Seeing how language teachers grow
professionally: A multi case study of
teacher learning to teach English
By: Associate Professor Sumalee Chinokul, Ph.D.
Department of Curriculum, Instruction, and
Educational Technology, Faculty of Education
Chulalongkorn University
[email protected]
Oral Presentation
for Hong Kong Self Access Association Meeting
(HASALD)
April 6, 2011
Agenda
Rationale
 Research questions
 Research methodology
 Samples of findings
 Conclusion

Rationale

As a teacher educator, with the role of ‘teacher of
the teacher’, I have employed the training concept
to prepare for the prospective EFL teachers in the
way that the methodology course should be more
developmental—rather than training-oriented.
With this orientation, two main queries are posted:

How can I help my students who are teacher-inpreparation to be well equipped with critical thinking
and problem solving skills so that they can pursue
their teaching in a suitable manner with reasonable
thoughts and not just simply copy from others
without any rationales? And

Is there any way to be certain that my students can
apply what they have learned in the methodology
course and carried out the main concepts into good
use in their actual classroom? If so, can my
students still be able to develop themselves to be
professional teachers after they graduated from the
program?
From this initial thought, I conducted and
completed my baseline research to compare
the differences between the expert and nonexpert teachers.
 The research entitled: A Comparative Study of
Learning Process to Teach through Reflective
Teaching to Develop a Model of Learning to
Teach English: A Multi-case Study of Expert
and Non-expert Teachers.
 This research was supported by the research
grant by The Faculty of Education,
Chulalongkorn University in 2004 and was
received a research award given by the
Thailand Research Funds in 2005.

From this research I developed two
important research outputs:
 the instructional model of learning to
teach English; and
 a set of indicators for measuring expertise
in teaching English as a foreign language.

In addition, I published an article on
‘Expert and Non-expert Teachers: Do They
Use Different Processes while Learning to
Teach?’ in chapter 3 (pp.21-34) of the
book Language Teacher Research in Asia
edited by Thomas S. C. Farrell.
 This book was published by Teacher of
English to Speakers of Other Languages,
Inc., Alexandria, Virginia, USA in 2006.


This presentation is based on the research
which is funded by the Thailand Research
Funds and Office of the Higher Education
Commission under the research title:
Development of EFL Teaching Skills:
Knowledge from Methodology Course to
Real Classroom Practice
Research objectives



1. To study and confirm the effectiveness of the
instructional model of learning to teach English
developed by the researcher whether it can be used as a
knowledge base for the beginning teachers to apply as a
tool for their professional development.
2. To explore the patterns guiding the beginning
teachers in their professional development in their first
year entry in a real teaching setting after they had
completed the methodology course.
3. To observe and investigate into the changes they may
have made in terms of their teaching performance, their
teaching awareness, the reflection skills, and their beliefs
by comparing these aspects observed and recorded at
the time they studied the methodology course and those
observed and recorded from their actual classroom
teaching at the university level.
Research questions




1. What sources of knowledge should EFL beginning
teachers be prepared in the methodology course?
2. To what extent do the supports given by the
institutions affect the way EFL beginning teachers teach
in an actual class at their institute?
3. To what extent do the changes observed from their
teaching performance in methodology course and the
actual teaching performance in their institutions reflect
how the beginning teachers apply what they may have
learned from the methodology course?
4. How do the beginning teachers develop their English
teaching skills during their first year entry into the
profession?
Definition of Terms
1. Development of Teaching Skills
– refers to the process of how key informants learn to construct,
deconstruct or reconstruct to translate new insights and alternative
scenarios into his/her teaching practice and experience. The process
was assessed based on the four dimensions of impact on teacher
development which Borg (2009) adapted from Kirkpatrick (2006):
– Reactions (feeling or action after training or instruction)
 Reflection, metaphor and teaching awareness
– Learning (changes in beliefs, knowledge and skills)
 Theoretical concepts, teaching skills
– Results (effect on themselves and the organization).
 Knowledge sharing within the organization stemming from
individual and collective teachers’ knowledge creation e.g. Self
development as teacher, feedbacks given or taken from the
institute with regard to professional development
– Behavior (application of new ideas over time)
 changes in teaching patterns
 2. Teaching skills
– means the ability to teach which is measured by the criteria to measure
expertise in teaching EFL created by the researcher in her previous
study (Chinokul, 2004). The evaluation was done in three main areas:
1) professional knowledge and understanding; 2) professional skills and
abilities; and 3) professional value and personal commitment.



