HACCP in Your
School
Warehouse Employees
Revised April 2012
In accordance with Federal Law and U.S. Department of Agriculture policy, this institution is prohibited from discriminating on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender (male or
female), age, or disability. To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Adjudication, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C. 20250-9410 or call
Why Hazard Analysis Critical Control
Point (HACCP)?
• To prevent foodborne illness in North Carolina
schools.
• Foodborne illness
– Caused by eating contaminated foods or beverages
• Each year there are:
– 48 million cases of foodborne illness
– 128,000 hospitalizations
– 3,000 deaths
- in 2
Food-as-foe
Mason Jones
Dec. 24, 1999 - Oct. 6, 2005
Brianna Kriefall
3 year old
3
What makes us ill?
①
②
③
④
⑤
Chicken
Meats
Ground meats
Fin fish
Shellfish
(Consumers response, Environics,
2005)
①
②
③
④
⑤
Produce
Poultry
Beef
Eggs
Seafood
(CDC, 2009)
4
What causes foodborne illness?
①Food from unsafe source
②Inadequate cooking
③Improper holding temperature
④Contaminated equipment
• Who is at risk?
–
–
–
–
–
–
Infants
Toddlers
Elderly
Pregnant women
Immunocompromised
Taking specific
medications
⑤Poor personal hygiene
5
What food causes illness?
• Any food can cause foodborne illness
– Even non-time/temperature control for safety foods
• Characteristics of a time/temperature control for
safety (TCS) food:
– Low acid
– Moist
– Contains protein
Keep time/temperature control for safety food out
of the temperature danger zone!
6
Temperature danger zone
• When food is in the
danger zone, harmful
bacteria can grow,
multiply, and possibly
cause infection
• Bacteria can double in
number in as little as 20
minutes
7
Cross contamination
• Bacteria can be transferred from one food to
Eat foods
another if foodReady
is not To
properly
stored
Leftover
foods
• Store raw food below
cooked
or ready-to-eat food
Whole
beef, fish, and pork
• Properly cover
foods
Ground meats and fish
Whole and ground poultry
8
Employee Policies
9
Employee policies
• Uniform policy
– Closed/steel toed
boots
– Back braces
– Gloves
• Hair and nails
trimmed
10
Basics of
handwashing
① Wet hands with arm water
② Apply hand soap
③ Scrub for at least 10-15 seconds, while cleaning under
fingernails and between fingers
④ Rinse thoroughly under warm running water
⑤ Dry with a single-use paper towel or warm-air hand
dryer
⑥ Use paper towel to turn off the water faucet and to open
the bathroom door when returning to work
**Remember that hand sanitizers are not a replacement for
effective and proper hand washing.**
11
When to wash hands
• After using the
bathroom
• After coughing,
sneezing, smoking,
eating, drinking or
touching body
• Before putting on gloves
• After any clean up
activity
• After handling garbage
or trash
• Do not handle food
with bare hands if you
have a sore that
contains pus or that is
infected
• Cover affected area
with a bandage, a
finger cot, and then a
single-use glove
12
Reporting diagnosed
foodborne illness
• If you have been diagnosed with one of the
following foodborne illnesses, report it to your
manager:
–
–
–
–
–
Hepatitis A virus
E. coli O157:H7
Salmonella Typhi
Shigella spp.
Norovirus
13
Exposure to FB illness
• Exposure to or suspicion of causing any confirmed
outbreak involving the above illnesses
• A member of your household is diagnosed with
any of the above illnesses
• A member of your household is attending or
working in a setting that is experiencing a
confirmed outbreak of the above illnesses
**Remember – sick workers can contaminate food and
make others sick.**
14
Workbook Example
Employee Health
Policy Agreement
Warehouse - HACCP In
Your School Manual
Page 4
15
Thermometers
16
Thermometers
17
Checking your thermometer
• Check the accuracy of
all thermometers:
– Daily
• For calibration,
prepare in advance
– Purchase ice and store
in cooler
– Container to hold ice
• If not correct, calibrate
18
Calibration
Boiling water method
Ice-point method
19
Cleaning and sanitizing
thermometers
• The probe or stem of a
thermometer must be
cleaned and sanitized
before it is used
• If only measuring the
temperature of ready-toeat food, the probe or
stem only needs to be
cleaned between uses
20
Facility and
Storage
Preventing cross contamination
Controlling time and temperature
21
Food Labels
• Do not remove the labels from commercially
processed food
• If removed, label the container with the name of
the contents
• Date food items with the month and year
• Fresh produce should be dated with month and day
22
•
Temperature of storage
units
Refrigeration
– Must keep food at 41°F or colder
– Air temperature should be 39°F or colder
• Freezer
– Must keep food at 0°F or colder
– Air temperature should be 0°F or colder
– Keep floors dry and clean
• Dry storage
– Best if temperature is between 50°F and 70°F
– Humidity level should be between 50% and 60%
23
Storage of cleaning chemicals
• Improperly stored
chemicals can possibly
contaminate food
• Store separate from food,
equipment, utensils,
linen, and single-service
and single-use items
24
Material safety data sheets
• Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) requires a Material Safety Data Sheet
(MSDS) for all chemicals
• On every MSDS, be familiar with the following
sections:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.0 Fire and explosion data
5.0 Reactivity data
6.0 Spill or leak procedures
7.0 Health hazard data
8.0 First aid
9.0 Protective measures
10.0 Additional information/precautions
25
First In, First Out (FIFO)
• FIFO ensures proper
rotation of foods in storage
• When foods are received,
put the oldest in the front
and the newest in the back
• Past-dated foods will lose
their quality and sometimes
become unsafe
• Inventory cycle
26
Salvaged items
• Providing a separate and
labeled storage area for
salvaged items
– To be taken to Food Bank if
possible
• Implementing procedures
for handling and removal of
salvaged, expired, damaged,
or contaminated foods
• Disposition of these food
items must also be
documented
27
Are these acceptable?
