INGL 4235
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF
ENGLISH AND SPANISH:
AN INTRODUCTION
PROF. ANÍBAL MUÑOZ CLAUDIO
TUESDAYS & THURSDAYS
3:00-4:20 P.M. ROOM: LCS 101
www1.uprh.edu/animun
OVERVIEW
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TENTATIVE CALENDAR
EVALUATION ACTIVITIES
HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
HISTORY OF THE SPANISH LANGUAGE
THE CA THEORY
THE STRUCTURE OF SOUND SYSTEMS
INTRODUCTION TO GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES
RELEVANT TERMINOLOGY (MUST FOR ESL EDUCATORS)
FINAL RESEARCH PROJECT
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS (references, etc.)
TENTATIVE CALENDAR
NOV 1
LEXICAL UNITS; WORDS AND
THEIR MEANINGS,
ANGLICISMS IN PR, others
COURSE INTRODUCTION
/GENERAL OVERVIEW
NOV 6-8
DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY
SEPT 11-13
LINGUISTICS/ CAH/ CA AND
BILINGUALISM / GRAMMAR
NOV 13-15
IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS,
COLOCATION WORDS AND
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
SEPT 18-20
ENGLISH –SPANISH PATTERNS
IN PHONOLOGY
NOV 20
IND. PRESENTATION (2-3)
STUDENTS PER CLASS (FE)
SEPT 25-27
PHONEMES, ALLOPHONES, IPA
NOV 22
THANKSGIVING RECESS
OCT 2-4
MORPHOSYNTAX / BASIC
SENT. STRUCTURES IN E&S
NOV 27-29
IND. PRESENTATION (2-3)
STUDENTS PER CLASS
OCT 9-11
MORPHOSYNTAX /NOUN
PHRASES AND OTHERS
DEC 4
IND. PRESENTATION (2-3)
STUDENTS PER CLASS (FE)
OCT 16-18
CA IN VERB TENSES/ VERB
CONJUGATION
DEC 6
IND. PRESENTATION (2-3)
STUDENTS PER CLASS (FE)
OCT 23-25
CA IN VERB TENSES / MODALS
DEC 11
FINAL EXAM / REACTION
PAPERS DUE
(FE)
OCT 30
CA WITH FUNCTION WORDS,
PREP., CONJ. , ARTICLES, ETC.
FINAL DAY
GROUP RESEARCH
PRESENTATION
DATES
SEPT 4-6
TOPIC / ACT.
INTONATION, DIALECTS, ETC.
COGNATES/ HOMOPHONES
EVALUATION ACTIVITIES
• CLASS DISCUSSIONS
(BASED ON HOMEWORK)
• QUIZZES (SPORADIC)
• INDIVIDUAL
RESEARCH/CRITIQUE/ORAL
PRESENTATION ON SCHOLARLY
ARTICLE (CA, others)
• REACTION PAPERS (2)
• EXAM –TERMINOLOGY (FINAL
OR INDIVIDUAL)
• FINAL (GROUP) RESEARCH
PROJECT
GRADING
SYSTEM
90-100 = A
80- 89 = B
70- 79 = C
60- 69 = D
0- 59 = F
CUMULATIVE
POINTS
HISTORY OF ENGLISH and SPANISH
LANGUAGES: DIFFERENT
IDIOSYNCRASIES
INDOEUROPEAN
LANGUAGES
VERY CONVENIENT SITES
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IndoEuropean_Languages
Germanic
languages
Others
Iranian, etc.
Latin
2.
http://www.englishclub.com/engli
sh-what.htm
(video)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=fQS699ThBdI
3.
Romance languages
French, Italian, etc.
Old English
Modern
English
http://www.alsintl.com/langua
ges/Spanish.shtml
Ibero-romance
4.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikip
edia/en/f/f7/Romance_language
s.PNG
SPANISH
CA THEORY
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Language patterns and perceptual
processes
Why do languages differ?
CAH (strong & weak versions)
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Wardhaugh (1974) "pseudo-procedure“
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A COLLECTION OF THEORIES (L1, L2
THEORIES) HIGHLY RECOMMENDED
SITE: http://bowlandfiles.lancs.ac.uk/chimp/langac/LECTURE10/
10fra2.htm
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Spoken language and written
language
Articulation
(phonemes/allophones)
Lexicon (anglicisms, idioms, etc.)
New tendencies (World Englishes)
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The Structure of Sound Systems
• Articulation of
consonants and
vowels
• English alphabet
• Spanish alphabet
• IPA (phonetic
symbols)
• Optional and
obligatory choices
• Stress, rhythm, and
intonation patterns
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Introduction to Grammatical Structures
The grammar of a language is a
complex set of systems that may be
analyzed and studied on these three
levels: (Noam Chomsky’s, 1966)(UG)
1. Phonology -set of sounds/ symbols
2. Morphology -combinations of sounds that
make up single units of meaning
3. Syntax -how single units of meaning (lexical units)
combine to form words, phrases and
sentences.
Parts of Speech
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The matrix PPP: www1uprh.edu/animun
Sentence constituents
Word classes and morphological characteristics
Noun phrases
Verb phrases
Verb conjugation
Modals (auxiliary verbs)
Capitalization and punctuation rules
Complex and compund sentences
Lexical differences
Other grammatical aspects
Relevant Terminology
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Grammar –(see previous slide)
Linguistics –systematic study of language (development of L theories)
Phonology-scientific study of the pattern of speech sounds in a language
Morphology-scientific study of the structure of words (derivation/inflection)
Syntax-organization of words in sentences
Phonemes- the smallest phonetic unit / a speech sound
Allophones-different forms that a phoneme can take
optional choices- lexical units or words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs)
obligatory choices –function words (conjuctions, prepositions, etc.)
Dialects – a regional variety of a language (voc., grammar, pronunciation)
Homonyms – words with same spelling or sound (rest/rest)
Homophones- words with same pronunciation/different meaning
(break/brake)
Anglicisms-English words or variations used in another language
Affixation-addition of prefixes, suffixes, to create a new word or inflections
Intonation-pitch of the voice / the rising or falling pitch of voice
Sentence constituents- words, phrases, or clauses of sentences
Lexical units- words that carry meaning (lexicon): nouns, etc.
noun phrase, verb phrase, etc. –sentence constituents
Lexicon- meaning of the word
V
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Final Research Project (Group work)
300 POINTS
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8.
RECONSTRUCT IT (FORMAT & STYLE,
ETC.)
RESEARCH AND ADD ALL NEW
OFFICIAL VERBS
TRANSLATE ACCORDINGLY (CA –
ENGLISH AND SPANISH)
ADD MODALS (AUX. VERBS) CHART
REVISE AND EDIT
PROVIDE AN ORIGINAL COVER SHEET
(YOUR NAMES), INTRODUCTION
(USEFULNESS, ETC.)TABLE OF
CONTENTS, AND REFERENCE PAGE
MAKE PHOTOCOPIES
PRESENT IT (CONFERENCE STYLE)
(ESL FORUMS: UPRH ENG. DEPT., TESOL, ESA,
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS, ETC.)
References
James, C., (1980). Contrastive analysis
Nash, R., (1978) Readings in Spanish-English
Contrastive Linguistics
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INGL 3245 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH AND …