3. Knowledge from the methodology course
– focuses on the evaluation on the knowledge which the key
informants may have gained from participating the methodology
course. The knowledge is viewed in 3 aspects:

3.1 Theoretical knowledge
– refers to the theoretical knowledge which is the foundation of
teaching English concerning view of language learning, view of
social context of language and view of teaching and teacher.

3.2 Reflective teaching
– refers to the view in which the teacher has with regard to the
teaching and the theoretical and pedagogical concerned with
how they teach and what the classroom action that they have
been observed. This reflective teaching was measured based
the reflective ability examined by their recorded their thoughts in
weekly teaching methodology notebook as a reflection of what
they learn each week

3.3 Teaching awareness
– means the ability to recognize, react or make adjustment to the
important elements which could influence the teaching and
learning situation (Freeman, 1989; van Lier, 1995).

4. The actual teaching performance
– refers to the teaching behaviors of the key informant
in the class where he/she is the main instructor.
– The ability include the use of visual aids, writing
objectives of the lesson, designing tasks, the way
they organize and link the activities or tasks, the way
he/she uses to evaluate the lesson, the chance for
the students to practice the necessary skills for
communication
Population
 The population of this study is the
graduate students who study Master
Degree and doctorate students who study
in the English as an International
Language Program, Graduate school,
Chulalongkorn University and who enroll
in methodology course.
 The case studies
 Four English teachers who enrolled in the
English language methodology course
and were recruited as EFL instructors in
higher education institutes in Bangkok
were selected as case studies. Two of
them were graduated with Ph.D. and the
other two were MA graduates.
 They were given names as Buasai, Aster,
Tulip and Soithong.

Research Design
This research was naturalistic, longitudinal
comparative case studies.
 The study was conducted to compare the
teaching performances of the 4 key informants
from their methodology course and followed
them up to how they performed in their
workplace at their actual classrooms.
 Series of action research cycles were conducted
in an integrated manner to tightly link rigorous
qualitative work that would documents the
content of education coursework with rigorous
and refined measures to track the course
impact.

Figure 1: Professional development: An integrated research
development design of professional learning and pedagogical success
of early career teacher
Action Research Cycle 1
Learning to be an EFL teacher in the
methodology course
 Main study was conducted in JuneSeptember 2005 and June-September
2006.
 After that reviews had been taken to
confirm and refine the model every
time the course was offered in the
first semester during June-September
2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010.


Purpose:
– To identify knowledge base in language teaching
methodology course
Key question sought:
 Research Question 1: What sources of
knowledge should EFL beginning teachers be
prepared in the methodology course?
 Research method employed:

– R&D, documentary research, exploratory research

Expected research output:
– Instructional model where discrete elements of
knowledge the course participants learn in terms of
knowing about, knowing how, and knowing to

