57(3), 402-423.
•
Cook, V. 2002a. Background to the L2 user. In V. Cook (ed.), Portraits of the L2 user (pp. 325-343). Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters.
•
Cook, V. 2002b. Language teaching methodology and the L2 User perspective. In V. Cook (ed.), Portraits of the L2 user (pp. 1-28). Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters.
•
Cortazzi, M., & Jin, L. 1996. Cultures of learning: language classrooms in China. H. Coleman (ed.), Society and the language classroom (pp. 169-206). Cambridge University Press.
•
Cuban, L. 1983. How did teachers teach, 1890-1980. Theory into Practice, 22(3), 159-165.
Lowenberg, P. H. 1989. Testing English as a world language: Issues in assessing nonnative proficiency. In J. E. Alatis (ed.), Language teaching, testing, and technology (pp. 216-227). [GURT '89]. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Mak, G. C. L. 1998. Classroom management in China. In N.K. Shimahara (ed.), Politics of classroom life (pp. 239-260). New York: Garland.
Markee, N. 1993. The diffusion of innovation in language teaching. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, 229-243.
McConnell, D. L. 2000. Beyond the stereotypes: the JET program in the local schools (Ch. 5 of Importing diversity). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
McLaughlin, M. W. 1990. The Rand change agent study revisited: macro perspectives and micro realities. Educational Researcher 19(9), 11-16.
Medgyes, P. 1999. Language training: a neglected area in teacher education. In G. Braine, (ed.). 1999. Non-native educators in English Language Teaching (pp. 177-195). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Monk, B. 1990. The specialized language school in the Soviet Union at the time of 'perestroika'. ELT Journal, 44(1), 38-45.
Mosback, G. 1990. National syllabus and textbook design on communicative principles. ELT Journal, 44(1), 18-24. [Sri Lanka]
Nayar, P. B. 1989 (March). From Krashen to Ashen: Ethnocentricism and universality in TESOL. Paper presented at the 1989 TESOL Convention, San Antonio, TX. ED 307819.
Nayar, P.B. 1997. ESL/EFL dichotomy today: Language politics or pragmatics? TESOL Quarterly 31(1), 9-37.
Niederhauser, J. S. 1997. Motivating learners at south Korean universities. English Teaching Forum, 345(1), 8-11.
Nolasco, R., & Arthur, L. 1986. You try doing it with a class of forty! ELT Journal, 40(2), 100-106.
Olaofe, I. A.1994. Teaching listening comprehension in large classes. [Nigeria] English Teaching Forum, 32(4), 10-12.
O'Sullivan. B. 1995. A reaction to Brown and Yamashita.... JALT Journal, 17(2), 255-260.
Oscarson, M. 1995. A national evaluation programme in the Swedish compulsory school: assessment of acheivement in foreign languages. System, 23(3), 295-306. [cf. Kim-Riviera, E. G. 1999. English language education in the Swedish compulsory school. Foreign
Language Annals, 32(2), 234-242.]
Papagiannis, G. J., Klees, S. J., & Bickel, R. N. 1982. Toward a political economy of educational innovation. Review of Educational Research, 52(2), 245-290.
Pennycook, A. 1990. English as an international language and the insurrection of subjugated knowledges. In V. Bickley (ed.), Language use, language teaching and the curriculum (pp. 157-174). Hong Kong: Institute of Language in Education.
Pennycook, A. 2001. Applied linguistics with an attitude. (Ch. 7 of Critical applied linguistics). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Phillipson, R. 1992. Linguistic imperialism (Ch. 1: ELT: Taking stock of a world commodity). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Piker, S. 1998. Contributions of psychological anthropology. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 29(1), 9-31.
Ramanathan, V. 1999. "English is here to stay": a critical look at institutional and educational practices in India. TESOL Quarterly, 33(2), 211-231.
Richards, J. C. 1995. Easier said than done: an insider's account of a textbook project. In A. C. Hidalgo, D. Hall, & G. M. Jacobs (eds.), Getting started: materials writers on materials writing(pp 95-135). Singapore: ReLC.
Sato, M. 1998. Classroom management in Japan. In N.K. Shimahara (ed.), Politics of classroom life (pp. 189-214). New York: Garland.
Senghaas, D. 2002. The clash within civilizations. New York: Routledge.
Shamim, F. 1996. Learner resistance to innovation in classroom methodology. In H. Coleman (ed.), Society and the language classroom. (pp. 105-121). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Shimahara, N. K. 1995. Teacher education reform in Japan: ideological and control issues. In N. K. Shimahara & I. Z. Holowinsky (eds.), Teacher education in industrialized nations: issues in changing social contexts (pp. 155-193). New York: Garland.
Stapledon, P. 1996. A reaction to J.D. Brown's recent inquiry on the English Entrance exam. The Language Teacher, 20(3), March, 29, 30, 32.
Sullivan, Patricia N. 1996. Sociocultural influences on classroom interactional styles. TESOL Journal, 6(1),32-34. [Vietnam]
Tang, C. 1997. On the power and status of nonnative ESL teachers. TESOL Quarterly, 31(3), 577-578.
Thomas, J. 1999. Voices from the periphery: Non-native teachers and issues of credibility. In G. Braine, (ed.), Non-native educators in English Language Teaching (pp. 5-13). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Tomlinson, B. 1990. Managing change in Indonesian high schools. ELT Journal, 44(1), 25-37.
Tsuda, Y. 1994. The diffusion of English: its impact on culture and communication. Keio Communication Review, 16, 49-61.
Wall, D. 1996. Introduing new tests into traditional systems: insights from general education and from innovation theory. Language Testing, 13(3), 334-354.
Wallace, C. 2002. Local literacies and global literacy. In D. Block & D. Cameron (eds.), Globalization and language teaching (pp. 101-113). London: Routledge.
Watkins, D. 2002. Learning and teaching: a cross-cultural perspective. In A. Walker & C. Dimmock (eds.), School leadership and administration (pp. 62-76). London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Yoneyama, S. 2002. Japanese 'education reform': the plan for the twenty-first century. In J. Maswood, J. Graham, & H. Miyajima (eds.), Japan —change and continuity (pp. 192-213). London: RoutledgeCurzon.
Yoshida, K. 1996. Language testing in Japan: a cultural problem? Daily Yomiuri (Jan 15, p. 15).
Young, R. 1992. A systems approach to curriculum innovation in intensive English programs. Southern Illinois Working Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching, 1, 75-94.
Young, R., & Lee, S. 1984. EFL curriculum innovation and teachers' attitudes. In P. Larson, E. L. Judd, & D. S. Messerschmitt (eds.), On TESOL '84 (pp. 183-194). Washington, DC: TESOL.
Lamie, J. M. 2004. Presenting a model of change. Language Teaching Research, 8(2), 115-142.
Kennedy, C., Doyle, P., & Goh, C. (eds.). 1999. Exploring change in English language teaching. Oxford: Macmillan Heinemann.
Thomas, R. M. 2001. Folk psychologies across cultures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5XQFsXtFcJE
Descargar

Issues in EFL - Punahou School