28
How about this can?
Choose a can that has
these features:
Undented seams
Flat ends which curve
slightly inwards
Straight sides
29
Cross-contamination in
storage
• Bacteria can be
transferred from one
food to another if food
is not properly stored
• Store raw food below
cooked or ready-to-eat
food
• Properly cover foods
30
Proper storage to prevent
contamination
Whole beef, fish,
and pork
Ground meats and
fish
Whole and ground
poultry
31
Storage layout and cleaning
• Cleaning is the process of
removing food and other soils
• Maintaining an unobstructed
12-18 inch distance from
walls to pallets
• Food products stored off floor
by 6 inches or on pallets
• Pick up debris and sweep
floors
– Broken pallets, plastic wrap,
etc
32
Application Exercises
Warehouse - HACCP In
Your School Manual
Page 9
33
Equipment
Preventing cross contamination
34
Preventative Maintenance
• Preventive maintenance tasks for your facility may
include:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Cleaning condensers of refrigeration and freezer units
Defrosting freezer units
Oiling and lubricating moving parts of equipment.
Changing HVAC filters if applicable
Schedule fire suppression system
Schedule fire extinguisher inspection
Check cords and plugs for equipment operated by
electricity
– Maintenance of transport vehicles and equipment
35
What preventative maintenance
should be scheduled?
36
What preventative maintenance
should be scheduled?
37
Integrated Pest
Management
38
Pest management
• Exclusion
– Deny pests access to:
• Food
• Shelter
• Dumpsters and
Recycling Area
– Keep area clean
– Locate dumpsters away
from doors
– Keep lids closed
– Use trashcan liners
– Empty and clean trash
frequently
39
Pest management
• Insecticide application
– Leave the job to the
professionals
– Avoid contaminating
food
– Use baits for ants and
cockroaches
• Traps and baits
– Use for insects and
rodents
– Check rodent traps daily
– Leave rodent baiting to
outdoor areas and to the
professionals
40
Pest management
• Inspect and date all
deliveries
• Discard or return
infested or expired
products
• Clean up spills as soon
as possible
FIRST IN
FIRST OUT
41
Label and MSDS
42
Record keeping
• Keep track of pest problems and measures taken to
correct those problems
43
Receiving
Purchasing from approved,
reputable suppliers
44
Receiving
• Check delivery schedule
• Reconcile the amount of product received with the
amount of product ordered
• Condition of delivery vehicle
– Clean, good repair, proper temperature, no insects, no
rodent droppings, and no meat juices on the floor
45
Receiving
• Organize storage space
before deliveries
• Inspect food items to
minimize the risk for
foodborne illness and
liability
– Insert a food
thermometer between 2
packaged products to
check the temperature
– Check dates of perishable
goods
– Mark with date arrival or
use by date
• Inspecting deliveries for
– Tampering,
discoloration, pinholes,
leakage
– Unusual packages
– Contamination (rodent
activity or insects)
– Proper temperatures
(receiving log)
46
Receiving
• Unloading food items
– Frozen first, refrigerated
second, and dry goods last
• Substandard food items
(Rejection policy)
– A record should be kept of
rejected food items
– Photos should be taken if
necessary
47
Temperature danger zone
• When food is in the
temperature danger
zone, harmful bacteria
can grow, multiply, and
possibly cause infection
• Bacteria can double in
number in as little as 20
minutes
48
Workbook Tables
Criteria for
Accepting/Rejecting a Food
Delivery
Warehouse - HACCP In
Your School Manual
Page14
49
Criteria for Accepting or
Rejecting a Food Delivery
Food
Criteria for Accept Delivery
Raw meat and
poultry
41°F or colder, visible USDA inspection stamp, reddish
pink color or no odor, packaging clean and no tampering
Eggs
Shell eggs at 45°F or colder, liquid eggs at 41°F or
colder, clean and uncracked, no tampering
Fresh produce
Clean, in good condition and no tampering, if cut or
processed must be 41°F or colder
Dry foods
Clean packaging and no tampering and no signs of pest
infestation
Canned foods
Clean container and no tampering, label intact, no rust or
corrosion, no buldges, no sharp dents or on the seam
50
Application Exercises
Warehouse - HACCP In
Your School Manual
Page 15
51
Shipping
52
Pre loading process
• Check to make sure
the truck is clean and
remove any debris
• Turn on cooler at least
45 minutes
• Items to be loaded are
sorted and staged
53
Loading
• Wheels are chocked
• Dry products first
followed by
refrigerated and then
frozen items
• Load to minimize
damage and
movement during
transportation
54
Unloading