Action taken:
– A TEFL pedagogy and professional practice model and
indicators were revised from the previous model
conducted in Chinokul (2004) and validated.
Table 1: Action Research Cycle 1 Phase 1:
Research and Development of
the Model of English Language Teacher Preparation Course
Research 1 : Document research to
synthesize the EFL teacher
preparation model:
Development 1: Developing
instructional steps within the
constructed model:
R1.1: Studying, analyzing, and
synthesizing the model of EFL teacher
preparation as used in general;
D1.1: Develop the instructional process
based on the model of English language
teacher preparation course
R1.2: Re-conceptualizing the model by
validating the instructional process based
on the model;
1 Validating and improving the
instructional process in the model by
experts;
2 Validating and improving the
instructional process in the model by pilot
study.
D1.2: Develop the revised instructional
process based on the model of English
language teacher preparation course.
Table 2: Action Research Cycle 1 Phase 2:
Research and Development of the indicators of
TEFL professional practice to be used in the TEFL Preparation Course
Research 2: Based on the factor
analysis form the empirical data
drawn from the my previous study,
the indicators of TEFL professional
practice were reviewed and refined:
R2.1: Studying, analyzing, and
synthesizing the possible elements of TEFL
professional practice;
R2.2: Preparing the validation research
procedures;
2.1 Setting up criteria for experts.
2.2 Developing the evaluation forms
validation;
R2.3 Revising the indicators
Development 2: Constructing the
TEFL professional practice indicators
based on the data emerged:
D2.1: Creating the framework of TEFL
professional practice indicators;
D2.2: Constructing the scoring rubric for
each of the indicators for practical
purposes; and other research instruments
D2.3: Adjusting the information appeared
in scoring rubric.
Table 3: Action Research Cycle 1 Phase 3:
Research and development of knowledge base of teacher preparation course
Research 3: Implementing the course
based on the model:
Development 3: Identifying and
creating the knowledge that the
course participants gained from the
course:
R3.1: Implementing the instructional
process based on the model in the
methods course;
D3.1: Identifying what seems to be the
knowledge base in language teaching
methodology course based on the model
and the indicators in terms of knowing
about, knowing how, and knowing to.
R3.2: Observing and interpreting the
teaching performance of the students from
peer teaching assigned as part of the
requirement of the course.
D3.2: Creating a description of what
seems to be the knowledge base of the
course after revision.
Then the mapping was created to the
content and teaching and learning process
in the course.
Findings for Research Question 1:
 Knowledge base to be implemented in the
methodology course to prepare EFL
beginning teachers

,
logy
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e lin
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and
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erst
ely gra
Und omprehensiv
C
Understand
the close connection between language and culture.
Keep up with the fled through regular reading and conference/
Have fl
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Ma stan
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Be well organized, conscientious in meeting
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Mainta
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Criteria for
Measuring the
Expertise in Teaching
English as a Foreign
Language Based on the
Results of Exploratory
Factor Analysis from
My Research
ral
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M
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tudents
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Effectiv
Give optimal feedback to students.
Use interactive, Intrinsically motivating
techniques to create effective tests.
enth
usia Enjoy
Off
sm,
peo
er
a
c
n
V
d ap warmt ple, sh
ha
alue
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prop h, ra ow
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Figure 2:
TEFL
expertise
indicators
.
ans
n pl
o
s
s
le
cute
exe
d
n
na
tion,
esig
interac
tly d
mulate lassroom.
ti
n
S
e
i
ec
Effic
rk in th
teamwo
d
n
a
,
n
tio
coopera
Use appropriate principles of
classroom management
Use effective, clear presentation skills.
Creativ
ely ada
pt textb
ook ma
audio,
teri
visual,
and Me al and other
chanic
Inno
al aids.
vativ
e cr
eate
mat
eria
l wh branden n
n
eed ew
ed.
From the Indicators to the
knowledge base









Domain 1: Professional knowledge and understanding
Component 1: Demonstrate knowledge in the language
teaching principle
Performance indicator:
1. Understanding the linguistic systems of English phonology,
grammar, and discourse.
2. Comprehensively grasp basic principle of language learning and
teaching.
3. Understanding the close connection between language and
culture
4. Keep up with the fled through regular reading and conference /
workshop attendance
5. Have fluent competent in speaking, writing, listening to and
reading English.
6. Have a well-thought-out, informed approach to language
teaching.











Domain 2: Professional skills and abilities
Component 2.1: Classroom-based teaching skills
Performance indicator:
7. Understanding and use a wide variety of techniques.
8. Efficiently design and execute lesson plan.
9. Stimulate interaction, cooperation, and teamwork in the
classroom.
10. Use appropriate principles and classroom
management.
11. Use effective and clear presentation skills.
12. Creatively adapt textbook material and other audio
visual and mechanic aids.
13. Innovative create brand new material when needed.
14. Be aware of cross-cultural differences and sensitive to
students’ cultural traditions













Component 2.2: Interest and caring about students
Performance indicator:
15. Monitor lesson as they unfold and make effective mid lessonalteration.
16. Effectively perceive students’ linguistic needs.
17. Give optimal feedback to students
18. Use interactive, intrinsically motivating techniques to create
effective tests.
Component 2.3: Interpersonal skills
Performance indicator:
19. Enjoy people, show enthusiasm, warmth, rapport, and
appropriate humor.
20. Value the opinion and abilities of students.
21. Offer challenges to students of exceptionally high abilities.
22. Cooperate harmoniously and candidly with colleagues.
23. Seek opportunities to share thoughts, ideas, and techniques.

Domain 3: Professional value and personal
commitment

Component 3.1: In search of excellence

Performance indicator:
24. Be well organized, conscientious in meeting
community and development.
25. Manage an inquisitive mind in trying out new ways
of teaching.
26. Set short-term and long-term goals for continuous
professional growth.
27. Maintain and exemplify high ethical and moral
standards.




Table 4: Sample from Domain 1, Level of performance
indicator 1: Understanding the linguistic systems of English
phonology, grammar, and discourse
Level of performance
Element
Knowledge of
content in
English
language
systems
Unsatisfactory
Basic
Proficient
Distinguished
Teacher makes
Teacher displays
Teacher displays
Teacher displays
important elements
of grammar, lexis,
phonology and
function of the
English language
grammar, lexis,
phonology and
function of the
English language
but cannot
articulate
connections with
other parts of the
discipline or with
other disciplines
grammar, lexis,
phonology and
function of the
English language
and make
connections
between the
content and other
parts of the other
disciplines.
grammar, lexis,
phonology and
function of the
English language
with evidence of
continuing pursue
of such
knowledge.
substantial errors or
does not master
basic content
knowledge of
solid content
knowledge of
extensive content
knowledge of
Table 5: Sample Domain 2, Level of performance indicator 9: Stimulate
interaction, cooperation, and teamwork in the classroom.
Level of performance
Element
Unsatisfactory
Basic
Proficient
Distinguished
Instructional
groups;
expectations for
learning and
achievement
Instructional groups do
not support the
instructional goals and
offer no variety;
Instructional goals and
activities, interactions,
and the classroom
environment convey
only modest
expectations for student
achievement.
Instructional groups
are inconsistent in
suitability to the
instructional goals
and offer minimal
variety;
Instructional goals
and activities,
interactions, and
the classroom
environment
convey inconsistent
expectations for
student
achievement
Instructional groups
are varied, as
appropriate to the
different instructional
goals; Instructional
goals and activities,
interactions, and the
classroom
environment convey
achievement.
Instructional groups
are varied, as
appropriate to the
different
instructional groups.
There is evidence of
student choice in
selecting different
patterns of
instructional groups;
Both students and
teacher establish
and maintain
through planning of
learning activities,
interactions, and the
classroom
environment high
expectations for the
learning
Table 6: Sample Domain 3, Level of performance indicator 25:
Manage an inquisitive mind in trying out new ways of teaching.
Level of performance
Element
Unsatisfactory
Use in future Teacher has no
teaching
suggestions for
how a lesson may
be improved
another time.
Basic
Proficient
Teacher makes
general
suggestions
about how a
lesson may be
improved.
Teacher makes a
few specific
suggestions of
what he or she
may try another
time.
Distinguished
Drawing on an
extensive
repertoire of
skills, the
teacher offers
specific
alternative
actions,
complete with
probably
successful of
different
approaches.
Figure 3 : Model of TEFL preparation course
Teaching expertise
Process
input
content
Reflective
thinking
Material/
lesson
plans
Student’s
attributes
and
experience
Before practicum
evaluating for
learning
Ideas for
lesson
adjustment
Before
teaching
output/outcome
theoretical learning
Deep
learning
applied to
the content
of the
lessons
Outcome in terms of concepts
Content knowledge
Ethical
knowledge
Pedagogical
knowledge
Outcome in terms of action
Teaching behavior
theory into practice
Immediately after
teaching
Reaction observed from the behavior
when receiving feedback
After teaching
Finish practicum
Teaching
skills
Action Research Cycle 2:
Exploring context to identify supports
the key informants receive from the
institutions.
 Exploring supports given by the
institutions which affect the way EFL
beginning teachers teach in an actual
class at their institutes.