• Travel time with/without
refrigeration (temperature)
• Multi-stop delivery process
• Kitchen staff available to
receive product
• Unload with hand trucks
• Store all product in appropriate
location to prevent cross
contamination
55
Catering
• Prepared food is
handled to minimize
contamination during
transportation
– Vehicles shall be
maintained in a clean,
sanitary condition
• Temperature
monitoring
– Cold foods cold <
41°F
• Food in transit must be
protected from
contamination and
must meet the
temperature
requirements noted
above
• Proper storage at
location
56
Sanitation
Preventing cross contamination
57
Cleaning
• Cleaning is the process
of removing food and
other soils
• Cleaning agents:




Detergents
Solvent cleaners
Acid cleaners
Abrasive cleaners
58
Sanitizing
• Sanitizing is the process of reducing the number of
microorganisms that are on a properly cleaned
surface to a safe level
• Sanitizing agents only work on properly cleaned
and rinsed surfaces
59
Locations
• Floors, trashcans, utility carts/dollies, storeroom
and shelving
• Hand sink, ice machine
• Walk in refrigerator and freezer
• Transport vehicles
60
How this process works
① Washing helps loosen soils and other organic
matter from the surface
② Detergent and scrubbing also helps break the
adhesion of microorganisms to the surface
61
How this process works
③ Rinsing removes loosened soil and detergent
from the surface
 This step is important because organic material and
detergent can bind up sanitizer making it less effective
62
How this process works
④ Applying the sanitizer to clean surfaces actually
provides a ‘kill’ step for reducing the number of
microorganisms
63
How this process works
⑤ The surface is not completely free of
microorganisms, but the number is greatly
reduced
64
Measuring Sanitizer Strength
• A test kit that
accurately measures
the concentration of
sanitizing solutions
must be available
• The strength of
sanitizing solutions
must be measured
frequently during use
65
Material safety data sheets
• Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) requires a Material Safety Data Sheet
(MSDS) for all chemicals
• On every MSDS, be familiar with the following
sections:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
4.0 Fire and explosion data
5.0 Reactivity data
6.0 Spill or leak procedures
7.0 Health hazard data
8.0 First aid
9.0 Protective measures
10.0 Additional information/precautions
66
Workbook Table
Cleaning Schedule and
Procedures
Warehouse - HACCP In
Your School Manual
Page 7
67
How would you clean/sanitize
these items?
68
How would you clean/sanitize
these items?
69
Food Defense
70
Food defense
• Protect food from intentional contamination
– Disgruntled current or former employee
– Members of terrorist or activist groups posing as: cleaning
crew, contractors, truck drivers, visitors, and utility
representatives
• Primarily about limiting access to products
• Understanding what might happen and monitoring
who has access to food
• Identify your vulnerabilities and implement food
defense solutions
Exterior security measures
• Providing adequate lighting around the
outside of building
• Accounting for all keys to
establishment
• Locked doors, gates, roof access,
windows
– Emergency exits
• Loading dock access
• Prevent environmental contamination
and infestation by insects or vermin
72
Interior security measures
• Accounting for all keys to
establishment
• Providing adequate lighting
– Emergency lighting and alert
system
• Checks/reports suspicious
packages
– Bathrooms, closets, etc
• Cleaning supplies, pest control
chemicals and other hazardous
material
73
Personnel security measures
• Restricting entry to the
establishment
– Requiring proof of identity
– Escorting visitors
• Employee vehicles are identified
and lockers inspected
• Training employees on emergency
evacuation procedures
– Include a map and meeting
location to account for all
employees
74
Incoming Shipments
• Restricted access to
loading docks
• All deliveries checked
against the roster of
scheduled deliveries
• Returned goods are
segregated and records
are maintained
75
Handling a Food Recall
76
Food recall
• Occurs when there is reason to believe that a food
may cause consumers to become ill. Can be
initiated by a:
– Food manufacturer or distributor
– Government agency (USDA or FDA)
• Causes can be:
– Discovery of an organism in a product
– Discovery of a potential allergen in a product
– Mislabeling or misbranding of food
• http://www.fda.gov/safety/recalls/default.htm
77
Snokist canned apple sauce
• In May 2011, 9 North Carolina kids reported
vomiting and nausea after eating Snokist apple
sauce.