Purpose:
– To explore what seems to be contextual environment
which can influent
– the internal validity (what the study is actually about),
– the external validity (to what other settings the findings
can be applied) and
– the reflexivity (the effect of the researcher on processes,
interpretations, findings, and conclusion addressed)
Key question sought:
– Research Question 2: To what extent do the supports
given by the institutions affect the way EFL beginning
teachers teach in an actual class at their institute?
Research method employed:
– Case study & Qualitative research
Expected research output:
– Belief in teaching and learning
– Links between knowledge within different contexts
Action taken:
– Exploring context of the institutions where the key
informants teach
Action Research Cycle 2:
– Exploring Context to identify to identify
supports the key informants receive from the
institutions (May - July 2007)
 Action Research Cycle 2 Phase 1:
– Research and development of plan and
criteria for exploring sites and case studies

Table 7: Action Research Cycle 2 Phase 1:
Research and development of plan and criteria for exploring sites and case studies
Research 1: Document research to
synthesize how to evaluate the context of
the site visit to identify supports the key
participants receive from the institution:
R1.1: Studying, analyzing, and synthesizing the
literature on the context which may affect
professional learning;
R1.2: Re-conceptualizing the data needed for
site observation to draw on specific context
which may contribute to professional learning;
R1.3: Preparing the research procedures:
1.3.1 Making contact with the persons involved
and identifying the class visits;
1.3.2 Developing the instruments for collecting
data;
1.3.3 Determining how the data can be
transcribed to easier the analysis.
Development 1: Developing plan for
evaluating site visits and case studies:
D1.1: Developing criteria to explore and
evaluate the sites and context;
D1.2: Creating the observation form to collect
teacher classroom-based performance;
D 1.3: Creating relevant research instruments
1.3.1: Sending official letters requesting for
permission for class visits and the videotape
recordings for later analysis;
1.3.2: Creating instruments for collecting
teacher classroom-based performance
1.3.3: Converting the data into a more practical
format for later analysis.
Data collection process to examine
supports given by the institutes
October 2007
– Interviewing the research participants for more
in-depth of the classroom and institution
contexts.
 April & May, October 2008
– Researching documents to identify the contexts
of each institute in relation with the study
 April & May, October 2009
– Confirmations were sought to find trustworthy
of the data.

Working Context Elicitation

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The organizational
culture
What are the institution’s
goals and mission?
What is the institution’s
management style?
What shared values do
staff have?
What are the decisionmaking characteristics of
the institution?
What roles do teachers
perform?

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How is teaching and
other work planned and
monitored?
What provision is made
for staff development?
How are courses and
curriculum planned?
How receptive is the
institution to change and
innovation?
How open are
communication channels?
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The teachers
Skills and qualifications
Support for teachers
Orientation
Adequate materials
Course guides
Division of responsibilities
Further training
Mentors
Feedback
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The teaching process
Teaching model and principles
Maintaining good teaching
Monitoring
Observation
Identification and resolution of
problems
Shared planning’
documentation and sharing of
good practices
Self-study of the program
Evaluating teaching
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The learning process
Understanding of the
course
View of learning
Learning styles
Motivation
Support
The teaching context
 Size and staff structure
 Equipment
 Support staff
 Teacher work space
 Teacher resource room
 Teaching facilities
 Class size

Findings for Research Question 2:
Supports given by the institutions
which affect the way EFL beginning
teachers teach in an actual class at
their institute

Information about facilities, advanced
technology, physical environment of the
institute contributing to the academic and
professional learning
Figure 4: Patterns of supports from
the institution
Orientations
The
knowledge
about EFL
teaching and
learning
Coaching
or
mentoring
Teaching in
actual context
In-service
teacher
trainings
Teaching ability
Teaching
performance
in Target
situation
Figure 5: Coaching patterns
PULL
Coach
Listening
Challenging to work
Using open-ended questions
Feedback given
Giving suggestions
teaching
telling
PUSH
Teacher
Action Research Cycle 3:
Investigating possible patterns of how these four key informants grow
professionally as EFL teachers
 1st attempt of analysis: August 2007 -September 2008
– The analysis of teaching performance and relevant data emerged from
methodology course;
 2nd attempt of analysis: March – May 2009
– The analysis of teaching performance and relevant data emerged from
the actual classroom teaching when they have entered into the
profession; and
 3rd attempt of analysis: October – November 2009
– Identification of possible changes in teaching patterns to respond to the
research questions.
– Framework used: Borg (2009) adapted from Kirkpatrick (2006):
reactions (feeling or action immediately after training or instruction);
learning (changes in beliefs, knowledge and skills); behavior (application
of new ideas over time); and results (effect on the organization).

Action Research Cycle 3
Purpose:


–
To establish pedagogical action patterns
Key question sought:

–
–
Research Question 3: To what extent do the changes of their
teaching performance observed from methodology course and
the actual teaching performance in their institutions reflect
how the beginning teachers apply what they may have
learned from the methodology course?
Research Question 4: How do the beginning teachers develop
their English teaching skills during their first year entry into
the profession?
Research method employed:

–
qualitative study
Expected research output:

–
Development of patterns of changes that they may have made
in terms of beliefs, awareness and the progress of their
teaching performances.



Action taken to answer research question 3:
Based on the framework of Assessing impact on
teacher development which Borg adapted from
Kirkpatrick (2006), the analysis taken from action
research cycles 1, 2, 3 were drawn to answer
research question 3. The four dimensions were
discussed:
Reactions (feeling or action after training or
instruction)
– Reflection, metaphor and teaching awareness

Learning (changes in beliefs, knowledge and skills)
– Theoretical concepts, teaching skills

Results (effect on themselves and the
organization).
– Self development as teacher, feedbacks given or
taken from the institute with regard to professional
development

Behavior (application of new ideas over time)
– changes in teaching patterns
Classroom.com
Research instruments
Lesson plan evaluation forms
 Teaching development evaluation forms
 Teaching observation checklists
 Teachers’ belief inventories
 Questionnaires
 Semi-structured interview questions
 Methodology notebook

Findings for Research question 3:
 the changes of their teaching
performance observed from methodology
course and the actual teaching
performance in their institutions reflecting
how the beginning teachers apply what
they may have learned from the
methodology course?

Reactions

Reactions (feeling or action after training
or instruction) based on reflection,
metaphor and teaching awareness
Comparison of Tulip’s reflections between peer teaching
and actual class teaching at the stage ‘before teaching’


Actual teaching
Peer teaching
 After taking my methodology course, I feel I
First of all, I was racked by indecision
have a heightened awareness of the theoretical
and doubts as to what lesson I was to
foundations on second language teaching. I
teach. There was also the difficulty of
have gained more professional knowledge,
choosing the methodology that I was
reassessed my professional attitudes and
going to use. And then the many years
values, built my confidence to try new ways in
of my teaching experience became like a
my classroom and I have done more reflective
burden. I felt an enormous pressure and
evaluation of my teaching practice. Before
I was overcame by unpleasant feelings.
teaching, I think of the content and the
In fact, I was in this state for days and
sequencing of the lesson. A new chapter. How
days. Finally, I said to myself, “I need to
can I teach differently this time? What is my
beat this. There’s no pulling back.
preliminary step? I ask myself. I draw
inspiration from my methodology course. It
feels good to be better informed about
language teaching methods because I can
make conscious choices, and fast. I should
modify some of my practices for improvement
and explore other alternatives. How about
writing in group this time instead of
individually or in pairs? I should read that
chapter again. I might see the information at a
different angle. There are only a few examples
in the textbook. I need to look for more.
Figure 6: Sample of metaphor
Tulip
 Peer teaching
–A scientist putting various formulas to the test. A navigator, a traveler
revisiting a places for a second look around, A chemist mixing different
substances for best results
 Actual class teaching
–A creative designer, a facilitator, a mediator, a guide, a useful
text/reference book/resource, an investor, not a lecturer, sometimes an
audience seated in a balcony watching, reflecting…, a thirsty learner.