• The canned apple sauce had faulty seals and was
possibly reworked moldy applesauce.
• Product oozing out of cans and employees still
served to students.
Snokist recall
79
Food recall issued
• Review the food recall notice and specific instructions
• Communicate the food recall notice to school
cafeterias
– Via email, phone, etc
• Hold the recalled product
– Physically segregate the product (including open containers,
leftovers, etc)
• Mark recalled product ‘Do Not Use’ and ‘Do Not
Discard’
– Inform the entire staff
80
Food recall
• Do not destroy any USDA commodity food without
official written notification from NCDA, USDA FSIS,
or State/Your County health department
• Inform Your County PSS’s public relations
coordinator of the recalled product
• Identify and record whether any of the product was
received in Your County PSS, locate the implicated
product by cafeteria site
– Verify that the food item bears the product identification
code and production date listed in the recall notice
81
Food recall
• Obtain accurate inventory counts of the recalled product
from every cafeteria site, including the amount in
inventory and amount used
• Account for all recalled product by verifying inventory
counts against records of food receiving at the feeding site
• Notify feeding site staff of procedures, dates, and
directions to be followed for the collection or destruction
of recalled product
• Consolidate the recalled product as quickly as possible,
but no later than 30 days after the recall notification
82
Conform to the recall notice
• Report quantity and site where product is located
to manufacturer, distributor, or NCDA for
collection
– If USDA commodity must be submitted to NCDA
within 10 days of recall
• Obtain necessary documents from NCDA for
USDA commodity foods
83
Conform to the recall notice
• Complete and maintain all required documentation
related to the recall including
–
–
–
–
–
Recall notice
Records of how food product was returned or destroyed
Reimbursable costs
Public notice and media communications
Correspondence to and from the public health
department and NCDA
84
Power Outage
Preventing cross contamination
Controlling time and temperature
85
Refrigerators
• Note the time the outage
occurred
• Food should be safe as long
as the power is out no more
than about 4 to 6 hours
• Leave the door closed
– When open needed cold air
escapes, allowing the foods
inside to reach unsafe
temperatures
86
Freezers
• Leave the freezer door closed
• With the door closed, food in
most freezers will stay below
41°F for up to 3 days
– Full freezer should keep
food safe about 2 days
– Half-full freezer, about 1
day
• You can safely re-freeze
thawed foods that still
contain ice crystals and are
41°F or less
87
Thawing
• Freezing does not kill microorganisms, but it does
slow their growth
• During a power outage, frozen food can begin to
thaw, resulting in the outer surface warming up
and allowing harmful microorganisms to grow
• The time it takes for food to thaw depends on:
–
–
–
–
Amount of food in the freezer
Kind of food
Temperature of the food
Size and insulation of freezer
88
When in doubt, throw it out!
• If it appears the power will be off for more
than 6 hours
– Ice, dry ice, or frozen gel packs may be used to
keep TCS foods at 41°F or below
• Moving refrigerated food to a walk-in freezer
or obtaining a refrigerated truck are other
options to keep food safe
• Food should not be transferred to
private homes
89
Discarding items
• Foods that can safely be stored above 41°F for a
few days include:
– Whole non-cut fresh fruits and vegetables
– Condiments such as ketchup, mustard, relishes,
barbecue sauce, soy sauce, olives
– Jams and jellies
– Bread, rolls, bagels, cakes (without cream or
custard), cookies and muffins
– Most hard cheeses including parmesan, asiago and
pecorino
90
91
Power restored
• Identify and discard TCS foods that may have been
above above 41°F for 4 hours
• Check the internal food temperatures using a food
thermometer and record the temperature.
• If practical, separate packages of food in refrigeration
units and freezers to allow for faster recooling.
• The refreezing of food may affect the quality and
should be used within a short period of time.
92
Acknowledgments
• Food Safety and HACCP Information Prepared
by:
– Benjamin Chapman, Ph.D., NCSU, 2012
– Audrey Kreske, Ph.D., NCSU, 2012
• Pest Control Information Updated by:
– Michael Waldvogel, Ph.D., NCSU, 2012
93
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