Comparison of Tulip’s teaching awareness between peer
teaching and actual class teaching at the stage ‘after
teaching’
After teaching peers

“It was a successful class,” I
told myself. Force of habit, I
guess. Each time I finish teaching,
I take a moment to reflect on
what has just happened in class
and ask myself whether the class
was a success or a failure. By this
I mean, the totality of it all- the
lesson, the learning process and
the teaching process. I draw out
the strengths and weaknesses of
the entire phenomenon, savor and
enjoy the feeling of success and
figure out how to work on the
weaknesses to ensure that they
will not recur in the future.

After teaching students in actual
class
 “I am now more informed, so I do
reflect on my teaching- my principles
and techniques. I remember my
methodology teacher’s comments in
her checklist every time I reflect on
my teaching: “Some of the students
do not know anything about this”
[Referring to the topic Impressionism
in Art] ; “At first I was quite
confused with the methods you were
using. Perhaps you need to read
content-based a bit more to clarify
points –steps used”. I have kept
them on my mind. I came to know
about the four stages of instruction.
They are preparing for content
connections, developing the content
orientation, expanding the content
orientation and outcomes. Well, it is
not a universal formula, but it
promotes teaching awareness. “

Learning
(changes in beliefs, knowledge and skills)
 Theoretical
concepts, teaching skills
Table 8: Frequencies of statements reflecting the beliefs in
teaching EFL as perceived by the key informants.
Focus on
language
skills
Focus of
rules of
language
Focus on
functions
Total
Peer
teaching
5
(25%)
5
(25%)
10
(50%)
20
(100 %)
Actual
class
teaching
7
(35%)
9
(45%)
4
(20%)
20
(100 %)
These research participants were focused more on fluency rather than accuracy;
however the shift was observed in the actual class teaching where they turned to
focus more on accuracy rather than fluency.
Table 9: Comparison of Tulip’s performance on
Component 1: Classroom-based teaching skills
Indicators
Tulip
Peer teaching
Actual class teaching
1. Understanding and use a wide variety of techniques.
Proficient
Distinguished
2. Efficiently design and execute lesson plan.
Distinguished
Distinguished
3. Stimulate interaction, cooperation and teamwork in
classroom.
Proficient
Proficient
4. Use appropriate principles and classroom
management.
Proficient
Distinguished
5. Use effective and clear presentation skills.
Distinguished
Distinguished
6. Creatively adapt textbook material and other audio,
visual and mechanic aids.
Distinguished
Distinguished
7. Innovative create brand new material when needed.
Distinguished
Distinguished
8. Be aware of cross-cultural differences and sensitive
to students’ cultural traditions.
Distinguished
Distinguished
Refer to scoring rubric for description of teaching performance
Views of teaching competence emerged in
peer teaching
Teaching competence is. . .
Salient features include. . .
becoming a professional
planning ahead, knowing how to access
resources, planning on tasks and time
(Soithong and Tulip)
having sound knowledge base
to facilitate learning
Salient features include: learning and applying
the curriculum, using pedagogical strategies
appropriate to students’ diversity (Buasai and
Tulip)
being in control
Salient features include: dealing with behavior
problems, running smoothly, having a “bank”
of behavior management of what may work
and what may not work in the classrooms
(Buasai and Aster)
Views of teaching competence emerged in
actual class teaching
Teaching competence
is. . .
Salient features include. . .
creating networks and
partnerships
ability to seek help from the mentors and other more
experienced teachers, ability to interact with students both
verbally and in writing (Soithong, Tulip, Buasai and Aster)
becoming a professional
showing confidence and enthusiasm in the role of English
and other related matters, involvement and participation
with community, institute and students’ activities,
professionalism (Buasai, Tulip and Aster)
being self aware
being flexible enough to revise or restructure the original
plan, becoming aware of the complexity of teaching
profession and acknowledging that there are still many
things to learn to be a good teacher and accepting that they
are not yet competent , competence is something that is
never completely achieves, but is that elusive condition that
should be continually sought (Aster, Soithong and Tulip)
Behavior
(application of new ideas over time)

Changes in teaching patterns

See structure of teaching
Figure 7 :Sample of how Tulip taught in
peer teaching and actual class teaching

The following figures are more in-depth
analysis of each stage appeared in Figure
7.
Results
(effect on themselves and the organization)
Self development as teacher, feedbacks
given or taken from the institute with
regard to professional development were
elicited from the interview.
 Analysis was then carried out based on
the framework on Individual and collective
teachers’ knowledge creation (adapted
from Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995)

Self report behavior
Peer
teaching
Actual class
teaching
Socialization: sharing tacit knowledge between individuals
through joint activities
e.g. professional dialogue, peer coaching, study groups
√
√
Externalization: articulating tacit knowledge in publicly
comprehensible forms
√
√
e.g. composition of reflective journal, curriculum
development, findings of collaborative action research,
records of peer supervision and peer coaching, including
lesson plans, observational notes
Internalization: internalizing and subsequently embodying
explicit knowledge into actions, practices, processes and
strategic initiatives
e.g. Self-reflection on readings for study group, review of
research methods for conducting collaborative action
research
√
Combination: Transforming explicit knowledge into a more
complex and systemic sets of explicit knowledge
e.g. composition of literature for collaborate action
research
√
Findings for Research question 4:
 the patterns of how these beginning
teachers develop their English teaching
skills during their first year entry into the
profession

Figure 10: The patterns of teacher
development for these 4 case studies
Buisai

Aster
First year of survival
teaching

Maximizing quality from
within


Tulip

Soithong

Improving the qualities of
being teacher researcher

An adaptive expert who
always tries out some
innovative visuals and
materials
Buasai—continuing to cope
 overwhelmed
 “I learn that there is so much to learn in my life and if I
want to be a good teacher. I have to improve myself
professionally (which is very hard to do so since I still
can’t manage my time).”
 first thing first
 “I need to read and work harder first”
 I need help
 “The first time I got here with no teaching experience at
all. I was invited to observe a class of foundation
English 1. Just for 1.5 hours but it was a great
opportunity observing and experienced one in class. I
felt less stressed and more comfortable standing in front
of a class. She gave me some useful techniques in
dealing with lots of students in a small room. I thank for that.”

Tulip: Improving the qualities of being
teacher researcher
Tulip expressed her goal(s) or career plans in
the future as follows: “In three years’ time, my
goal is to conduct research and seek publication
of my findings in international journals. I also
would like to present papers in EFL/ESL
international conferences.”
 She continued, “ In five years’ time, I hope to
compile and/ or write one or two business
English textbooks. I may try to teach in other
institutions as well as a part-time teacher to see
how things work outside [my institute]”.

Conclusion: Significance and
Usefulness of the Study



Theoretical significance
a new body of knowledge may derive from the researcher’s
initiation to put together a series of three action research cycles to
elicit the data emerged from each cycle so as to enable the
researcher to explain or describe the teaching phenomena or
portrait the picture of what occur in the teachers’ life in their
attempts to grow professionally in the EFL/ESL field.
Those who have highlight the gap between theory and practice, or
lamented the lack of theoretical frameworks for understanding
complex classroom processes, may find it interesting to consider
whether the teacher-generated theory proposed in the study may
provide a possible way forward. Academics in the area of classroombased research who are interested in qualitative research and the
kinds of results it can produce may realize the important of this kind
of teacher generated data as a way to theorize the qualitative data
emerged.




Pedagogical significance
The portraits or descriptions of some scenarios may
probably be helpful for teacher educators to have a more
closer look at what really happen when their students
work and so this may help them re-conceptualize the
teacher preparation program to better fit a framework
which characterizes the development of expertise of EFL
teachers.
The professional model which is aimed at the outcome
of this research may be an example for the practitioners
to follow; i.e., teacher trainers who wish to raise their
trainees’ awareness of the complexity of classroom
language teaching, and who may be seeking alternative
frameworks for teacher-development program.
To help transition beginning teachers into the classroom
and acculturate them to the specific institution setting
and environment in which they will work.
Thank you for your participation!!!
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